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THE ENGLISH LIBRARY 



THE WORKS OF 
SIR THOMAS BROWNE 

VOLUME I 




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THE WORKS OF 



SIR THOMAS BROWNE 



Edited by 
CHARLES SAYLE 



VOLIMK I 



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EDINBURGH 

JOHN GRANT 
1912 



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PREFATORY NOTE 

This edition is an endeavour to arrive at a more 
satisfactory text of the work of Sir Thomas Browne, 
and to reproduce the principal part of it, as faithfully 
as seems advisable, in the form in which it was pre- 
sented to the public at the time of his death. For 
this purpose, in the first volume, the text of the Religio 
Medici follows more particularly the issue of 1682. 
The Pscudodoxia Epidemica here given is based upon 
the sixth edition of ten years earlier, with careful 
revision. In every case in which a spelling or punctua- 
tion was dubious, a comparison was made of nearly all 
the issues printed during the lifetime of the writer, 
and their merits weighed. Bv this means it is hoped 
that the true flavour of the period has been preserved. 
The Annotations upon the Religio Medici, which 
were always reprinted with the text during the seven- 
teenth centurv, are here restored. They will appeal 
to a certain class of readers which has a right to be 
considered. It is to be regretted that every quotation 
given in these pages has not been verified. Several 
have been corrected ; but to have worked through 



vi PREFATORY NOTE 

them all, in these busy days, would have been a labour 

of some years, which it is not possible to devote to the 

purpose. It has been thought best to leave these 

passages therefore, in the main, as they stand. 1 

The portrait of Sir Thomas Browne here prefixed 

is reproduced from the engraving published in 1672 

with the edition of the Religio Medici and Pseudodoxia 

Epidemica. 

C. S. 

August, 1903. 

1 The quotation, uow corrected, from Montaigne, on p. xxii^ 
is a typical example of the pitfall into which one is liable to 
stumble. The passage there cited is in chapter xl. of the French 
author's later arrangement : a clear indication of the edition of 
the Essais used by the author of the Annotations. What is one 
to make of the readings in Lucretius on p. xxv ? No light 
is thrown upon these difficulties by ths edition of Browne's 
works published in 1686. Wilkin did not reprint the Anno- 
tations, except in selection. 



CON T E N T S 



Prefatory Note by the Editor, .... 
Annotations upon ' Rkliqio Medici/ 

\ l.i iikh ~(N1 UPON THE INFORMATION OF ANIMAD- 
VERSIONS, ....... 

To THE ReADEH, ....... 

EtELIGIO MEDICI, 

PSEUDODOXIA EPIDEMICA, . . . . 

To the Reader, ....... 

The First Bouk : 
1. Of the Causes of Common Errors, 

2. A further Illustration of the same, 

3. Of the second cause of Popular Errors ; the 

erroneous disposition of the People, 

4. Of the nearer and more Immediate Causes 

of Popular Errors, . 

5. Of Credulity and Supinity, 

6. Of Adherence unto Antiquity, . 

7. Of Authority, .... 

8. A brief enumeration of Authors, 

Til 



PAQI 
V 

ix 



1 

3 

7 

113 

115 

121 

127 

132 

140 
1+7 
152 
161 
168 



Vlll 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

9. Of the Same, 178 

10. Of the last and common Promoter of false 

Opinions, the endeavours of Satan, . . 182 

11. A further Illustration, . . . .193 

The Second Book : 

~1. Of Crystal, 202 

2. Concerning the Loadstone, . . .216 

3. Concerning the Loadstone, . . . 233 

4. Of Bodies Electrical, . . . .254 

5. Compendiously of sundry other common 

Tenents, concerning Mineral and Ter- 
reous Bodies, ...... 262 

6. Of sundry Tenets concerning Vegetables or 

Plants, 285 

7. Of some Insects, and the Properties of 

several Plants, 299 



The Third Book, Chapters 


I.-X. : 






«Jl, Of the Elephant, ... .308 


2. Of the Horse, . 


• 




. 314 


3. Of the Dove, 


> • 




. 317 




4. Of the Bever, . 


. 




. 321 




5. Of the Badger, . 


* 




. 326 


6. Of the Bear, 


• 




. 328 


7. Of the Basilisk, 


4 




. 331 


8. Of the Wolf, . 


. 




. 338 


9. Of the Deer, . 


1 




. 340 




10. Of the King-fisher, 


t 1 


i 


. 348 



ANNOTATIONS UPON 
RELIGIO MEDICI 



Nee satis est vulyasse fidem. 

Pet. Arbit. fragment. 



THE ANNOTATOR TO THE READER 

AGELLIL'S (noct. Attic. 1. 20. cap. ult.) notes .some Booh* 
. that had strange Titles; Pliny (Prefat. Nat. Hist.) shak- 
ing of come such, could not pass them ever without a jeer : So 
strange (saith he) are the Titles of some Books, It multos ad 
vadimonium deferendum compellant. And Seneca saith, some 
such there are, Qui patri obstetricem parturienti rilia? acccrsenti 
moram injicere possint. Of the same fate this present Tract 
Religio Medici hath partaken : Exception by some hath been taken 
to it in respect of its Inscription, which say they, seems to imply 
that Physicians have a Religion by themselves, which is more than 
Theologie doth warrant: but it is their Inference, and not the Title 
that is to blame ; for no more is meant by that, or endeavoured to 
be prov'd in the Book then that (contrary to the opinion of the 
unlearned) Physitians have Religion as well as other men. 

For the Work it self, the present Age hath produced none that has 
had better Reception amongst the learned ; it has been received and 
fostered by altnost all. there having been but one that I knew of (to 
rerifie that Books have their Fate from the Capacity of the 
Reader) that has had the face to appear against it; that is Mr. 
Alexander 1 Rosse ; but he is dead, and it is uncomely to skirmish ' In his 
o-ith his shadow. It shall be sufficient to remember to the Reader, M e j' t ™ s tus 
that the noble and most learned Knight, Sir Kenelm Digby, 
has delivered his opinion of it in another sort, who though in some 
things he differ from the Authors sense, yet hath he most candidly 
and ingeniously allow d it to be a very learned and excellent 
Piece ; and I think no Scholar will say then- tan be an approbation 
more authentique, since the time he Published his observations 
upon it. MM Mir. .Jo. Merry weather, a Master of Arts of the 
University o) Cambridge, hath deem'd it worthy to be put into the 
universal Language, which about the year lt>44 he performed ; and '* That he 
that hath carried the Authors name not only into the Low-Countries ^Vappears 
and France (in both which placet the flool: in Latin hath since been by hi* notes 
printed) but into Italy and (icrmany ; and in Germany it hath Av* 35. 
since fallen into the hands of a Gentleman of that Nation 1 (of his usetMhese 
name he hath given us no more than L.N. M. K.N.) who hathwritten words, 
learned Annotations upon it in Lathi, which were Printed together %?//,"'(£* 
with the Book at Strasbourg 1652. And for the general good mania, tic 

XI 



Xll 



ANNOTATIONS UPON 



1 In Prafat, 
Attnotat. 



- Excepting 
two or thrre 
particulars 
in which 
reference is 
made to 
some Books 
that came 
over since 
that time. 



opinion the World had entertained both of the Work and Author, 
this Stranger tells you 1 : Inter alios Auctores incidi in librum 
cui Titulus Religio Medici, jam ante mihi innotuerat lectionem 
istius libri multos praeclaros viros delectasse, imo occupasse. 
Non ignorabam librum in Anglia, Gallia, Italia, Belgio, Ger- 
mania, cupidissime legi ; constabat mihi eum non solum in 
Anglia ac Batavia, sed et Parisiis cum prsefatione, in qua 
Auctor magnis laudibus fertur, esse typis mandatum. Com- 
pertum mihi erat multos magnos atq; eruditos viros sensere 
Auctorem (quantum ex hoc scripto perspici potest) sanctitate 
vitae ac pietare elucere, etc. But for the worth of the Book it 
is so well known to every English-man that is fit to read it, that 
this attestation of a Forrainer may seem superfluous. 

The German, to do him right, hath in his Annotations given a 
fair specimen of his learning, shewing his skill in the Languages, 
as well antient as modern ; us also his acquaintance with all manner 
of Authors, both sacred and profane, out of which he has amass 'd 
a world of Quotations : but yet, not to mention that he hath not 
observed some Errors oj the Press, and one or two main ones of the 
Latin Translation, whereby the Author is much injured ; it cannot 
be denyed but he hath pass'd over many hard places untoucht, that 
might deserve a Note; that he hath made Annotations on some, 
where no need was ; in the explication of others hath gone besides 
the true sense. 

And were he free from all these, yet one great Fault there is he 
may be justly charg'd with, that is, that he cannot manum de 
Tabula even in matters the most obvious : which is an affectation 
ill-becoming a Scholar ; witness the most learned Annotator, Claud. 
Minos. Divion. in prsefat. commentar. Alciat. Emblemat. prefix. 
Prsestat (saith he) brevius omnia persequi, et leviter attingere 
quae nemini esse iguota suspicari possint, quam quasi pa^j/<c8(lv, 
perq; locos communes identidem expatiari. 

/ go not about by finding fault with his, obliquely to commend 
my own ; I am as far from that, as 'lis possible others vnll be: All 
I seek, by this Preface, next to acquainting the Reader with the 
various entertainment of the Book, is, that he would be advertized 
that these Notes were collected ten 2 years since, long before the 
(German's were written ; so that I am no Plagiary (as who peruseth 
his Notes and mine, will easily perceive): And in the second place, 
that I made this Recueil meerly for mine own entertainment, and 
not with any intention to evulge it ; Truth is my witness, the pub- 
lication proceeds meerly from the importunity of the Book-seller 
(my special friend) who being acquainted with what I had done, 
and about to set out another Edition of the Book, would not be 
denied these notes to attex to it; 'tis he (riot I) that divulgeth it, 
and whatever the success be, he alone is concern d in it ; I only say 
for my self what my Annotations bear in the Frontispiece — 

Nee satis est vuigasse fidem 



RELIGIO MEDICI xiii 

That is, that it wtu not enough to nil persons (though pretenders to 
Learning) that our Pliysitian had jiulilish'd his Creed, because it 
uanted tin exposition. I sag further, that the Gorman's is not 

full; and that ( Quicquid sum Ego quamvis infra Lucilli 

censum ingeniumq; ) my explications do in many things illus- 
trate the Text of my Author. 

24 Martii, 
1654. 



ANNOTATIONS UPON RELIGIO MEDICI 



The Epistle to the READER 

CERTAINLY that man were greedy of life, who should desire 
to live when all the World were at an end ;] This Mr. 
Merryweather hath rendred thus ; Cupidum esse vitee oportet, 
qui universo jam expirante mundo vivere cuperet ; and well 
enough : but it is not amiss to remember, that we have this 
saying in Seneca the Tragcedian, who gives it us thus, Vitee est 
avidus quisquis non vult mundo secum pereunte mori. 
q JT>p There, are many things delivered Rhetorically.'] The Author 

\J k^jTft 1_ herein(imitates the ingenuity of St. Austin ^j rho in his Retract. 
e jSh^\\. . corrects himself for havnTg~^elivered some things more like a 




Author, in that he intended no publication of it, as he pro- 
fesseth in this Epistle, and in that other to Sir Kenelm Digby. 



THE FIRST PART 

Sect. 1. r Y s HE general scandal of my Profession.] Physitians (of the 
Pag- 1. x number whereof it appears by several passages in this 
Book the Author is one) do commonly hear ill in this behalf. 
It is a common speech (but only amongst the unlearn'd sort) 
Uhi tres Medici, duo Athei. The reasons why those of that Pro- 
fession (I declare my self that I am none, but Causarum Actor 
Mediocris, to use Horace his Phrase) may be thought to deserve 
that censure, the Author rendreth Sect. 19. 

The natural course of my studies.} The vulgar lay not the 
imputation of Atheism only upon Physitians, but upon Philo- 
sophers in general, who for that they give themselves to under- 
stand the operations of Nature, they calumniate them, as though 
thev rested in the second causes without any respect to the 
xiv 



RELIGTO MEDICI xv 

first Hereupon it was, that in the tenth Age Tope Silvester PARI' I. 
the second pass'd for a Magician, because he understood - ecti u 
*it'iirnetry and natural Philosophy. liaron. Anna/. 990. And 
Apuleius long before him laboured or' the same suspicion, upon 
no better ground ; he was accus'd, and made a learned Apology 
lor himself, and in that hath laid down what the ground is of 
such accusations, in these words : Haecferme communi quodam 
errore imperitorum J'hilosophis objectantur, ut partem eorum qui 
corporum causas m is et sim/dices r'nnantur, irrrligiosos putant, 
eosque aiunt Deos abnuere, ut Anaxagoram, et Lucippum, et Demo- 
critum, et Epicurum. eosterosq; reritm naturw Patronos. Apul. 
in Apoloe:. And it is possible that those that look upon the 
second Causes scattered, may rest in them and go no further, 
as my Lord Bacon in one of his Bssayes observeth ; but our 
Author tells us there is a true Philosophy, from which no man 
becomes an Atheist, Sect. 40. 

The iwlijf't rency of my behaviour and Discourse in matters of 
Religion.] Bigots are so oversway'd by a preposterous Zeal, 
that they hate all moderation in discourse of Religion ; they 
are the men forsooth — qui solos credant habendos esse Deos quos 
ipsi colunt. Erasmus upon this accompt makes a great complaint 
to Sir Tho. More in an Epistle of his, touching one Dorpius a 
1 )i vine of Lovain, who because, upon occasion of discourse betwixt 
them, Erasmus would not promise him to write against Luther, 
told Erasmus that he was a Lutheran, and afterwards published 
him for such ; and yet as Erasmus was reputed no very good 
( atholick, so for certain he was no Protestant. 

Sot thdt I meerly owe this Title to the Font] as most do, taking 
up their Religion according to the way of their Ancestors ; this 
is to be blamed among all persons : It was practised as well 
amongst Heathens as Christians 

Per caput hoc jitro per quod Pater ante so/ebat, saith Ascanius 
in Virgil: and Apuhius notes it for an absurdity. Utrum 
Fliilosopiiu. putas turjie scire ista, an nesciref negligere, an curare t 
nosse quanta sit etiam in istis procidentia ratio, an de diis im- 
morta/ibus Matri et 1'atri cederef saith he in Apolog. and so doth 
Minutius. Cnusquixq; vestrum non cogitat print se debere drum 
nosse quam colere, dum inconsulte gestiuntur purentibus obedire, 
>lum tieri mnlunt alieni erroris accessio, quam sibi credere. Minut. 
in Octav. 

But having in my riprrs examined, etc.] according to the 
Apostolical Precept, Omnia probate, quod bonum est ten^tr. 

There being a Geography of Religion] i.e. of Christian Religion, Sect. ». 
which you may see described iu Mr. Breretcood's Enquiries : P<H ' B " 
he means not of the Protestant Religion ; for though there be 
a difference in Discipline, yet the Anglican, Scotic, Belgi <■, 
Gallican, and Helvetic Churches differ not in any essential 
matter of the Doctrine, as by the Harmony of Confessions 



xvi ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. appears. 5. Epist. Theod. Bezce Edmundo Grindallo Ep. Lon- 

Smt. a. dinens. 

Wherein I dislike nothing but the Name] that is Lutheran, 
Cahrinist, Zuinglian, etc. 

Now the accidental occasion wherein, etc.] This is graphically 
described by Thuanus in his History : but because his words are 
too large for this purpose, I shall give it you somewhat more 
briefly, according to the relation of the Author of the History 
of the Council of Trent. The occasion was the necessity of 
Pope Leo the Tenth, who by his profusion had so exhausted the 
Treasure of the Church, that he was constrained to have recourse 
to the publishing of Indulgences to raise monies : some of 
which he had destined to his own Treasury, and other part 
to his Allyes, and particularly to his Sister he gave all the 
money that should be raised in Saxony ; and she, that she might 
make the best profit of the donation, commits it to one Arem- 
boldus, a Bishop to appoint Treasurers for these Indulgences. 
Now the custome was, that whensoever these Indulgences were 
sent into Saxony, they were to be divulged by the Fryars 
Eremites (of which Order Luther then was), but Aremboldus his 
Agents thinking with themselves, that the Fryars Eremites were 
so well acquainted with the trade, that if the business should 
be left to them, they should neither be able to give so good an 
account of their Negotiation, nor yet get so much themselves 
by it as they might do in case the business were committed to 
another Order ; they thereupon recommend it to (and the busi- 
ness is undertaken by) the Dominican Fryars, who performed it 
so ill. that the scandal arising both from thence, and from the 
ill lives of those that set them on work, stirred up Luther to 
write against the abuses of these Indulgences ; which was all he 
did at first ; but then, not long after, being provoked by some 
Sermons and small Discourses that had been published against 
what he had written, he rips up the business from the beginning, 
and publishes xcv Theses against it at Wittenberg. Against these 
Tekel a Dominican writes ; then Luther adds an explication to 
his. Eckius and Prierius Dominicans, thereupon take the con- 
troversie against him : and now Luther begins to be hot ; and 
because his adversaries could not found the matter of Indul- 
gences upon other Foundations then the Popes power and 
infallibility, that begets a disputation betwixt them concerning 
the Popes power, which Luther insists upon as inferiour to that 
of a general Council ; and so by degrees he came on to oppose 
the Popish Doctrine of Remission of sins, Penances, and Pur- 
gatory ; and by reason of Cardinal Cajetans imprudent manage- 
ment of the conference he had with him, it came to pass that 
he rejected the whole body of Popish doctrine. So that by this 
we may see what was the accidental occasion wherein, the 
slender means whereby, and the abject condition of the person 



RELIGIO MEDICI xvii 

bv whom, the work of Reformation of Religion was set on PART I 
foot 

Yet I have not so thaken hands with those desperate Resolutions, Sect. 3. 
(Resolvers it should be, without doubt) who had rather venture at Fa e- *>■ 
large their decayed Bottom, than bring her in to be new trimm'd in 
the Dock; who had rather promiscuously retain alt, than abridge 
any; and obstinately bz what they are, than what they have been; 
as to stand in a diameter and at swords point with them: we have 
reformed from them, not against them, etc.] These words by Mr. 
Merryweather are thus rendred, sc. Nee tamen in vrcordem 
ilium pertinacium hominum gregem memet adjungo, qui lubefacta- 
tum navigium tnalunt/ortinue nnnmittere quam in navale de inlegro 
resarciendum deducere, qui malunt omnia promit c u i retinere quam 
quicquam inde diminuere, ft pertinaciter esse qui sunt quam qui 
olim fuerunt, ita ut iisdem ex diamctro rcpugnent : ab illis, non 
contra iitos, reformationem instituimus, etc. And the Latine 
Annotator sits down very well satisfied with it, and hath be- 
stowed some notes upon it; but under the favour both of him 
and the Translator, this Translation is so far different from the 
sense of the Author, that it hath no sense in it; or if there be 
any construction of sense in it, it is quite besides the Author's 
meaning ; which will appear if we consider the context : by that 
we shall find that the Author in giving an account of his 
Religion, tells us first, that he is a Christian, and farther, that 
he is of the reform'd Religion ; but yet he saith, in this place, 
he is not so rigid a Protestant, nor at defiance with Papists so 
far, but that in many things he can comply with them, (the 
particulars he afterwards mentions in this Section) for, saith 
he, we have reform'd from them, not against them, that is, as 
the Archbishop of Cant erbury against the Jesuit discourseth well. 
We have made no new Religion nor .Schism from the old ; but 
in calling for the old, and desiring that which was novel and 
crept in might be rejected, and the Church of Rome refusing it, 
we have reform'd from those upstart novel Doctrines, but 
against none of the old : and other sense the place cannot 
bear ; therefore how the Latine Annotator can apply it as though 
in this place the Author intended to note the Anabaptists, I 
see not, unless it were in respect of the expression Vecordem 
pertinacium hominum gregem, which truly is a description well 
befitting them, though not intended to them in this place : 
howsoever, I see not any ground from hence to conclude the 
Author to be any whit inclining to the Hulk of Popery (but have 
great reason from many passages in this Book to believe the 
contrary,) as he that prefix'd a Preface to the Parisian Edition 
of this Book hath unwarrantably done. 

But for the mistake of the Translator, it is very obvious from 
whence that arose. I doubt not but it was from mistake of the 
sense of the English Phrase shaken hands, which he hath 

b 



xviii ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. rendered by these words, Hemet adjungo, wherein he hath too 
Sect. 3. much play'd the Scholar, and show'd himself to be more skilful 
in forraign and antient customs, then in the vernacular practise 
and usage of the language of his own Country ; for although 
amongst the Latines protension of the Hand were a Symbole 
and sign of Pence and Concord (as Alex, ab Alexandro ; Manum 
vero protendere, pacem peti significabant (saith he) Gen. Dier. lib. 
4. cap. ult. which also is confirmed by Cicero pro Dejotaro ; and 
Ccesar. I. 2. de Bellico Gallico) and was used in their first meet- 
ings, as appears by the Phrase, Jungere hospitio Dextras ; and by 
that of Virgil, 

Oremus pacem, et Dextras tendamus inermes, 

And many like passages that occur in the Poets, to which I 
believe the Translator had respect; yet in modern practise, 
especially with us in England, that ceremony is used as much 
in our Adieu's as in the first Congress ; and so the Author 
meant in this place, by saying he had not shaken hands ; that 
is, that he had not so deserted, or bid farewel to the Romanists, 
as to stand at swords point with them : and then he gives his 
reasons at those words, For omitting those improperations, etc. 
So that instead of memet adjungo, the Translator should have 
used some word or Phrase of a clean contrary signification ; and 
instead of ex diametro repugnent, it should be repugnem. 
Sect. 5. Henry the Eighth, who, though he rejected the Pope, refused 

Pag. 11. no t the faith of Rome.] So much Buchanan in his own life 
written by himself testifieth, who speaking of his coming into 
England about the latter end of that King's time, saith, Sed ibi 
turn omnia adeo erant incerta, ut eodem die, ac eodem igne (very 
strange !) ulriusque factionis homines cremarentur, Henrico 8, 
jam seniore suae magnis securitati quam Religionis puritati intento. 
And for the confirmation of this assertion of the Author, vide 
Stat. 31. H. 8, cap. 14. 

And was conceived the state of Venice would have attempted in 
our dayes.] This expectation was in the time of Pope Paul the 
Fifth, who by excommunicating that Republique, gave occasion 
to the Senate to banish all such of the Clergy as would not by 
reason of the Popes command administer the Sacraments ; and 
upon that account the Jesuits were cast out, and never since 
receiv'd into that State. 
Sect. 6. Or be angry with his judgement for not agreeing with me in 

Pag. 12. that, from which perhaps within a few days I should dissent my 
self.] I cannot think but in this expression the Author had 
respect to that of that excellent French Writer Monsieur 
Mountaign (in whom I often trace him). Combien diversement 
jugeons nous de choses ? Combien de fois changeons nous nos 
fantasies? Ce que je tien aujourdhuy, ce que je croy, je le tien et 
le croy de toute ma Creance, mais ne m'est il pas advenu non une 



REL1GI0 MEDICI xix 

foil mats cent, mais mille et tout les jours d' avoir embrasse quelque PART I. 
autre tka§0$ Mountaign lib. 2. Des Essais. Chap. 12. Stct. 0. 

Every man is Mi a proper Champion fur truth, etc.] A good 
cause is never betray'd more than when it is prosecuted with 
much eagerness, and but little sufficiency ; and therefore 7uing- 
lius, though he were of Curolustudius his opinion in the point of 
the Sacrament of the Eucharist against Luther, yet he blamed 
him for undertaking the defence of that cause against Luther, 
not judging him able enough for the encounter : Xun satis habet 
humerorum, saith he of Curolostad , alluding to that of Horace, 
Sumite materiam vest ris qui scribitis cequum Viribus, et versute diu 

quidferre recusent quid vuleant humeri. So Mini/tins Ealix ; 

Plerumq; pro disserentium viribus, et eloquent i(P potentate, ttiam 
perspiciue veritatis conditio miitttur. Minut. in Octav. And 
Lactantius saith, this truth is verified in Minutius himself : for 
Him, Tertullian and Cyprian, he spares not to blame (all of 
them) as if they had not with dexterity enough defended the 
Christian cause against the Ethniques. Lactant. de justitia, cap. 
1. I could wish that those that succeeded him had not as much 
cause of complaint against him : surely he is noted to have 
many errors contra fidem. 

In Philosophy there is no man more Paradoxical then my Pa?. 13. 

self, but in Divinity I love to keep the Hand, etc.] Appositely 
to the mind of the Author, saith the Publisher of Mr. Pembef* 
Book de origine formnrum, Certe (saith he) in locis Theologian ne 

quid detrimenti capiat vel Pa.r, vet VerittU Christi a novum m 

opinionum pruritu jtrorsus ubstinendum puto, usq; ndeo ut ad certum 
regulam ctiam loqui dibeamus, quod pic et prudenter monct Augus- 
tinus (de Civ. Dei. L 10, cap. 23.) [ne verborum licentia impia vi 
gignat opinionem,] at m pulvere Scho/n.stico ubi in nul/iu.s verba ju- 
ranius, et in utramns partem sine dispendio vel pacts , vel sulutis 
ire liceat, major ronceditnr cum sentiendi turn loqiiendi libertus, 
etc. Capel. in Ep. I'rdicut. Pembel. de origine form, prcefix. 

Heresies perish not with their Authors, but like the River 
Arethusa, though they lose their Currents in one place, they rise 
again in another.] Who would not think that this expres- 
sion were taken from Mr. Mountatgne, I. 2, des Ess. cap. 12. 
W here he hath these words. Nature enserre dans les termes de, 
son progress ordinaire comme totttes autre.* e hoses uussi les crcances 
les judgements et opinions des homines elles ont leur revolutions; 
and that Mount'tigne took his from Tully. Son enim hominum 
interitu sententi<r quoque occidunt, Tull. de nat. deorum I. 1, etc. 
Of the River Arethusa thus SowatO, Videbix celebratissimum ear- 
minibus font em Arethusam limpidissirni ac perludicissimi ad imvm 
stagni gelidissimas aquas profundentem . sire illas primum naseentea 
invenit, site fumen integrum subter tot mafia, et 11 confu.sione 
pejaris undo; servatum reddidit. Senec. de consolat. ad Mar- 
tium. 



xx ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. Now the first of mine was that of the Arabians.] For this 
Sect. 7. Heresie, the Author here sheweth what it was ; they are called 

Pag. 14. Arabians from the place where it was fostered ; and because the 
Heresiarch was not known, Euseb. St. Aug. and Nicephorus do 
all write of it : the reason of this Heresie was so specious, that 
it drew Pope John 22. to be of the same perswasion. Where 
then was his infallibility? Why, Bellarmine tells you he was 
nevertheless infallible for that : for, saith he, he maintained 
this opinion when he might do it without peril of Heresie, for 
that no definition of the Church whereby 'twas made Heresie, 
had preceded when he held that opinion. Bellar. I. 4, de Pontif 
Roman, cap. 4. Now this definition was first made ('tis true) 
by Pope Benedict in the 14 Age : but then I would ask another 
question, that is, If 'till that time there were nothing defined in 
the Church touching the beatitude of Saints, what certainty was 
there touching the sanctity of any man? and upon what ground 
were those canonizations of Saints had, that were before the 14 
Age? 

The second was that of Origen.] Besides St. Augustine, 
Epiphanius, and also S. Hierom, do relate that Origen held, that 
not only the souls of men, but the Devils themselves should be 
discharged from torture after a certain time : but Genebrard 
endeavours to clear him of this. Vid. Coquteum, in 21. lib. Aug. 
de Civ. Dei. cap. 17. 

These opinions though condemned by lawful Councils, were not 
Heresie in me, etc.] For to make an Heretique, there must be 
not only Error in intellects, but pertinacia in voluntate. So St. 
Aug. Qui sententiam mam quamvis falsam atque perversam nulla 
pertinaci animositate defendunt, quaerunt autem cauta solicitudine 
veritatem, corrigi parati cum invenerint, nequaquam sunt inter 
Hcereticos deputandi. Aug. cont. Munich. 24, qu. 3. 
Sect. 9. The deepest mysteries ours contains have not only been illustrated, 

Pag. 16. i, u t maintained by Syllogism and the Rule of Reason,] and since 
this Book was written, by Mr. White in his Institutiones Sacra. 

And when they have seen the Red Sea, doubt not of the Miracle.] 
Those that have seen it, have been better informed then Sir Henry 
Blount was, for he tells us that he desired to view the passage of 
Moses into the Red Sea (not being above three days journey off) 
but the Jews told him the precise place was not known within less 
than the space of a days journey along the shore ; wherefore 
(saith he) I left that as too uncertain for any Observation. In 
his Voyage into the Levant. 
Sect. 10. I had as lieve you tell me that Anima est Angelas hominis, est 

Pag. 18. corpus Dei, as Entelechia ; Lux est umbra Dei, as actus perspicui.] 
Great variety of opinion there hath been amongst the Ancient 
Philosophers touching the definition of the Soul. Thales, his 
was, that it is a Nature without Repose. Asclepiades, that it is 
an Exercitalion of Sense. Hesiod, that it is a thing composed of 






RELIGIO MEDICI xxi 

Earth and Water; Parmenides holds, of Earth and Fire; Galen PART I. 
that it is Heat ; Hippocrates, that it is a spirit diffused through : ; {Ct IO> 
the body. Some others have held it to be Light; Plato saith, 
'tis a Substance moving itself; after cometh Aristotle (whom 
the Author here reproveth) and gneth a degree farther, and 
saith it is Entelechia, that i-\ that which naturally makes the 
body to move. But thi< definition is as rigid as any of the 
other; for this tells us not what the essence, origine or nature of 
the soul is, but only marks an effect of it, and therefore signifieth 
no more than if he had said (as the Author's Phrase is) that it 
ingeius hominis, or an Intelligence that moveth man, as he 
supposed those other to do the Heave' 

Now to come to the definition of Light, in which the Author 
is also unsatisfied with the School of Aristotle, he saith. It imtin 
tieth him no more to tell him that Lux est actus p e rtpieu t, than 
if you should tell him that it is umbra Dei. The ground of this 
definition given by the Peripatetick*, is taken from a passage in 
Aristnt. de eatMM I. 2, ,-.;/.. 7. where Aristotle smith, That the 
colour of the thing seen, doth move that which i* pertp&euvm 
M (i.e. illu.-tratatn naturam qua tit in acre aliove corpore trunx- 
and that that, in regard of its continuation to the eye, 
moveth the eye, and by its help the internal sensorium ; and 
that so vision is perform'd. Now as it is true that the Sectators 
of Aristotle are to blame, by fastening upon him by occasion of this 
pa-sage, that he meant that those things that made this impn • 
upon the Organs are meer accidents, and have nothing of sub- 
stance ; which is more than ever he meant, and cannot be main- 
tained without violence to Reason, and his own Principles; so 
for Aristotle himself, no man is beholding to him for any Science 
acquir'd by this definition : for what is any man the near for his 
telling him that Colour (admitting it to he a body, as indeed it 
is, and in that place he doth not deny) doth move actu per- 
tpicvum, when as the perspicuity is in relation to the eye ; and 
he doth not say how it comes to be perspicuous, which is the 
thing enquired after, but gives it that donation before the eye 
hath perform'd its office ; so that if he had said it had been 
umhra Dei, it would have been as intelligible, as what he hath 
said. He that would be satisfied how Vision is perform'd, let 
him see Mr. Hobbs in Tract, de nat. human, cap. l!. 

For God hath not caused it to rain upon the Earth.] St. Aug. 
de Gene*, ad literam, cap. 5, 6, salves that expression from any 
inconvenience ; but the Author in Pseudodox. Epidemic. 1. 7, 
cap. 1, shews that we have no reason to be confident that this 
Fruit was an Ajrple. 

I believe that the Serpent (if ve shall literally understand it) 
fnym his proper form ami figure made his motion on his belly befon 
the rurseA Yet the Author himself sheweth in I^endodox. 
Epidemic, lib. 7, cap. 1, that the form or kind of the Serpent is 



xxii ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. not agreed on : yet Comestor affirm'd it was a Dragon, Eugubinus 

Sect. 10. a Basilisk, Delrio a Viper, and others a common Snake : but of 

what kind soever it was, he sheweth in the same Volume, lib. 

5, c. 4, that there was no inconvenience, that the temptation 

should be perform'd in this proper shape. 

I find the tryal of Pucelage and the Virginity of Women which 
God ordained the Jews, is very fallible.] Locus extat, Deut. c. 22, 
the same is affirm'd by Laurentius in his Anatom. 

Whole Nations ham escaped the curse of Child-birth, which God 
seems to pronounce upon the whole sex.] This is attested by 
M. Mountaigne. Les doleurs de Tenfantiment par les medicins, 
et par Dieu mesme estimees grandes, et que nous passons avec tant 
de Ceremonies, il y a des nations entieres qui ne'nfuit nul conte. 
I. 1, des Ess. c. 14. 
Set. ii. j—. Who can speak of Eternity without a Solwism, or think thereof 
Pageig. without an Extasie? Time we may comprehend, etc.] Touching 
i the difference betwixt Eternity and Time, there have been great 
| disputes amongst Philosophers ; some affirming it to be no 
^^^*aicw more than duration perpetual consisting of parts ; and others (to 
^*^\*^ VA/<P^ nc h opinion, it appears b~y~what FoITows"1n" this Section, the 
Q..ity**^ Author adheres) affirmed (to use the Authors Phrase) that it 
hath no distinction_o^_Ie_nses, but is according to Boetius (lib. 5, 
consol. pros. 0), his definition, interminabilis vitce tola simul et 
perfecta possessio. For me, non nostrum est tantas componere 
lites. I shall only observe what each of them hath to say 
against the other. Say those of the first opinion against those 
that follow Boetius his definition, That definition was taken by 
Boetius out of Plato's Timazus, and is otherwise applyed, though 
not by Boetius-, yet by those that follow him, than ever Plato 
intended it ; for he did not take it in the Abstract, but in the 
Concrete, for an eternal thing, a Divine substance, by which he 
meant God, or his Anima mundi : and this he did, to the intent 
to establish this truth, That no mutation can befal the Divine 
Majesty, as it doth to things subject to generation and corrup- 
tion ; and that Plato there intended not to define or describe any 
species of duration : and they say that it is impossible to under- 
stand any such species of duration that is (according to the 
Authors expression) but one permanent point. 

Now that which those that follow Boetius urjre against the 
other definition is, they say, it doth not at all difference Eternity 
from the nature of Time ; for they say if it be composed of 
many Nunc's, or many instants, by the addition of one more it 
is still encreased ; and by that means Infinity or Eternity is not 
included, nor ought more than Time. For this, see Mr. White, 
de dial, mundo, Dial. 3. Nod. 4. 

Indeed he only is, etc.] This the Author infers from the 
words of God to Moses, I am that I am ; and this to distinguish 
him from all others, who (he saith) have and shall be : but 



RELIGIO MEDICI xxiii 

those that are learned in the Hebrew, do affirm that the words PART I. 
in that place (Kxod. 3) do not signitie. Ego turn qui sum, et 
qui est, etc. but Ero qui ero, et </«;' erit, etc. vid Qaeeend. in 
animed. Kpicur. Physiolog. 

I wonder how Aristotle could conceive the World Sternal, or hem Sect. n. 
he could make two Eternities/] (that is, tliat God, and the World la £- TO - 
both were eternal.) I wonder more at either the ignorance or 
incogitancy of the Conimhricensrs, who in their Comment upon 
the eighth book of Aristotle's Phr/siclcs, treating of the matter of 
Creation, when they had first said that it was possible to know 
it, and that actually it was known (for Aristotle knew it) yet for 
all this they afterwards affirm, That considering onely the light 
of Nature, there is nothing can be brought to demonstrate 
Creation: and yet farther, when they had defined Creation to 
be the production of a thing ex uihi/o, and had proved that the 
World was so created in time, and refused the arguments of the 
Philosophers to the contrary, they added this, That the World 
fit be created ab aterno: for having propos'd this question 
[.Yum aliquid a Deo ex JBtenAtote pr oc reari potuit?] they defend 
the affirmative, and assert that not onely incorporeal substances, 
as Angels ; or permanent, as the celestial Bodies ; or corruptible 
as Men, etc. might be produced and made ab aterno, and be 
conserved by an infinite time, ex utraq] parte ; and that this is 
neither repugnant to God the Creator, the things created, nor 
to the nature of Creation : for proof whereof, they bring 
instances of the Sun which if it had been eternal, had illumin- 
ated eternally, (and the virtue of God is not less than the virtue 
of the Sun.) Another instance they bring of the divnne Word, 
which was produced ab aterno : in which discourse, and in the 
instances brought to maintain it, it is hard to say whether the 
madness or impiety be greater; and certainly if Christians thus 
arerue, we have the more reason to pardon the poor heathen 
Aristotle. 

There is in us not three, but a T r in i ty of Soul*. ] The Peripatetiqnes 
held that men had three distinct Souls ; whom the Heretiques, 
the Anomai, and the Jacobites, followed. There arose a great 
dispute about this matter in Oxford, in the year 1276, and it 
was then determined against Aristotle. Daneus Christ. F.th. 1. 1. 
c. 4. and E k tarea in his Treatise de coMta formali. Quest. An 
dentur p/ures forma in nno o o mpos ito , affirnieth there was a Synod 
that did anathematize all that held with Aristotle in this point. 

There is but one first, and four second ctnue* in alt things.] In Sect. 14. 
that he saith there is but one first cause, he speaketh in opposi- Pae% 93- 
tion to the Manichees, who held there were Duo pr inc ip le ; one 
from whom came all trood, and the other from whom came all 
evil : the reason of Protagoras did it seems impose upon their 
understandings ; he was wont to say, 8i Dev* non est, unde 
igiturbona? Si autem est, unde mala? In that he saith there 



xxiv ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. are but four second Causes, he opposeth Plato, who to the four 

Stct. 14. causes, material, efficient, formal, and final, adds for a fifth 

exemplar or Idcea, sc. Id ad quod respiciens artijex, id quod des- 

tinabat efficit ; according to whose mind Boetius speaks, lib. 3. 

met. 9. de cons. Philosoph. 

qui perpetua mundum ratione gubernas, 
Terrarum Cceliq; sator qui tempus ab cevo 
Irejubes, stabilisq; manens das cuncta moveri: 
Quern non externa pepulerunt fingere causae 
Materia fiuitantis opus, verum insita summi 
Forma boni livore carens: tu cuncta superno 
Ducis ab exemplo, pulchrum pulcherrimus ipse 
Mundum mente gerens, similique in imagine formans, 
Perfectasq; jubens pttrjectum absolvere partes. 

And St. Augustine I. 83. quest. 40. where (amongst other) he 
hath these words, Restat ergo ut omnia Ratione sint condita, nee 
eadem ratione homo qua equus ; hoc enim absurdum est existimare : 
singula autem propriis sunt creata rationibus. But these ideee 
Plato's Scholar Aristotle would not allow to make or constitute 
a different sort of cause from the formal or efficient , to which 
purpose he disputes, /. 7. Metaphysic. but he and his Sectators, 
and the Ramists also, agree (as the Author) that there are but 
the four remembred Causes : so that the Author, in affirming 
there are but four, hath no Adversary but the Platonists ; but 
yet in asserting there are four (as his words imply) there are 
that oppose him, and the Schools of Aristot. and Ramus. I shall 
bring for instance Mr. Nat Carpenter, who in his Philosophia 
Libera affirmeth, there is no such cause as that which they call 
the Final cause : he argueth thus ; Every cause hath an 
influence upon its effect : but so has not the End, therefore it 
is not a Cause. The major proposition (he saith) is evident, 
because the influence of a cause upon its effect, is either the 
causality it self, or something that is necessarily conjoyned to 
it : and the minor as plain, for either the End hath an influence 
upon the effect immediately, or mediately, by stirring up the 
Efficient to operate ; not immediately, because so it should 
enter either the constitution or production, or conservation of the 
things ; but the constitution it cannot enter, because the con- 
stitution is only of matter and form ; nor the Production, for so it 
should concur to the production, either as it is simply the end, 
or as an exciter of the Efficient ; but not simply as the end, 
because the end as end doth not go before, but followeth the 
thing produced, and therefore doth not concur to its produc- 
tion : if they say it doth so far concur, as it is desired of the 
agent or efficient cause, it should not so have an immediate 
influence upon the effect, but should onely first move the 



RELIGIO MEDICI xxv 

efficient. Lastly, saith he, it doth not enter the conservation PART I. 
of a thing-, because a thine is often conserved, when it is sect. 14. 
frustrate of its due end, as when it 's converted to a new use and 
end. Divers other Arguments he hath to prove there is no 
such cause as the final cause. Nat. Carpenter Philosoph. liber 
Decad. 3. Bemxitflt 6. But for all this, the Author and he differ 
not in substance : for 'tis not the Author's intention to assert 
that the end is in nature praeexistent to the effect, but only that 
whatsoever God has made, he hath made to some end or other ; 
which he doth to oppose the Sectators of Epicurus, who main- 
tain the contrary, as is to be seen by this of Lucretius which 
follows. 

Mud in hit rebus vitium vehementer et ittum, 

Effugere errorem vitareque premeditabor 

Lumina ne facias oculorum clara creata 

Prospicere ut possimus ; et, ut prufcrrc trial 

Proeeros passus, ideo fasti gia posse 

Surarum ae femiuum pedibusjundata plicari : 

liruchia turn porro valiilis ex apt a lucertis 

Esse, mantuq} datCU utraq; ex parte ministras, 

Vtfacert ad vitam pottwttu f quaforet usus: 

Ca-tera de genere hoc, inter qua-cunq; precantur 

Omnia perversa jrreepostera sunt ratione : 

Nil ideo quoniam vatum 'st in corpore, ut vti 

Possemus ; sed quod naturn 'st, id procreat usum, 

Necfuit ante videre oculorum lamina nata, 

Nee dictis orare prius, quam lingua errata 'st, 

Sed pat ins longe lingtut prare.txit origo 

Sermonem ; multoq; creata- sunt prius aures 

Quam sonus est auditus, et omnia deniq; membra 

Antefuere, ut opinor, eorum qudmforet usus : 

Haud igitur potuere utendi crescere causa. 

Lucret. lib. 4. [822-841.] 

There are no Grotesques in nature, etc.] So Monsr. Montaign. Stct. 15. 
II n'ya rien d'inutil en nature, non pus I'inutilite mesrnes, Rien ne ag ' 24 ' 
t'ett ingere en cet Univers qui n'y tienne place opportun. Ess. 
1. 3. c. J. 

Who admires not Regio-montanus his Ely beyond his Eagle?] 
Of these Du Partus. 

(Jue diray je de taigle, 
D'ont un doct Aleman honore nostre sieele 
Aigle qui deslogeant de la matfffWM main, 
Aila loin au devant d'uji Empereur (•ermuin; 
Et Cayant recontre snddain d'une aisle accorte, 
Se tournant le suit au seuil de la parte 
Dufort Norembergois, que lis piliers dorez, 
Les tapissez chemins, les arcs elabourez, 



xxvi ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. Les fourdroyans Canons, in la jeusnesse isnelle, 

Sect. 15. I 71 te chena Senat, n'honnoroit tant come elle. 

Vn jour, que cetominer plus des esbats, que de mets, 
En prive fasteyoit ses seignieurs plus amees, 
Vne mousche defer, dans sa main rece/ee, 
Prit sans ayde d'autroy, sa gallard evolee : 
Fit une entiere Ronde, et puis d'un cerveau las 
Come ayant jugement, se purcha sur son bras. 

Thus Englished by Silvester. 

Why should not I that wooden Eagle mention? 
(A learned German's lute admir'd invention) 

Which mounting Jrom his Fist that framed her, 
Flew far to meet an Almain Emperour : 
And having met him, with her nimble Train, 
And weary Wings turning about again, 
Followed him close unto the Castle Gate 
0/*Noremberg ; whom all the shews of state, 
Streets hang'd with Arras, arches curious built, 
Loud thundring Canons, Columns richly guilt, 
Grey-headed Senate, and youth's gallantise, 
Grac'd not so much as onely this dexnce. 
Once as this Artist more with mirth than meat, 
Feasted some friends that he esteemed great ; 
From under' s hand an Iron Fly flew out, 

Which having flown a perfect round about, 

With weary wings, ret urn d unto her Master, 
And (as judicious) on his arm she plac'd her. 

Or wonder not more at the operation of two souls in those little 
bodies, than but one in the Trunk of a Cedur?] That is, the 
vegetative, which according to the common opinion, is supposed 
to be in Trees, though the Epicures and Stoiques would not allow 
any Soul in Plants ; but Empedocles and Pluto allowed them not 
only a vegetative Soul, but affirm'd them to be Animals. The 
Manichees went farther, and attributed so much of the rational 
Soul to them, that they accounted it Homicide to gather either 
the flowers or fruit, as St. Aug. reports. 

We carry with us the wonders we seek without us.] So St. Aug. 

1. 10. de civ. c. 3. Omni miraculo quod jit per hominem majus 

miraculum est homo. 

Sect. 16. Another of his servant Nature, that publique and universal 

Pa£.2$. Manuscript that lies expansed, etc.] So is the description of Du 

Bartat 1. jour de la sepm. 

Oyes ce Docteur muet estudie en ce livre 

Qui nuict et jour ouvert t' apprcndra de Men vivre. 



RELIGIO MEDICI xxvii 

All things are artificial, for Nature is the Art of God.] So Mr. PART I. 
Holibes in his Leviathan (in initio) Nature is the Art whereby Sec( l6 
God governs the world. 

Directing the operations nf single and individual Essences, etc.] Sect. 17. 
Things singular or individuals, are in the opinion of I'hilo- ^"f- 2 ?- 
sophers not to be known, but by the way of sense, or by that 
which knows by its Essence, and that is onely God. The Devils 
have no such knowledge, because whatsoever knows so, is either 
the cause or effect of the thing known; whereupon Avermes 
concluded that God was the cause of all things, because he 
understands all things by his Essence ; and A/bertus Magnus 
concluded, That the inferiour intelligence understands the 
superiour, because it is an effect of the superiour : but neither 
of these can be said of the Devil ; for it appears he is not the 
effect of any of these inferiour things, much less is he the 
cause, for the power of Creation onely belongs to God. 

All cannot be happy at once, because the Clory of one State 
depends upon the ruine of another.] This Theme is ingeniously 
handled bv Mr. Montaigne tier. 1. des Ess. cap. 22. the title 
whereof is, Le profit de i un est dommage de luutre. 

'Tis the common fate of men of singular gijts of mind, to lie Sect. iS. 
destitute of those of Fortune.] So 1'etron. Arbiter. Amor ingevii J ' u *- ' J 9- 
neminem nnqnam divitem fecit, in Satyric. And Apuleius in 
Apolog. Idem mihi etitttn (saith he) paupertatem opprobravit 
acceptum Philosopho crimen et ultro projitendum ; and then a 
little afterwards, he sheweth that it was the common fate of 
those that had singular gifts of mind : Eadem enim est paupertas 
apud Grcecos in A ristidejusta, in Phocyone benigna, in Epaminonde 
strenua, in Socrate tapient } in llomcro diserta. 

We need not labour with so many arguments to confute judicial 
Astroloirv.] There is nothing in judicial Astrology that may 
render it impious ; but the exception against it is, that it is vain 
and fallible ; of which any man will be convinced, that has read 
Tally de Divinat. and St. Aug. book .5. de Civ. dei. 

There is in our soul a kind of Triumvirate that distracts Sect. 19. 

the pence of our Commonwealth, not less than did that other the af: ' 3I ' 
State of Rome.] There were two Triumvirates, by which the 
peace of Borne was distracted ; that of Crassus, Ccesar and 
Pompey, of which Lucun, I. 1. 

Tit causam aliorum 



Facta tribtu Dominie communis lloma, nee unquam 
lu turham missiferaliafrdera llcgni. 

And that other of Augustus, Antonius and Lepidus, by whom, 
saith Florus, Ilespublica convulsa est lacerataque, which comes 
somewhat near the Author's words, and therefore I take it that 
he means this last Triumvirate. 



xxviii ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. Would disswade my belief from the miracle of the brazen 

Sect. 19. Serpent.] Vid. Coqueum in, I. 10. Aug. de Civ. Dei, c. 8. 

Pag-. 32' And bid me mistrust a miracle in Elias, etc.] The History is 

18. 1 Reg. It should be Elijah. The Author in 15. cap. lib. 7. 

Pseudodox. sheweth it was not perform'd naturally ; he was (as 

he saith) a perfect miracle. 

To think the combustion of Sodom might be natural.] Of that 
opinion was Strabo, whereupon he is reprehended by Genebrard 

in these words : Strabo falsus est dum eversionem addicit 

sulphuri et bitumini e terra erumpentibus, quae erat ussignanda 
Cwlo, i.e. Deo irato. Tacitus reports it according to the Bible, 
fulminis ictu arsisse. 
Sect. ao. Those that held Religion was the difference of man from Beasts, 

P*g> 33- etc.] Lactantius was one of those : Religioni ergo serviendum est, 
quam qui non suspiclt, ipse se prosternit in terram, et vitam 
pecudum secutus humanitate se abdicat. Lactant de fals. 
Sapientia, cap. 10. 

The Doctrine of Epicurus that denied the providence of God, 
was no Atheism, but, etc.] I doubt not but he means that delivered 
in his Epistle to Menaceus, and recorded by Diogenes Laertius, 
lib. 10. Quod beatum ceternumque est, id nee habet ipsum 
negotii quicquam, nee exhibet alteri, itaque neque ira, neque gratia 
tenetur, quod quae talia sunt imbecillia sunt omnia; which the 
Epicurean Poet hath delivered almost in the same words. 

Omnis enim per se divum natura necesse 'st 
Immortali eexio summa cum pacefruatur, 
Semota a nostris rebus sejunctaq; longe : 
Nam privata dolore omni, privata periclis 
Ipsa suis pollens opibus nihil indrga nostri 
Nee bene pro meritis capitur, nee tangitur ira. 

• Luc ret. lib. 2. 

That Villaine and Secretary of Hell, that composed that miscreant 
piece of the three Impostors.] it was Ochinus that composed this 
piece ; but there was no less a man than the Emperour Frederick 
the Second, that was as lavish of his tongue as the other of his 
pen ; Out sape in ore, Tres fuisse insignes Impostores, qui genus 
humanum seduxerunt : Moysem, Christum, Mahumetern. Lips, 
monit. et exempt. Politic, cap. 4. And a greater than he, Pope 
Leo the Tenth, was as little favourable to our Saviour, when he 
us'd that speech which is reported of him, Quantas nobis divitias 
comparavit ista de Christo fabula. 
Sect. ix. There are in Scripture stories that do exceed the fables of Poets.] 

P<v- 34- So the Author of Relig. Laid. Certe mira admodum in S.S. plus 
quam in reliquis omnibus Historiis traduntur ; (and then he con- 
cludes with the Author) sed quae non retundunt intellectum, sed 
exercent. 

Yet raise no question who shall rise with that Rib at the Resur- 



RELIGIO MEDICI xxix 

rection.'] The Author cup. 2 /. 7. Pseudodox. sheweth that it PART I. 
appeares in Anatomy, that the Rihs of Man and Woman are Stct. %%. 
equal. 

Whether the world were created in Autumn, Summer, or the 
Spring, etc.] In this matter there is a consent between two 
learned Poets, Lucretius and Virgil, that it begins in Spring. 

At novitus mundi nee frigora dura ciebat, 

Nee nimios trstus, nee magnis viriliut auras. Lucretius. 

Which he would have to be understood of Autumn, because 
that resembles old age rather than Infancy. He speaks 
expresly of the Fowls. 

Principio genus ulituum variceq; vulucrea 

Ova relinquebunt exclusce tempore verno. Lucret. 

Then for Virgil. 

Nun alios prima nascentis origine mundi 
Illuxisse dies atiumve habuisse tenorem 
Crediderim, ver illud erat, ver magnus agebat 
Orbis, et hibernis parcebant fatibus Euri. 

Virgil 2. Georgic. 

But there is a great difference about it betwixt Church- 
Doctors ; some agreeing with these Poets and others affirming 
the time to be in Autumn : but truly, in strict speaking, it was 
not created in any one, but all of the seasons, as the Author 
saith here, and hath shewed at large. Pseudodox. Epidemic. 
lib. 0. cap. 2. 

'77* ridiculous to put off or down the. general fioud of Noah in Srct. 11. 
that particular inundation of Deucalion,] as the Heathens some Pa£ - 35- 
of them sometimes did : Confuderunt igitur s&pc Ethnici ]<ur- 
ticularia ilia diluvia, qucp longe post secuta sunt, cum illo universali 
quod prcecessit, ut exfabulis in Diluvio Deuca/ioucro sparsis colligere 
licet ; non tamen semper nee ubique. Author. Observat. in 
Mythotog. Nat. Corn. Then amongst those that confound them, 
he reckons Ovid and Plutarch. 

Hmv all the kinds of Creatures, not onely in their men hulks, but 
with a eompetenejf of food and sustenance, might be preserved in one 
Ark, and uithin the extent of 300 Cubits, to a reason that rightly 
examines it will appear very feasible.] Vet Ajielles the Disciple 
of ifercion, took upon him to deride the History of Hoses in 
this particular, alledging that it must needs be a fablp, for that 
it was impoasible WO many creatures ihould be rontain'd in so 
small a space, t/rigen and St. Aug. to answer this pretended 
difficulty, alleadge that Moses in this place speakes of Geometrical 
(and not vulgar) cubits, of which every one was as much as six 
vulgar onos ; and so no difficulty. But Perer. I. 10. com. in 



xxx ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I, Genes, quest. 5. de area, rejects this opinion of Origen, as being 
Sect. 22. both against reason and Scripture. 

1. Because that sort of Cubit was never in use amongst any 
people, and therefore absurd to think Moves should intend it in 
this place. 

2. If Moses should not speak of the same Cubits here, that he 
mentions in others places, there would be great a?quivocation in 
Scripture : now in another place, i.e. Exod. 27. he saith, God 
commanded him to make an Altar three Cubits high ; which if 
it shall be meant of Geometrical Cubits it will contain 18 
vulgar Cubits ; which would not only render it useless, but 
would be contrary to the command which he saith God gave 
him, Exod. 20. Thou shalt not go up by steps to my Altar. For 
without steps what man could reach it. It must therefore be 
meant of ordinary Cubits ; but that being so it was very feasible. 
I can more easily believe than understand it. 

And put the honest Father to the Refuge of a Miracle.'] This 
honest father was St. Aug. who delivers his opinion, that it 
might be miraculously done, lib. 16. de Civ. Dei, cap. 7. where 
having propos'd the question how it might be done, he answers, 
Quod si homines eas captas secum adduxerunt, et eo modo ubi 
habitabant earum genera instituerunt, venandi studio fieri potuisse 
incredibile non est, quamvis jussu Dei sive permissu etiarn opera 
Angelorum negandum non sit potuisse transferri ; but St. Aug. 
saith not that it could not be done without a miracle. 

And 1500 years to people the World, as full a time, etc.] 
P*S- 36 That Methusalem was the longest liv'd of all the children of 

Adam, etc.] See both these Points cleared by the Author, in 
Pseudodox. Epidemic, the first lib. 6. cap. 6. the other lib. 7. 
cap. 3. 

That Judas perished by hanging himself, there is no certainty in 
Scripture, though in one place it seems to affirm it, and by a 
doubtful word hath given occasion to translate it ; yet in another 
place, in a more punctual description it makes it improbable, and 
seems to overthrow it.] These two places that seem to con- 
tradict one another are Math. 27. 5. and Acts 1. 8. The doubt- 
ful word he speaks of is in the place of Matthew ; it is dn^y^aro, 
which si^nifieth suffocation as well as hanging, (dnt\6av dir^y^aro, 
which may signifio literally, after he went out he was choak'd) 
but Erasmus translates it, abiens laqueo se suspendit : the words 
in the Acts are, When he had thrown down himself headlong, he 
burst in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out ; which seems to 
differ much from the expression of Matthew ; yet the Ancient 
Writers and Fathers of tbe Church do unanimously agree that 
he was hanged. Some I shall cite. Anastas. Sinaita, I. 7. 
Anagog. Contempt. Unus latro ingratus cum esset typus Diaboli, et 
Serpenti.t, et Judce, qui se in ligno suffocavit. Gaudentius 
Brixiens. tract. 13. de natal. Dom. Mortem debitam laqueo sibimet 



RELIGIO MEDICI xxxi 

intulit praparato, etc. Droggotoshen. de sacrum, dominie, pats. PART I. 
Jamdiu erut quidem quod Christo recexxerat, et avaritia laqueo se Sict. a». 
suspenderat , sed quodf'eccrut in occulto, pultun omnibus innotuit. 
ft Martialis in Ep. ud Tholosunos. Son xustinuit panitentiam, 
donee laqueo mortis teipsum consumpsit. Jynat. ud Philipptns. 
Diabolus laqueum ei oxtendit. et suxpeudium doeuit. Leo Am '<i. 

de passion. it quia /acinus omnem mensuram ultionis 

excesserat, te hul-eret impietas tun judicem te pateretur sua pinna 
Carnifuem. Theodoret. lib. 1. turret ic. fubul. llle protinus 
strangulatus est, quce fuit merces ejus proditionis. Chrysoxtom. 
Horn. '6. de proditore. Pependit Caelum Terrumque intermedins 
vayo funere suffoeutus, et cum Jlagitio suo tume facta, viscera 
crepuerunt, etc. Bernard. z>erm. 8. in Psal. 9. Judas in Aere 
crepuit medius. 

1. There are those that are so particular, that they acquaint 
us with the manner, as that it teas done with a Cord. Antiochus 
Laurensis, tipem omnem a se cum abjecisset, insiliente in eum 
inimico (sc. Diabolo) funiculo sibi prafocavit yulam. Oecumen. 
in Art. Fracto funiculo quo erut suffocatus decidit in terram 
pracipitio. 2. That it was done on a Fig-Tree, Beda. Portam 
David egredientibus Jons occurrit in Austrian per vallem directus, 
ad cujus medietutem ab occasu Judas se suspendisse narratur : 
Sam etficus magna ibi et vetusthsima stat. 

Juveuc. lib. 4. Hist. Evangelic. 

Esorsusq; suas laqueo sibi sumere prrnas, 
bnformem rapuit Jicus de vertire mortem. 

3. Some acquaint us with the time when it was done, viz. the 
next day after he had given the kiss. So Chrysoxtom. Homil. 1. de 
proditor. et Mysterio Can. Dominic. Guttur prophanum quod 
hodie Christo extendis ad oseulum, crastino es illud extenxurux ud 
laqueum. But there are two, that is Euthymius and Oecumeniux, 
that tell us, that the hanging did not kill him, but that either the 
Rope broke, or that he was cut down, and afterwards cast him- 
self down headlong, as it is related in the before mentioned 
place of the Acts: Agnitus d quUiusdam depositus est ne prafo- 
curetur, denique pottquam in secreto quodam loco modico rixixxet 
tempore prareps /actus sire pra 3 cipitntux. inflatus diruptus, ac 
diffisus est medius, et ejfn*a Mint omnia VUCera ejus; ut in Actis. 
Euthym. cap. G7. in Math. Judas suspendio e vita non decessil, sed 
supervixit, deject us est ennn prius quum prafocaretur, idque 
Apostolorum Acta indicant, quod promts crepuit medius. Oecumen. 
in Act. And this may serve to reconcile these two seemiu. 
disagreeing Scriptures. 

That our Fathers after the. Flood ereeted the. Tower of Babel.] ra C . 37. 
For this see what the Author saith in his Pseudodox. Epidemir. 
1. 7. cap. 6. 



xxxii ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PARTI. And cannot but commend the judgment of Ptolemy.] He means 
Sect. 23. of Ptolemee us Philadelphia, who founded the Library of Alexandria, 
Pa£. 37. which he speaks of in the next Section. He was King of Egypt ; 
and having built and furnish'd that Library with all the choicest 
Books he could get from any part of the world, and having good 
correspondence with Eleazer the high Priest of the Jews, by 
reason that he had released the Jews from Captivity, who were 
taken by his Predecessor PtolenuBiis Lagi ; he did by the advice 
of Demetrius Phalereus the Athenian, whom he had made his 
Library-Keeper, write to Eleazer, desiring him that he would 
cause the Books of the Jews, which contained their Laws, to be 
translated for him into Greek, that he might have them to put 
into hi9 Library : to which the Priest consents ; and for the 
King's better satisfaction, sends to him Copies of the Books, and 
with the same 72 Interpreters skilled both in the Greek and 
Hebrew Language, to translate them for him into Greek ; which 
afterwards they performed. This is for certain ; but whether 
they translated only the Pentateuch, as St. Jerome would have 
it, or together with the Books of the Prophets also, as Leo de 
Castro and Baronius contend, I undertake not to determine : 
but as to that part of the story, that these Interpreters were put 
into so many several Cells, whilst they were about the work 
of translation ; and notwithstanding they were thus severed, 
that they all translated it totidem verbis ; it is but reason to 
think with St. Jerome (notwithstanding the great current of 
Authority against him) that it is no better than a fable. 

The Alcoran oj' the Turks (I speak without prejudice) is an ill- 
composed piece, containing in it vain and ridiculous errors in 
Philosophy, etc.] It is now in every mans hand, having been 
lately translated into English ; I shall therefore observe but 
these few particulars in it, in regard the book it self is so 
common ; and indeed they are not mine own, but Lipsius his 
observations. He begins, taigas, deliria! primum (saith he) 
commentus est, Deum unum solidumq; (6\6a<pvpov Grceci \expri- 
munt) eundemq; incorporeum esse. Christum non Deum, sed 
magnum vatem et prophftam ; se tatnen majorem, et proxime a Deo 
viissum, prtemia qui ipsum uudient Paradisum, qui post aliquot 
annorum millia reserabitur, ibi quatuor flumina lacte, vino, melle, 
aqua fluere, ibi palatia et aedificia gemmata atque aurata esse, 
carnes avium suavissimarum, fructus omne genus quos sparsi 
jacentesque sub umbra arborum edent : sed caput fcelicitatis, viros 
faeminasque, majores so/ito magnis Genitalibus assidua libidine, et 
ejus usu sine tcedio out fatigatione. These and some others that 
are in the Alcoran he reckons up. Sed et Physica quoq ; miranda 
(saith he) nnmfacit Solem et Lunam in equis vehi, ilium autem in 
aquam calidam vespere mergi, et bene lotum ascendere atque oriri, 
Stellas in aere e catenis aureis pendere: terram in bovini cornus 
cuspide stabilitum, et agitante se bove ac succutiente fieri terra 



RELIGIO MEDICI xxxiii 

motttm ; hominern auteni ex hirundine ant sanguisuga unset, etc. TART I. 
Just. Lips. Momt ft emempL Politic, cap. X. Sect. 23. 

I believe betide* Zoroaster there were divers others that wrote Pa(. 38. 
before Motet.] Zoroaster was long before Motet, and of great 
name; he was the father of Minus, Justin. Kb. 1. AS quam/ibet 
modicum emokmentum probdveriHt, ego Hie sim Oarinondat vel 
lhunigeron, vel is Motet, vel Joannes, vel Apof/onius, vel ipse 
Dardanus, vel quieunq; a/iits post Zoroastrem et llostanem, inter 
Magos celebratus est. Apuleius in Apol. 

Others with as many groont deplore the cumbustion of the Library Sect. 24. 
at Alexandria.] This was that Library before spoken of, set up Pa Z' 3 8, 
by Ptolemceus Philadelphus • in which 'tis reported by Atnmianut 
Marcellinus there were 700,000 volumes; it was burnt by Jut. 
nr's means, whose Navy beiiiir environed before Alexandria, 
he had no means to keep off the Enemy, Lut by flinging of lire, 
which at lentrth cauirht the Library and consumed it, as 
Phitaveh hath it in Vita Catarit: but notwithstanding we have 
no reason to believe it was quite consumed, because Sueton. in 
Claudius, tells us, that that Emperour added another to it ; and 
there must be somewhat before, if it were an addition ; but 
true it is, too many of the Books perished ; to repair which loss, 
care was taken by Domitian the Emperour, as the same iiueton. 
and Aurel. Victor, do relate. 

1 would not omit a Copy of Enoch's Pillars, had they many 
nearer Authors than Josephus, etc.] For this the Story is, that 
Enoch, or his father Seth, having been inform'd by Adam, that 
the world was to perish once by water, and a second time by 
fire, did cause two Pillars to be erected, the one of Stone 
against the water, and another of Brick against the fire ; and 
tbat upon those Pillars was engraven all such Learning as had 
been delivered to, or invented by mankind ; and that thence it 
came that all knowledge and learning was not lost by means of 
tbe Floud, by reason that one of the Pillars (though the other 
perished) did remain after the Floud, and Josephus witnesseth, 
till his time, Kb. 1. Antiq. Judaic, cap. 3. 

of those three great inventions of (Jermany, (here are two which 
arr tint without their meornmoditiet.] Tbose two he means are 
/' >nting and Gunpowder, which are commonly taken to be 
German Inventions; but Artillery was in China above l. r >00 
years since, and Printing long before it was in Germany, if we 
may believe Juan Qemcalet Mendosa in his Hist, of China, lib. 3. 
cap. 15, 16. The incommodities of these two inventions, are 
well described by Sam. Daniel, lib. 6. of the Civil Wars. 

Fierce Nemesis, mother of fate and change, 
Sword-t>earer of th' eternal providence, 
Turns her stern look at last into the West, 
As griev'd to see on Earth such happy rest ; 

c 



xxxiv ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. And for Pandora calleth presently, 

Sect Pandora Jove's/air gift that first deceived 

Pag. 38. Poor Epimetheus in his imbecility. 

That though he had a wondrous boon received, 
By means whereof curious mortality 
Was of all former quiet quite bereaved. 
To whom being come deckt with all qualities, 
The wrathful goddess breaks out in this wise : 

Dost thou not see in what secure estate, 
Those flourishing fair Western parts remain ? 
As if they had made covenant with fate, 
To be exempted free from others pain, 
At one with their desires, friends with debate, 
In peace with Pride, content vrith their own gain. 
Their bounds contain their mindes, their mindes applyed 
To have their bonds with plenty beautified. 

Devotion (Mother of Obedience) 
Bears such a hand on their credulity, 
That it abates the spirit of eminence, 
And busies them with humble piety : 
For see what works, what infinite expence, 
What Monuments of zeal they edifie, 
As if they would, so that no stop were found, 
Fill all with Temples, make all holy ground. 

But we must cool this all-believing zeal, 
That hath enjoy d so fair a turn so long, etc. 
Dislike of this first by degrees shall steal, 
As upon souls of men perswaded wrong ; 
And that the sacred power which thus hath wrought, 
Shall give her self the sword to cut her throat. 

Go therefore thou with all thy stirring train 
Of swelling Sciences (the gifts of grief) 
Go loose the links of that soul-binding chain, 
Enlarge this uninquisitive Belief: 
Call up mens spirits, that simpleness retain, 
Enter their hearts, and knowledge make the Thief 
To open all the Doors to let in Light, 
That all may all things see but what is right. 

Opinion arm against opinion (grown) 
Make new-born contradictions still arise, 
As if Thebes Founder (Cadmus) tongues had sown 
Instead of teeth, for greater mutinies: 
Bring new defended faith against faith known, 
Weary the soul with contrarieties, 
Till all Religion become Retrograde, 
And that fair tyc the mask of sin be made: 

And better to effect a speedy end, 
Let there be found two fatal Instruments t 



RELIGIO MEDICI xxxv 

The MM to publish, Ik' other to defend PART I. 

IJwpMMI tiiiittnt'wn, and proud disroutents : .s>, /. » .. 

KUm mj*J Mtteanped character* may send P* 

Abroad to thousands, thousand men* utit Ktt J UnS ' 

And in a moment mat/ d itpott h much more, 

Than could a world of pent perform before; 

Whereby all quarrels, titles, terrenes, 
May unto all be p r e s e n tly matte known, 
Faction* prepar'd, parties allur'd to riee s 
Sedition* under fair pretence* town : 

Wherein/ the OMigar mini heroine 80 wise 

That with a self presumption ov ergrown^ 
They may of deepest mysteries debate, 

Confront their betters, eensuTt arts of State. 
And then when this dispersed mischief shall 

Have brought confusion in each mystery, 

Call'd up contempts of State in general, 

And ripen d the humour of impiety. 

Then take the other engine wherewithal Guns. 

They may torment their self-wrought misery; 

Anil scourge earh other in so strange a wise, 

As time or tyrants never could devise, etc. 

See BeUermontan. in his Dissertat. politic, dissert. 
29. and 30. 

For the other Invention, the Latine Annotator doubts 
whether the Author means Church-Organs, or (locks? I 
suppose be means (locks, because 1 find that Invention mkon'd 
by a Herman, with the other two, as a remarkable one. It is 
by Busbequius, ■peaking of the Turks, who hath these words: 
Testes majore* minoresque bombarda, multaque alia qua est nostris 
gitata ipsi ad se avertuni ; ut Hbro* tamen typis esscuderent, 
horologia in publico hulierrnt, nondum adduci pot ue runt. Epist, 

.■■J. Tnrcir. I suppose if he had known any Invention which 
next to the other two had been greater than this, he would not 
have named this, and this being the next considerable, we have 
no cause to doubt but the Author meant it. 

To maintain the Trade and Mystery of Typographers.'] <>t' this 

t'uiurus in his Satyre Sardi VOmoleS. </'" bis "t anno notnen 

sua m ad Qernumorum nundinas non transmittit, eruditionem suam 

in ordim in ronrtnm credit, itaq; nunquam tot fungi una pluviu 
nascitn/nr, <\unt nunc libri una die. 

The Turk in the bulk that he HOW stands, is beyond all hope of Sett. i$. 
conversion,] That is, in respect of bis treat strength, against Pm *' ** 
which it is not probable the Christians will prevail, as it is 
observed by Monsieur de Silhon. La Bate de* ottoman* (saith be) 
qnce oste a Dieu la J'rligion qu'il a revslee, et awe homme* In 
liberie que le droit des <Jens leur laisse a fait taut de progre* depute 



xxxvi ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. trois Cens et quelques annees quil terrible quelle n'ait plus rien a 
Sect. 35. craindre de dehorse, et que son empire ne puisse perir que par la 
corruption de dedaus, et par la dissolution des parties qui composent 
un corps si vaste. Mr. de Silhon en son Minist. D'Estat. I. 1. c. . 
Pag. 40. None can more justly boast of persecutions, and glory in the 

number and valour of martyrs.] Of the fortitude of the 
Christians in this particular, Minutius Felix, in the person of the 
Ethnique, hath these words, Per mira stultitia et incredibili audacia 
spernunt tormenta prcesentia, dum incerta metuunt etfutura; et 
dum mori post mortem timent, interim mori non timent. And 
afterwards, when he speaks in the person of the Christian, he 
saith, that Christian women and children have in this surpassed 
Sccevola and Regulus : Viros (saith he) cum Mutio vel cum Ati/io 
Regulo comparo : pueri et mulierculce nostrce cruces et Tormenta, 
feros et omnes suppliciorum terriculas inspirata patientia doloris 
illudunt. Minut. in Octav. vide Aug. de Civit. Dei, lib. 1. c. 23, 24. 
If we shall strictly examine the circumstances and requisites 
which Aristotle requires to true and perfect valour, we shall find 
the name onely in his Master Alexander, (that is, no more than the 
name) and as little in that Roman worthy Julius Ca±sar.] Aristot. 
3. Ethic, cap. 0. amongst other requisites, requires to valour, 
that it keep a mediocrity betwixt audacity and fear ; that we 
thrust not our selves into danger when we need not ; that we 
spare not to shew our valour when occasion requires : he 
requires for its proper object, Death ; and to any death, he 
prefers death in War, because thereby a man profits his Country 
and Friends ; and that he calls mors honesta, an honest or 
honourable death : and thereupon he defines a valiant man to 
be, Is qui morte honesta proposita, iisq; omyiibus quae cum sint 
repentina mortem adfuerunt metu vacat. So that by the Author's 
saying, there was onely the Name in Alexander, he means only 
that which is rendred in the two last words, metu vucans, and 
not the rest that goes to make up the definition of a valiant 
man, which is very truly affirmed of Alexander, who exposed 
himself to hazzard many times when there was no cause for it : 
As you may read in Curtius, he did, in the siege of Tyrus, and 
many other ways. Cettuy-cy semble rechercher et courir a force les 
dangiers comme un impetueux torrent, qui choque et attaque sans 
discretion, et sans chois tout ce quil rencontre, saith Montaign, 
speaking of Alexander, 1. 2. des Ess. cap. 34. And for Ceesar, 
it cannot be denied, but in his Wars he was many times 
(though not so generally as Alexander) more adventrous than 
reason military could warrant to him ; and therefore Lucan 
gives him no better Character than 

Acer et indomitus quo spcs quoq; ira vocasset 
Ferre manum, etc. 

Lucan. lib. 1. 



RELIGIO MEDICI xxxvii 

To instance in some Particulars : with what an inconsiderable PART I. 
strength did he enterprize the conquest of Egypt, and after- StcL J5 . 
wards went to attaque the forces of Scipio and Juba, which were fag. «o. 
ten times more than his own ? after the Battle of Pharsuliu, 
having sent his Army before into Asia, and crossing the 
Hellespont with one single Vessel, he there meets Lucius Cassias 
with ten men of War, he makes up to him, summons him to 
render, and he does it. In the famous and furious siege of 
Alexia, where he had 80,000 men to make defence against him, 
and an Army of one hundred and nine thousand Horse, and 
two hundred and forty thousand foot, all marching towards 
him, to raise his siege ; yet for all that he would not quit the 
siege, but first fought with those without, and obtain'd a great 
Victory over them, and soon afterwards brought the besieged to 
his mercy. 

The Council of Constance condemns John Husse for an Sect. j6. 
Beretick, the Stories of his own Party style him a Martyr.] John Pa ?- * l - 
Husse did agree with the Papists against us in the Point of 
Invocation of Saints, Prayers and Sacrifice for the Dead, free 
Will, Good Works, confession of Sins, seven Sacraments, etc. 
Gordon. Hunt. I. contr. 3. de Sacr. Each. cap. 17. Vet was he 
condemned for maintaining certain Articles said by that Council 
to be heretical and seditious, and was burnt for Heresie. Now 
as I will not say he was an Heretick, so can I not maintain tbat 
he was a Martyr, if it be but for this one Article, which in the 
15. Sess. of that Council was objected against him. which he did 
acknowledge, but would not recal, i.e. Xullus est Dominus civi/is, 
dum est in peccato mortali. If that Doctrine should be believed, 
we shall have little obedience to Civil Magistrates ; and without 
that, how miserable is humane condition ? That which begat 
compassion towards Husse in those of his own Party was, that 
he had a safe conduct from the Emperour Sigismund ; and there- 
fore it was, say they, a violation of publick faith in the Council 
and Emperour in putting him to death. 

That tci.se heathen Socrates that suffered on a fundamental point 
of Religion, the Unity of God.] That Socrates suffered on this 
Point, divers Christian Writers do object to the Ethniques, as 
Justin Martyr, Apol. 2. Euseb. 1. b.d# praeparat. Evangelic, c. 14. 
Tertul. in Apolog. cap. 14. and Lactant. de justitia, cap. 16. 
whose words are these : Plato quidem nntlta de uno Deo locutus est, 
a. quo ait constitutum esse mundum, sed nihil de Keligione ; somni- 
averat enim Drum, non coynoverut. ((uod si jVStitUB defensiomm 
ve.l ipse vel quilihet alius implere voluisset, imprimis Deorum 
Religiones tver t eie debuit, quia contrarice pirtati. Quod quidem 
Socrates quia fucere tnitavit in carrerem conjectus est, ut jam tunc 
upptireret quid meet futurum iis hominibus qui justitiam veram 
defendere Deoque sinyulari servire cccpissent. 

I have often pitied the miserable Bishop that suffered in the 



xxxviii ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. cause of Antipodes.] The suffering was, that he lost hi9 

Sect. 26. Bishoprick for denying the Antipodes. Vid. Aventin. in Hist. 

Boio. Besides him, there were other Church-men of great note, 

that denyed Antipodes, as Lactantius, Augustm, and liede. 

Sect. 27. / hold that God can do all things : How he should work contra- 

Pa s- 43- dictions, I do not understand, yet dare not tlierefore deny.] Who 

would not think the Author had taken this from Mr. Montaign, 

whose words are, // ma tousjours semble qua un homme Christien, 

cette sorte de parler est plein d' indiscretion et d' irreverence \Dieu 

ne se peut disdire,] [Dieu ne peat f aire cecy ou cela~\. Je ne trouve pas 

bon d'enfermer ainsi la puissance divine sous les loix de nostre 

parole. Et I'apparence qui s' off re a nous en ses propositions, il la 

f'audroit representer plus reverement, et plus Religieusement. Liv. 

2. des Ess. c. 12. 

I cannot see why the Angel of God should question Esdras to 
recal the time past, if it were beyond his own power, or that God 
should pose mortality in that which he was not able to perform 
himself] Sir if. Digby in his Notes upon this place saith, There 
is no contradiction in this, because he saith it was but putting 
all things that had motion into the same state they were in at 
that moment, unto which time was to be reduced back, and 
from thence letting it travel on again by the same motions, etc. 
which God could do. But under favour, the contradiction 
remains, if this were done that he mentions ; for Time depends 
not at all upon motion, but has a being altogether independent 
of it, and therefore the same revolution would not bring back 
the same time, for that was efflux'd before ; as in the time of 
Joshua, when the Sun stood still, we cannot but conceive, 
though there were no motion of the Sun, but that there was an 
efflux of Time, otherwise, how could the Text have it, That 
there was not any day, before or after, that was so long as that ? 
for the length of it must be understood in respect of the flux of 
time. The reasoning of Sir Kenelme is founded upon the 
opinion of Aristot. who will needs have it, that Time cannot be 
without mutation ; he gives this for a reason, because when we 
have slept, and cannot perceive any mutation to have been, we 
do therefore use to connect the time of our sleeping and of our 
awaking together, and make but one of it: to which it may be 
answered, although some mutation he necessary, that we may 
mark the flux of time, it doth not therefore follow that the 
mutation is necessary to the flux it self. 
Sect. 28. 1 excuse not Constantine/rom a fall off his Horse, or a mischief 

i' a £- 43- from his enemies, upon the wearing those nails, etc.] Hac de re 

videatur P. Diac. hist, miscell. 

Sect. 29. / wonder how the curiosity of wiser heads could pass that great 

Pag. 44. am } indisputable miracle, the cessation of Oracles.] There are 

three opinions touching the manner how the predictions of 

these Oracles were perform'd : Some say by vapour, some by the 



RELIGIO MEDICI xxxix 

intelligences, or influences of the Heavens, and others say by PART L 
the assistance of the Devils. Now the indisputable miracle the Sect. sg. 
Author speaks of, is, that they ceas'd upon the coming Of • ■• 44- 
Christ; and it is generally so believed; and the Oracle ef 
Delphos delivered to Augustus, mentioned by the Author in this 
Section, is brought to prove it, which is this : 

Me purr Hebrmua diaos Deut ipte gubmrnana 

Cedere sede jubct, tristeniq; rehire suh orrum. 
Aris ergo dehinc tucitus di.vctditu nostrix. 

But yet it is so far from being true that their cessation was 
miraculous, that the truth is, there never were any predictions 
given by those Oracles at all. 

That their cessation was not upon the coming of Christ, we 
have luculent testimony out of Tully, in his '1. lil>. de Divniat. 
which he writ many years before Christ was born ; who tells us 
that they were silent (and indeed he never thought they were 
Otherwise) long before that time, insomuch that they were come 
into contempt : Cur isto modo jam orucula lhlphis non eduntur, 
non modo nostra astute, sed jamdiu jam ut nihil possit esse con- 
ttmptiu.*. So that for that of Delphos, which was the most 
famous of them all, we see we have no reason to impute the 
cessation of it to Christ; Why therefore should we do so for 
any of the rest? 

For their predictions, let us consider the three several ways 
before mentioned, whereby they are supposed to operate ; and 
from thence see whether it be probable that any such Oracles 
ever were. 

The first Opinion is, that it was by exhalation or vapour 
drawn up from the earth ; and gives this for a reason of their 
being, that they were for a time nourished by those exhala- 
tions ; and when those ceased, and were exhausted, the Oracles 
famish'd and died for want of their accustom <1 -ustenance : this 
is the far-feteht reason given by I'lutarrh for their defect ; but 
'twas not devised by him, but long before, as appears, in that 
Tully scoffs at it, lib. de dirinat. I>e rim) nut salsa mento pvtrs 
loqui (saith lie) qua; tvanescttnt vetvutatc. This seem'd absurd 
to others, who do therefore say this was not to be attributed 
to any power of the K3rth, but to the power of the Heaven-, 
or Intelligences Qcelettialj to certain aspect! "hereof, they say. 
the Statua's of those Oracles were so adapted, that they might 
divine and foretel future events. But yet to others, this way 
seemeth as absurd as the others; for, say they, admitting that 
there were an efficacy in the Heavens, more than in the Karth ; 
yet how can it be that men should come by the skill to fit the 
Statua's to the Aspects or influences of the Heavens? or if at 
any time they had such skill, why should not the same continue 



xl ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. the rather, because men are more skilled in the motions of the 
Sect. 29. Heavens, of later than in the former time? Again, they do 
Pag- 44- not see how it should be that the cause should be of less 
excellency than the effect ; for if a man (say they) can by his 
industry make such Oracles, why can he not produce the same 
effect in another man ? for if you affirm that the Heavens influ- 
ence is requisite, they will tell you that Influence may happen 
as well to a man, as to a Statue of wood or stone. Therefore 
the third sort being 1 unsatisfied, which either of the former 
ways conclude, that this was perform'd by the Devil ; but for 
that it will appear as contrary to Reason and Philosophy, as 
either of the former ; for Philosophy teacheth that things 
singular, or individual, are to be known only by sense, or by 
such an Intellect, as doth know by its Essence ; and Theology 
teacheth that God only knoweth the heart, and that the Devil 
doth not know by sense, nor by essence ; and since 'tis admitted 
by all, that most of the answers that were pretended to be given 
by those Oracles, were de rebus singularibus, or individuis ; it is 
evident that these predictions were not perform'd by Devils. 
How then ? why those predictions which the ignorant Heathen 
took to come from Heaven, and some Christians (not less 
ignorant) from the Devil, was nothing but the jugling and 
impostures of the Priests, who from within the Statua's gave 
the answers ; which Princes connived at, that they might upon 
occasion serve their turns upon the ignorance of the people ; 
and the learned men, for fear of their Princes, durst not speak 
against it. Lucian hath noted it, and so a more Authentick 
Author, Minut. Felix, in Octav. Authoritatem quasi prazsentis 
numinis consequuntur dum inspirantur interim vatibus. But in 
process of time, the people grew less credulous of their Priests, 
and so the Oracles became to be silent : Cum jam (saith he) 
Apollo versus facere desisset, cujus tunc cautum illud et ambiguum 
defecit oracufum : Cum et politiores homines et minus creduli esse 
coeperunt. Sir H. Blount in his Levantine voyage, saith he saw 
the Statua of Memnon so famous of old ; he saith it was hollow 
at top, and that he was told by the Egyptians and Jews there 
with him, that they had seen some enter there, and come out at 
the Pyramid, two Bows-shoot off; then (saith he) I soon be- 
liev'd the Oracle, and believe all the rest to have been such ; 
which indeed, is much easier to imagine than that it was per- 
form'd by any of the three wayes before mentioned. St. Aug. 
hath composed a Book, where he handleth this point at large, 
and concludeth that the Devils can no more foretel things to 
come, than they are able to discern the thoughts that are 
within us. Aug. lib. de Scientia Daemon. 

Till I laughed my self out of it with a piece of Justin, where he 
delivers that the Children of Israel for being scabbed were banished 
out of Egypt.] These words of Justin are, Sed cum scabiem 



KELIGIO MEDICI xli 

^F.gyptii et pruriginem puterentur, respomo moniti , eum (sc. Moysen) PART I. 
cum ccgris, ne petti* ad plures serj>eret, terminis A-lgypti pettunt. s fC t. 39. 
/. 'M. But he is not singular in this, for Tacitus tells us, Hint. !'*£■ u- 
lib. 5. Plurimi authores consentiunt orta per JBgyptUM tube qua 
corpora fwdaret , Urgent ((.k'hirum) (he means Pharaoh) adito Hum- 
munis oraculo remedium pelentan purgare Rcgnum el id genus 

hominum alias in terras avertere jussum. Et paulo inferius, 

Quod ipsos scabies quondam turpaverut. 

1 have ever believed, and do now know that there are Witches."] s < ct - 3°> 
W 'hat sort of Witches they were that the Author knew to be **' 4S- 
such, I cannot tell ; for those which he mentions in the next 
Section, which proceed upon the principles of Nature, none 
have denyed that such there are ; against such it was, that the 
Lex Julia de veneficiis was made, that is, those, Qui noxio poculo 
ant impuris tnedicaminibus aliquem fuerint insectati. Al. ab Alex. 
Qen. Dier. 1. 5. c. 1. But for the opinion that there are 
Witches which co-operate with the Devil, there are Divines of 
great note, and far from any suspition of being irreligious, that 
do oppose it. Certainly there is no ground to maintain their 
being from the story of Oracles, as may be seen from what hath 
been said on the precedent Section. 

Nor have the power to be so much as Witches."] Pliny saith, so 
it fared with Nero, who was so hot in pursuit of the Magick 
Arts, that he did dedicate himself wholly to it, and yet could 
never satisfie himself in that kind, though he got all the 
cunning men he could from the East, for that purpose. Plin. 
1. 3. Nat. Hist. c. 1. 

By conjunction with tfle Devil.] Though, as the Author saith, Pag. 46. 
it be without a possibility of Generation, yet there are great 
men that hold, that such carnality is performed ; as August, in 
Lcvit. Aquin. 1. 2. de qu. 73. art. ad 2. and Justin Martyr, 
Apol. 1. 

// is no new opinion of the Church of Rome, but an old one Sect. 33. 
oj Pythagoras and Plato.] This appears by Apuleius a Platonist. Pa *' '• 8 - 
in his Book de Deo Socratis, and elsewhere. See Mede's Apostasie 
of the tatter limes, where out of this and other Authors, you 
shall see collected all the learning de Geniis. 

I cannot with those in that great Father securely interpret the p a g. 50. 
work of the first day, Fiat lux, to the creation of Angels.] This 
great Father is S. Chryso.st. Homil. in Genes. But yet 'tis his 
opinion, as also of At'uauasius and Theodoret, that there is 
express mention of the creation of Angels, so that they need 
not rest upon this place, which they admit to be somewhat 
obaeare. The place which they take to he express, is that of 
the 130 Psalm, where David begins to speak of the Majesty of 
God, in this manner: Confessionnn sire majestatem et decornn 
induisti, amictus lumine sicut restimrnto : Next he speaks of the 
Heavens, saying, Thcu hast stretched them out over us like a Tent. 



xlii ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. Then he speaks of the Angels, Qui facis Angelos tuos spiritus. 
Sect. 33. Now if it shall be objected, that this expression is onely of the 
Paz. 50. time present, and without relation to the Creation : Answer is 
given by Divines, that the Hebrews have but three Tenses in their 
Verbs, the Preterperfect, Present, and Future Tense ; and have 
not the use of the Preterimperfect, and Preterpluperfect, as the 
Greeks and Latines have ; whence it ariseth, that the Present 
Tense with the Hebrews, may, as the sentence will bear it, be 
translated by the Preterimperfect, as also by the Preterperfect 
and Preterpluperfect Tense ; and this (they say) is practised in 
this very passage, where the Phrase, as it is in Hebrew, may be 
rendered as well qui faciebas, as qui facis Angelos, etc. Vid. 
Hieronym. in Ep. ad Titum, et Thorn. Aqu. 1. p. qu. 61. art. 3. 
The Latine Annotator saith, the Father meant by the Author, 
is St. Aug. and quotes him, I. 11. de Civ. Dei, cap. 9. which 
place I have perused, and find the expression there used by 
St. Aug. is but hypothetical ; for these are his words : Cum enim 
dixit Fiat lux, et facta est lux, si recte in hac luce creatio intel~ 
ligitur Angelorum, etc. Where you see 'tis but with a Si, 
and therefore I conceive the Author intends not him, but 
Chrysostom. 

Where it subsists alone, 'tis a Spiritual Substance, and mag be an 
Angel.] Epicurus was of this opinion, and St. Aug. in Enchirid. 
ad Laurentium. 
Sect. 35. Moses decided that Question, and all is salved with the new term 

of Creation."] That is it which Aristotle could not understand ; 
he had learned that ex nihilo nihil fit, and therefore when lie 
found those that disputed that the World had a beginning, did 
maintain that it was generated, and he could not understand any 
generation, but out of matter prs-existent in infinitum, therefore 
he took their opinion to be absurd, and upon that ground prin- 
cipally, concluded the World to be eternal : whereas, if he had 
understood that there may be such a thing as Creation, he had 
not done it, for that solves his processus in infinitum. Take from 
Plato, that the World had a beginning, and from Aristot. that it 
was not generated, and you have the (true) Christian opinion. 
Sect. 36. In our study of Anatomy, there is a mass of mysterious Philo- 

P*c- 54« sophy, and such as reduced the very Heathens to Divinity.] So it 
did Galen, who considering the order, use, and disposition of the 
parts of the body, brake forth into these words : Compono hie 
profpeto Canticum in creatoris nostri laudem, quod ultra res suas 
ornare voluit melius quant ulla arte possent. Galen, 3. de usu 
partium. 
Sect. 37. 1 cannot believe the wisdom of Pythagoras did ever positively, 

P*g- 55- and in a literal sense, affirm his Metempsychosis.] In this the 
opinion of Grotius is contrary to the Author, who saith this 
opinion was begotten by occasion of the opinion of other Philo- 
sophers, who in their discourses of the life that is to be after 



RELIGIO MEDICI xliii 

this, brought such uguueuts, Qmb nea magis de homint quam PART 
de besiiis procedunt. And therefore, saith he, mirandum wm e*t, Stct. 37. 
ti trantitum animarum de hominibus in bestias, de bestiis in l'*e- 55- 
homines alii commenti sunt. Lib. 2. de ver. llelig. Christ, (ride 
ttitun Annotat. ejusd.). But yet there is a shrewd objection 
;._ ii 11st the opinion of Pythagoras, if he did mean it literally, 
which is ca^t in by the Spectators of Drmorntus and Epicurus , 
which Lu cr et iu s remembers in these Ver^ 

Prceterea ti immortalit natura anima'i 
Constat, et in corpus nascentibus insinuutur, 
Cur super anteactam cetatem meminisse nea ui mutt 
Nee vestigia gestarum rernm ulla tenemus ! 
Namsi tantopere 'st anirni ruutnta potestas } 
Omnia ut actarnm excideret retinentia rerum, 
Non ut opinor ea ab leeto jam longiter errat. 

[Lib. 3.] 

This Argument, 'tis true, is pro /also contra fulsum, but yet 
holds ad hominem so far, that it is not likely (as the Author 
saith) but Pythagoras would observe an absurdity in the conse- 
quence of his Metempsychosis ; and therefore did not mean it 
literally, but desired only to express the Soul to be immortal, 
which he, and the other Philosophers that were of that opinion, 
who had not heard of Creation, could not conceive, unless it 
must be taken for truth, that the soul were before the body ; so 
6aith Lartantius of them. Non putarerunt alitor fieri posse ut 
supersint animcr post corpora, nisi videntur fuisse ante corpora. 
l>, /alt. .N;/y. c. 18. 

/ do not rnru the temper of Crows or Daws.] As Theophrastus Sect. 41, 
did, who dying, accused Nature for giving 1 them, to whom it t ' a <- 59- 
could not be of any concernment, so large a life ; and to man, 
whom it much concern'*!, so short a one. Cic. Tuse. qutest. I. 3. 
How long Daws live, see in Not. ad Sect. 41. 

Not upon Cicero's ground, hetemtt / have Hr'd thnn well.] 1 Sact. * 2 - 
suppose he alludes to an expression in an Epistle of Cicero, " e ' 
written in kifl Exile, to his wife and children, where he hath 
these words to his wife: (/uod reliquum est, te sustenta nmi 
ntia ut potr.s, honestissimr riximus, floruimus. Non vitium 
nostrum sed virtus nos afflixit, peccatum est nullum nisi quod non 
una animum rum ornanirntis amisimus, 1. 24, Ep. 4. 

And stand in metd of Eson's bath before threescore.] Eson was 
the Father of Jason, and, at his request, was by Medea, by the 
means of this Bath, restored to his youth. Ingredients that 
went into it. and the description of Medoa'e j>erformance, Ovid 
gives you, ;'. 7. M- 'am. 

hUerea ralido positum medicamen aheno 
>:t et exultat, spumitq; tumentibus a 



xliv ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I, lllic jEmonia radices valle resedas, 

Sect. 42. Seminaq; etflores, et succos incoquit atros 

P&S' 61. Adjicet extremo lapides Oriente petitos, 

Et quas Oceani refluum mare lavit arenas: 
Addidit exceptas lunoe de node pruinas, 
Et Strigis infantes ipsis cum carnibus alas, 
lnq; virum soliti vultus mutare ferinos 
Ambigui proseda lupi, nee dejuit Mi 
Squamea Cinyphei tenuis membrana Chelidri, 
Vivacisq; jecur cervi ; quibus insuper addit 
Ora caputq; novem cornicis secula passre. 
His et mille aliis, postquam sine nomine rebus 
Propositum instruxit mortali barbara munus 
Arenti ramo j'impridem mitis oliva; 
Omnia confudit, summisq; immiscuit ima. 
Ecce vetus calido versatus stipes aheno 
Fit viridis primo, nee longo tempore frondes 
Jnduit, et subito gravidis oneratur olivis. 
At quacunq; cavo spumas ejecit aheno 
Ignis, et in terram guttat cecidere calenles, 
Vernat humus, flor esq; et mollia pabula surgunt. 
Qua: simulac vidit, stricto Medea recludit 
Ense senis jugulum, veteremq; extare cruorem 
Passa replet succis, quos postquam combibit sEson, 
Aut ore acceptas, out vulnere, barba comaq; 
Canitie posita, nigrum rapuere colorem. 
Pulsa Jugit macies : abeunt pallor q ; situsque: 
Adjectoq; cava supplentur corpore ruga; 
Membraq; luxuriant. vEson miratur, et olim 
Ante quater denos hunc se reminiscitur annos, 
Dissimilemq; animum subiit, estate relida. 

[262-293.] 

Sec/. 44. Extol the Suicide of Cato.] As doth Seneca in several places; 

Pag. 6a. Du ^ Ladantius saith, he cast away his life, to get the reputation 
of a Platonick Philosopher, and not for fear of Ccesar ; and 'tis 
very probable, he was in no great fear of death, when he slept 
so securely the night before his death, as the story reports of 
him. 

Pag. 63. Emori nolo, sed me esse mortuum, nihil euro. Were Jo/'Csesar's 

Religion.] I doubt not, but here is a fault of the Press, and 
that instead of Ccesar it should be Cicero. I meet not with any 
such saying imputed to Ccesar, nor any thing like it, but that 
he preferr'd a sudden death (in which he had his option) to any 
other ; but I meet with such a saying in Cicero quoted out of 
Epicharmus [Emori nolo, sed me esse mortuum nihili cestimo.] 
Where Cicero sustaineth the part of the Epicure that there is no 
hurt in being dead, since there remaineth nothing after it. 
Cic. 1. Thusc. qu. non procul ab initio. 



RELIGIO MEDICI xlv 

Or whence I.ucan learn'd to say, Communis mundo mpenti PART I. 

rwins, etc.] Why, I.ucan was a Stoique, and 'twas an opinion Stc( 4S> 
among: them almost generally, that the world should perish by Pa^.b*. 
lire ; therefore without doubt from them he learned it. Vcelum 
quoqu- cum omnibus qiue in civlo contincnlur, ita ut eozpisset 
desiuere, fontium dulci aqua marisce mttriri, in vim ignis uhiturum. 
dtticil const, ins Opinio est, quod consumpto humore mundus hie 
omnia ignescat. Minutiux in OctOV. But Minittius should have 
excepted Boetius, Possidonius, IHogenes Babykwhu, and Zeno 
BUtomtU, who were Stoiques, and yet did not think the world 
should be destroyed by fire, nor yet by any other means. 

How .shall we' interpret Blias 0000 year*, etc.?] Lactant. is Stct. 46. 
very positive that the world should last but 8000 years ; but his Pa *- 6s - 
reason for it is somewhat strange ; thus it is, quoniam sex diebus 
cunetn Dei opera perfect a sunt, per secu/a sex, i.e. unnnrum sex 
millia manere in hoc statu mundum necesse est. l>e Divino prcemio, 
cap. 14. 

Ipsa sui pretium virtus sibi, is but a cold principle.] It is a Sect. 47. 
Stoical principle, tyuaris enim aliquid supra summum, interrogas aSl 7 ' 
quid petam extra virtutem ipsam. Nihil enim habet melius. 
Pretium sui est. Senec. de vit. beat. c. 19. 

That honest artifice of Seneca.] What that article was, is to 
be seen in Senec. I. 1. ep. 11. Aliquis vir bonus nobis eligendus 
est, et semper ante ocu/os hahendus, ut sic tanquam illo spectante 
vimmus, et omnia tanquam illo vidente faciamus. Et paulo post ; 
Klige itaq; Catonem ; si hie videtur tild nimis rigidus, etige remis- 
tioris nnimi virum L&lium, etc., which though, as the Author 
saith, it be an honest Artifice, yet cannot I but commend the 
party, and prefer the direction of him (whoever he were) who in 
the Margin of my Seneca, over against those words, wrote these : 
(juin Deo potius qui semper omnibus omnia ugentibu.i non tanquam 
ted reipsa ade.sf, et ridet : ac etiam ut Testis, vindex et /mnitor est 
male agrntis. 

I have tried, if I could reach that great Resolution of his (that is 
of Seneca) to be honest without a thought of /leaven or Hell.] 
Seneca 1 brags he could do this, in these words: Si scirem deos \Tho.Ajuin. 
peccata ignoscituros, et homines ignoraturos, adhuc propter vili- £^7/VC«*- 
tatem peccuti peccare erubescerem. Credat Judcrus Appella : non so i at . prep* 

ego. finem. 

And Atheists have been the onelg Philosophers.] That is, if 
nothing remain alter this life. St. Aug. was of this opinion. 

Dispuiabam Kpicurum accepturum fuisse palmam in animo 

meo, nisi ego credidissem pott mortem restare animtx vitam, etc. 
Aue. /. 6. conf. cap. 16. 

God by a powerful voice shall command (Item back into their Sect. 48. 
proper shapes.] So ifinutius. Cceterum quis tarn stultus est ant Pa z- 68 - 
brutus, ut audeat repngnnre hominem a Deo ut primum potuit fingi, 
ita posse denuo reformari, nihil esse post obitum, et ante ortum 



xlvi ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. nihil fuisse ; sicut de nihilo nusci licuit, itade niliilo licere reparari. 

Sect. 48. Porro difficilius est id quod sit incipere, quod quum id quod fuerit 

Pag. 68. iterare. Tu perire Deo credis, si quid nostris oculis hebetibus sub- 

trahitur. Corpus omne sive arescit in pulverem sive in humorem 

solvitur, vel in cinerem comprimitur vel in nidorem tenuatur, 

subducitur nobis, sed Deo elementorum custodi inseruntur. In 

Octav. Vide Grot, de veritate Relig. Christian, ubi (lib. 2.) solvit 

objectionem, quod dissolutu corpora restitui nequeunt. 

Sect. 50. Or conceive a flame that can either prey upon, or purifie the 

Pag. 71. substance of a soul.] Upon this ground Psellus lib. 1. dr Energia 

Daimonum, c. 7. holds, That Angels have bodies, (though 

he grants them to be as pure, or more pure than Air is) 

otherwise he could not apprehend how they should be 

tormented in Hell ; and it may be upon this ground it was, 

that the Author fell into the error of the Arabians, mentioned 

by him, Sect. 7- 

Sect. 51. There are as many Hells as Anaxagoras conceited worlds.] I 

P<*g- 73- assure my self that this is false printed, and that instead of 

Anaxagoras it should be Anaxarchus ; for Anaxagoras is 

reckon'd amongst those Philosophers that maintain'd a Unity 

of the world, but Anaxarchus (according to the opinion of 

Epicurus) held there were infinite Worlds. That is he that 

caus'd Alexander to weep by telling him that there were infinite 

worlds, whereby Alexander it seems was brought out of opinion 

of his Geography, who before that time thought there remained 

nothing, or not much beyond his Conquests. 

Sect. 54. It is hard to place those souls in Hell.] Lactautius is alike 

P*e-7S- charitably disposed towards those. Non sum equidem tarn iniquus 

ut cos putem divinare debuisse, at veritatem per seipsos invenirent 

{quod fieri ego non posse confiteor) sed hoc ab eis exigo, quod 

ratione ipsa prastare potuerunt. Lactant. de orig. error, c. 3. 

which is the very same with Sir K. Digbic's expression in his 

Observations on this place. I make no doubt at all (saith 

he) but if any follow'd in the whole tenour of their lives, 

the dictamens of right reason, but that their journey was secure 

to Heaven. 

Sect. 55. Aristotle transgress d the rule of his own Ethicks.] And so they 

P*e- 77- did all, as Lactantius hath observed at large. Aristot. is said to 

have been guilty of great vanity in his Clothes, of Incontinency, 

of Unfaithfulness to his Master Alexander, etc. But 'tis no 

wonder in him, if our great Seneca be also guilty, whom trucly 

notwithstanding St. Jerome would have him inserted in the 

Catalogue of Saints, yet I think he as little deserv'd it, as many 

of the Heathens who did not say so well as he did, for I do not 

think any of them liv'd worse: to trace him a little. In the 

time of the Emperour Claudius we find he was banish'd for sus- 

pition of incontinency with Julia the daughter of Germanicus. 

If it be said that this proceeded meerly from the spight of 



RELIGIO MEDICI xlvii 

Messalina, (and that lApthu did not complement with him in PART I. 
that kind Apottrtpkg, Xvit UtpetU in te htrc culpa, llomani $tct 55. 
MMMI ft SapkmtitB magne. Sol. Xot. in Tacit.) why then did she /<*/•• 77- 
not cause liim to be put to death, as well as she did the other, 
who was her Husband- N I hi- for certain, whatever his 

life were, he had paginam luteimm, M may appear by what lie 
hath written, dc Sj>ecuJorum Km, /. 1. Xat. (ja. cup. 10. W hich 
(admitting it may in a Poet, yet) how it should be excufl 'd in a 
Philosopher I know not. To look upon him in his exile, we 
fiud that then he wrote his Epistle J>c OotuolaL to Poiubnu, 
Glaudhu his creature (a.s honest a man as Ratio* or Narcumut) 
and therein he extols him and the Emperour to the Skies; in 
which he did grosly prevaricate, and lost much of nil reputa- 
tion, by seeking a discharge of his exile by -" sordid a means. 
I pon Gknt&nu his marriage with Agrippina } he was recall'd from 
Banishment by her means, and made Pitetor, then he forgets 
the Emperour, haring no need of him, labours all lie ran to 
depress him and the hopeful Brittanknu, and procured his Pupi] 
< to be adopted and design'd Successor, and the Emperours 
own Son to be disinherited ; and against the Emperour whom 
he so much praised when he had need of him, after his death he 
writes ■ seurrilous Libel. In Xero's Court, how ungratefully 
doth he behave himself towards Agrippinal who although she 
were a wicked woman, yet she dcsuiv'd well of him, and of her 
Son too, who yet never was at rest till lie had taken away her 
life, and upon suspition cast in against her by this man. After- 
wards not to mention that he made great haste to grow rich, 
which should not be the business of a Philosopher, towards .Y< ro 
himself, how well did it become his Philosophy to play the 
Traitor against him, and to become a complies in the conspiracy 
of Pun ? And then as good a Tragedian as he was. me thinks he 
doth in extrcmo actu defieere, when he must needs perswade 
PmuHna, that excellent Lady his wife, to die with bim : what 
should move him to desire it ? it could in his opinion be no 
advantage to her, for he believ'd nothing of the immortality of 
the soul : I am not satisfied with the reason of Tacitus, .\V sibi 
unicf dilectam ad injuria* re Uf tq u e r et, because he discredits it 
himself, in almost the next words, where he saith, Nero bore 
her no ill will at all, Cand would not suffer her to die) it must 
surely be then, because he thought he had not liv'd long 
enough (beinir not shore 114 years old, so much he was) and 
had not the fortitude to die, unless he might receive some 
confirmation in it by her example. Now let any man judge 
what a prei- - Legacy it is that he bequeaths by his nuncupa- 
tive will to his friends in Tacitus. Oo Hv er tu* ad amice * <-aith 
he) qnando mpriti* enrum referre gratiam prohihrrctur, quod vnam 
jam tnmen ft pnlchcrrimum hmbtbat, imaijivem ritce sure rrlinam re 
tentatur. It cannot be denyed of him, that he hath said very 



xlviii ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART I. well ; but yet it must as well be affirmed, that his Practice hath 
Sect. 55. run counter to his Theory, to use the Author's phrase. 
P*g-\n- The Scepticks that affirmed they knew nothing.} The ancient 

Philosophers are divided into three sorts, Dogmatici, Academici, 
Sceptici ; the first were those that delivered their opinions 
positively ; the second left a liberty of disputing pro et contra ; 
the third declared that there was no knowledge of anything, no 
not of this very proposition, that there is no knowledge, accord- 
ing to that, 

Nihil sciri siquis putat, id quoq; nescit 

An sciri possit, quod se nil scire fatetur. 

The Duke of Venice that weds himself to the Sea by a Ring of 
Gold, etc.] The Duke and Senate yearly on Ascension-day use 
to go in their best attire to the Haven of Lido, and there by 
throwing a Ring into the water, do take the Sea as their spouse. 
Vid. Hist. Ital. by Will Thomas Camhrobrit. Busbequius reports 
that there is a custom amongst the Turks, which they took from 
the Greek Priests, not much unlike unto this. Cum Grcecorum 
sacerdotibus mos sit certo veris tempore aquas consecrando mare 
clausum veluti reserare, ante quod tempus non facile se committunt 
fuctibus; ab ea Ceremonia nee Turcce absunt. Busb. Ep. 3. legat. 
Tursic. 

But the Philosopher that threw his money into the Sea, to avoid 
avarice, etc.] This was Apollonius Thyaneus, who threw a great 
quantity of Gold into the Sea with these words, Pessundo 
divitias, ne pessundarem ab illis. Polycrates the Tyrant of Santos 
cast the best Jewel he had into the Sea, that thereby he might 
learn to compose himself against the vicissitude of Fortune. 

There go so many circumstances to piece up one good action.] 

To make an action to be good, all the causes that concur must 

be good ; but one bad amongst many good ones, is enough to 

make it vitious, according to the rule, Bonum ex causa iutegra, 

malum ex partiali. 

Sect. 56. The vulgarity of those judgements that wrap the Church of God 

Pag. 78. { n Strabo's Cloak, and restrain it unto Europe.] 'Tis Strabonis 

tunica in the translation, but Chlamydi would do better, which 

is the proper expression of the word that Strabo useth : it is not 

Europe, but the known part of the world that Strabo resembleth 

to a Cloak, and that is it the Author here alludeth to ; but we 

have no reason to think that the resemblance of Strabo is very 

proper. Vid. Sir Hen. Savil. in not. ad Tac. in vita Agricolce. 

Sect. 57. Those who upon a rigid Application of the Law, sentence 

Po-e-Ti- Solomon unto damnation, etc.] St. Aug. upon Psal. 126. and 

in many other places, holds that Solomon is damned. Of the 

Bame opinion is Lyra, in 2 Reg. c. 7. and Bellarm. 1 Tom. lib. 1. 

Controv. c. 6. 



RELIGIO MEDICI xlix 



THE SECOND PART 

I WONDER not at the French /br their Frog*, Snails and Toad- PART II. 
stools.'] Toad-stools are not peculiar to the French; they Stet. x. 
were a great delicacy among the Romans, as appears every ^"f 8 3- 
where in Martial. It wa9 conceived the Emperor Claudius 
received his death by Poyson, which he took in Mushroom. 
Suet, and Tac. 

Bow among so many millions of faces, there should be none alike.] Sect. a. 
It is reported there have been some so much alike, that they v ' 7 ' 
could not be distinguished ; as King Antiochus, and one 
Antemon, a Plebeian of Sgria, were so mneb alike, that Laodiee, 
the Kings widow, by pretending this man was the King, 
dissembled the death of the King so long, till according to her 
own mind, a Successor was chosen, tin. Pompeius, and one 
Vibius the Orator; C. Plancus, and Rubriu* the Stage-player; 
( 'annus Severus the Orator, and one Mirme/lo ; M. Messala 
Censorius, and one Menogenes, were so much alike, that unless 
it were by their habit, they could not be distinguished : but 
this you must take upon the Faith of Pliny {lib. 7. e. 12.) and 
SoHmu, (cap. 6.) who as this Author tells elsewhere, are 
Authors not very infallible. 

What a fiarpoxopvopaxia and hot skirmish is betwixt S. and T. Sid. |. 
in Liieian.] In his Dialog, judicium vocalium, where there is * s ' ^ 
a large Oration made to the Vowels, being Judges, by Sigma 
gainst Tau, complaining that Tau has bereaved him of many 
tords, which should begin with Sigma. 

Their Tongues are sharper than Actius his razor.] Actius 
Navius was chief Augur, who (as the story saith) admonishing 
Tarqu. Priscus that he should not undertake any action of 
moment, without first consulting the Augur, the King (shewing 
that he had little faith in his skill) demanded of him, whether 
tiy the rules of his skill, what he had conceived in his mind 
might be done : to whom when Actius had answered it might be 
done, he bid him take a Whetstone which he had in his hand, 
and cut it in two with a Razor ; which accordingly the Augur 
did. fJri/. And therefore we must conceive it was very sharp. 
Here the Adage was cross'd, £vpor tit atoimv, i.e. novacula in 
•n. Vid. Erasm. Chiliad. 

It is not meer Zeal to Learning, or devotion to the Muses, that ^<v- 9* 
wiser Princes Patronize the Arts, etc. but a desire to hare their 
names eterniz'd hi/ the memon/ of their Writing*.] There is 
a great Scholar, who took the boldness to tell a Prince so much. 
Bet enim bonorum prinripum cum riris eruditis tacita qu&dam 
naturalisque Societus, ut alteri ab alteris illustrcntur, ac dum sibi 
mutuo suffragantur, ct gloria principibus, rt doctis authoritas 

d 



1 ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART II. concilietur. Politian. Ep. Ludovic. Sfort. qua extat, lib. 11. Ep. 

Sect. 3. ep. 1. And to this Opinion astipulates a Country man of our 

Pag. 90. own, whose words are these : Ignotus esset Lucilius, nisi eum 

Epistola Seneca illustrarent. Laudibus Casareis plus Virgilius et 

Varus Lucanusq; adjecerunt, quam immensum Mud cerarium quo 

urbem et orbem spoliavit. Nemo prudentiam Ithaci aut Pelidce 

vires agnosceret, nisi eas Homerus divino publicasset ingenio : unde 

nihil mihi videtur consultius viro ad gloriam proper anti fidelium 

favore scriptorum. Joan. Sarisb. Polycrat. I. 8. c. 14. And that 

Princes are as much beholding to the Poets Pens as their own 

Swords, Horace tells Censorinus with great confidence. Od. 8. 

I. 4. Non incisa notis, etc. 

Sect. 4. St. Paul that calls the Cretians Lyars, doth it but indirectly, and 

Pag. 90. upon quotation of one of their own Poets.] That is, Epimenides ; the 

place is Tit. 1. v. 12. where Paul useth this verse, taken out of 

Epimenides. 

Kprjres del yj/evarai, koko. Brjpia, yaarepes dpyai. 

It is as bloody a thought in one way, as Nero's was in another. 
For by a word we wound a thousand.] I suppose he alludes to 
that passage in Sueton. in the life of Nero, where he relates that 
a certain person upon a time, spoke in his hearing these words, 

'Epoii davovros yala pi^6r]T(i) Ttvpi. 

i.e. When I am dead let Earth be mingled with Fire. Where- 
upon the Emperour uttered these words, 'F.pov ££>vtos, i.e. Yea 
whilst ] live : there by one word, he express'd a cruel thought, 
which I think is the thing he meant ; this is more cruel than 
the wish of Caligula, that the people of Rome had but one Neck, 
that he might destroy them all at a blow. 

Sect. 6. I cannot believe the story of the Italian, etc.] It is reported 

f*g- 95- that a certain Italian having met with one that had highly pro- 
voked him, put a Ponyard to his breast, and unless he would 
blaspheme God, told him he would kill him, which the other 
doing to save his life, the Italian presently kill'd him, to the 
intent he might be damned, having no time of Repentance. 

Stct I have no sins that want a Name.] The Author in cap. ult. lib. 

Pag. 97. ult. Pseudodox. speaking of the Act of carnality exercised by 
the Egyptian Pollinctors with the dead carcasses, saith we want 
a name for this, wherein neither Petronius nor Martial can 
relieve us ; therefore I conceive the Author here means a 
venereal sin. 

This was the Temper of that Leacher that carnal' d with a Statua. ] 
The Latine Annotator upon this hath these words : Roma 1 
refertur de Hispano quodam. But certainly the Author means 
the Statue of Venus Gnidia made by Praxiteles, of which a cer- 
tain young man became so enamoured, that Pliny relates, Ferunt 



REL1GIO MEDICI li 

amorr captum cum delitaisset noetu simulachro tt o hat lit t e, cjusq; PART II. 
cupiditatis esse indicem maculum. Lucian also has the story in Sect. 7 . 
his Dialog. [A mores.] Fa s- 97- 

And the constitution of Nero in his spintrian recreation*.] The 
Author doth not mean the last Xeru, but Tiberius the Emperour, 
whose name was Nero too ; of whom Sueton. Secessu vero Cnpreensi 
etiam sellariam excogitavit sedem arcanarnm libidinum, in qunm 
undique conquisiti puellarum et exoletorum greges monstrosiq; con- 
cubitus repertory, quo* spintrias appellabat, tripiici aerie connexi 
inviceiit incestarcnt M coram ipso, ut adspectu dcfidentes libidines 
aret. Suet, in Tib. 43. 

/ ham an n a Grammarian tottre and plume himself over a .single Sfct.s. 
line in Horace, and shew more pride, etc.] Movent mihi stomachum "*■ ^ 
(irammatista- qnidum, qui cum duu.s tenuerint vocabulorutn origines 
ita se tmmUant, ita venditant. Ua drcum/eruni jactabundi, ut pr<r 
ipsis pro nihilo kabendo* PhUotopho* arbitrentur. Picus Mirand. 
in Ep. ad Hermul. Barb. qu<p extat lib. nono Epist. Politian. 

Garsio quisq; duas postquam scit jungere partes, 
- stat, sic loquitur, velvt omnes noverit artes. 

I cannot think that Homer pin'd away upon the Riddle of the Pag. 99. 
Fishermen.] The History out of Plutarch is thus : Sailing from 
ThetOi to the Island Ion, being landed and set down upon the 
shore, there happen'd certain Fishermen to pass by him, and he 
asking them what they had taken, they made him this Enig- 
matical answer, That what they had taken, they had left behind 
them ; and what they had not taken, they had with them : 
meaning, that because they could take no Fish, they went to 
loose themselves ; and that all which they had taken, they had 
killed, and left behind them, and all which they had not taken, 
they had with them in their clothes : and that Homer being 
struck with a deep sadness because he could not interpret this, 
pin'd away, and at last dyed. Fling alludes to this Riddle, in 
his Ep. to his Friend Fuscus, where riving an account of spend- 
ing his time in the Country, he tells him, Venor nliqiumdo, sed 
non sine puqillaribus, vt qunmvis nihil ceperi m , non nihil referam. 
l'lin. Ep. lib. 'J. Ep. 36. 

Or that Aristot. did ever drown himself upon the flux or 

reflux of Euripns.] Inertias reports that Aristotle dyed of a 
disease at C>'l years of age. For this and the last, see the Author 
in PsewJodox. 

Aristotle doth but instruct us as Plato did him, to confute him- 
self] In the matter of Idea's, Eternity of the world, etc. 

I could be content that we might procreate like trees without con- Sect. 9. 
junction, or that there were any way to perpetuate the world vnthout Pa s- lo °- 
this trivial and vulgar wag of Coition : It is the foolishest act a wise 
man commits in all his life.] There was a Phy»itian long before 



lii ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART II. the Author^ that was of the same opinion, Hippocrates; for 
Sect a. which vide A. Gel. I. 19. Noct. Attic, c. 2. And so of late time 

Pag. ioo. was Paracelsus, who did undertake to prescribe a way for the 
generation of a man without coition. Vide Campanel. de sensu 
rerum, in Append, ad cap. 19. /. 4. Monsieur Montaignes words 
on this subject, are worth the reading ; these they are : Jc 
trouve apres tout, que I 'amour nest autre chose que la fame de cette 
jouyssance, et considerant maintes fois la ridicule titillation de ce 
plaiser par ou il nous tient, les absurdes movements escervelez et 
estourdis dequoy il agite Zenon et Cratippus, ceste rage indiscrete, 
ce visage inflamme de fureur et de cruaute au plus doux effect de 
I'amour, et puis cette morgue grave severe et extatique en une 
action si folle, et que la supreme volupte aye du trainsy et du 
plaintiff commer la douleur, je croye qu'on sejoue de nous, et que 
c'est par Industrie que nature nous a laisse la plus trouble de nos 
actions les plus communes pour nous esgaller par la et apparier les 
fols et les sages, et nous et les bestes. Le plus contemplatif et 
prudent homme quand je I'imagin en cette assiette je le tien pour un 
affronteur, defaire le prudent et le contemplatif: ce sont les pieds 
du paon qui abbatent son orgueil. Nous mangeons bien et beuvons 
comme les bestes, mais ce ne sont pas actions, qui empeschent les 
operations de nostre ame, en celles-la nous gar dons nostre advantage 
sur elles : cettecy met tout autre pensee sous le joug, abrutist et 
abesiit par son imperieuse authorite toute la Theology et Philosophy, 
qui est en Platon et si il ne s'en plaint pas. Par tout ailleurs vous 
pouvez garder quelque decence ; toutes autres operations souffrent 
des Regies d'honestete : cettecy ne se pcut seulement imaginer que 
vitieuse ou ridicule ; trouvez y pour voir un proceder sage et discret. 
Alexander disoit qui! se cognossoit principalement mortel par cette 
action et par le dormir : le sommeil suffoque et supprime les facultez 
de nostre ame, la besoigne les absorbe et dissipe de mesme. Certr.s 
c'est une marque non seulement de nostre corruption originelle, 
mais aussi de nostre vanite et disformite. D'un coste nature nous 
y pousse ayant attache a ce desire la plus noble, utile et plaisante de 
toutes ses operations, et la nous laisse d'autre part accuser etfuyr 
comme insolent et dishoneste, en rougir et recommander I abstinence, 
etc. Montaign liv. 3. chapit. 5. 
Sect. ia And may be inverted on the worst.] That is, that there are 

Pag. 103. none so abandoned to vice, but they have some sprinklings of 
vertue. There are scarce any so vitious, but commend virtue 
in those that are endued with it, and do some things laudable 
themselves, as Plin. saith in Panegyric. Machiavel upon Livy, 
lib. 1. cap. 27. sets down the ensuing relation as a notable con- 
firmation of this truth. Julius Pontifex, ejus nominis secundus, 
anno salutis 1505. Bononiam exercitus duxit, ut Bentivolorum 
familiam, quae ejus urbis imperium centum jam annos tenuerat, 
loco moveret. Eademque in expeditione etiam Johannem Pagolum, 
Bagloneum tyrannum Perusinum sua sede expellere decreverat, ut 



relk;io medic i iui 

ctrteron iteiu, qui urbes F.cclesi.r per lliffl tOU rent. EjtU rei rausa PART I] 
mm ad Perusinam urbem ucvx.ussrt. et notum jam omnibut 'tset<; ect 10. 
quid in animo haberet : tamen i m pa tien t morre, noluit tMtrcitiU Pmg. m» 
I i prctare, sed inermus fttati urbem ingressus eat, in quam Johannes 
Pagolus de/endendi sui rattan, nan emguae copias contra.rerat. Is 
auiem eodeni furore, quo res sun* udministrare tokbat, una cum 
milite, cui custodinm sui corporis demandarat, sese in pontificis 
potestatem dedidit ; a quo abductus est relictusque alius, qui Ecclr- 
sice nomine urbem gubernaret. Hac ipsa in re magnopere admirati 
sunt viri sapientes, qui Pontificem comitabantur, cum Pontificis 
ipsius temeritatem, cum abject um vilemq; Johunnis Pagoli animum: 
Mo eatuam intelligebant, ob quam permotus idem Pagolus, hostem 
suum inermem (quod illi rum perpetua nominis sui memoria facrrr 
lirebat) non tubitb oppreteerit, et tarn pretiosa spolia diripuerit ; 
cum Pond/e.r urbem ingressus fuiseet, OardtnoRbu* tantum sui- 
stipatus, qui ]>retio.<tis*iniu* qii(i*q; sutirnm mum tecum habebont. 
Neque mim rrrdebatur Pagolus a tanto facinore vel sua bonitate, 
rei animi conscientia abstinuisse : quod in hominem scelerutum. 
qui et propria sorore utebatur, et consobrinos nepotesque dominandi 
causa e medio sustulerat hujusmnrfi pii affectum cadere non videren- 
tur. Cum igitur hac de re varice essent sapientum virorum 
sententice; ronrluserunt tandem id ei accidisse, quod ita comparatum 
■it homines neque plane pravi esse queant, neque perfecte 
boni. Pravi perfecte esse nequeant, propterea quod, ubi tale quod- 
dam scelus est, in quo uliquid magnifid ac generosi insit, id putrare 
non aiideant. Nam cum Pagolus neq; 'itcestum pritu horruisset, 
neque. patriridin abstinuissct : tamen cu,.i oblata esset OCCOSio, pravi 
quidem sed memorabilis, atque ceterrue memoriae facinoris patrandi, 
id attentnre non ausus fait, ram id sine in/amia presture Hcuistet, 
quad rei magnitudo omnia priora see/era obtegere patuissct, et a 
pericuio conservare. Quibus acredit, quod illi gratulati fuissent 
etium quam plurimi, si primus ausus esset Pontifuihns morutrare 
rationem dominandi ; tothuque humane vita' usum ah illis nimis 
parvi pendi. 

Poysons contain within themselves their own Antidote.] The 
Poyson of a Scorpion is not Poyson to it self, nor the Poyson of 
a Toad is not Poyson to it self; so that the sucking out of 
Poyson from persons infected by Psylls, (who are continually 
nourished with venomous aliment) without any prejudice to 
themselves, is the less to be wondred at. 

The man without a Navil yt lives in me.] The Latiue Anno- 
tator hath explicated this by Homo non perfectue, by which it 
seems he did not comprehend the Author's meaning ; for the 
Author means Adam, and by a Metouymie original sin ; for tbe 
Navil being onely of use to attract the aliment in ntrro materno, 
and Adam having no mother, he had no use of a Navil, and 
therefore it is not to be conceived he had any ; and upon that 
ground the Author calls him the man witbout a Navil. 



liv ANNOTATIONS UPON 

PART II. Our grosser memories have then so little hold of our abstracted 
Sect. ii. understandings, that they forget the story, and can onely relate to 
Pag. 106. our awaked senses a confused and broken tale of that that hath 
pass'd.'] For the most part it is so. In regard of the Author's 
expression of forgetting the story, though otherwise it be not 
very pertinent to this place, I shall set down a relation given 
by an English Gentleman, of two dreams that he had, wherein 
he did not forget the story, but (what is more strange) found 
his dreams verified. This it is. 

Whilst I lived at Prague, and one night had sit up very late 
drinking at a feast, early in the morning the Sun beams glanc- 
ing on my face, as I lay in my bed, I dreamed that a shadow 
passing by told me that my Father was dead ; at which awaking 
all in a sweat, and affected with this dream, I rose and wrote 
the day and hour, and all circumstances thereof in a Paper- 
book, which book with many other things I put into a Barrel, 
and sent it from Prague to Stode, thence to be conveyed into 
England. And now being at Nurenburgh, a Merchant of a 
noble Family well acquainted with me and my friends, arrived 
there, who told me my Father dyed some two months ago. 
I list not to write any lyes, but that which I write, is as true as 
strange. When I returned into England some four years after, 
I would not open the Barrel I sent from Prague, nor look into 
the Paper-book in which I had written this dream, till I had 
called my Sisters and some friends to be witnesses, where my 
self and they were astonished to see my written dream answer 
the very day of my Fathers death. 

I may lawfully swear that which my Kinsman hath heard 
witnessed by my brother Henry whilst he lived, that in my 
youth at Cambridge, I had the like dream of my Mother's 
death, where my brother Henry living with me, early in the 
morning I dreamed that my Mother passed by with a sad 
countenance, and told me that she could not come to my Com- 
mencement : I being within five months to proceed Master of 
Arts, and she having promised at that time to come to Cam- 
bridge. And when I related this dream to my brother, both of 
us awaking together in a sweat, he protested to me that he had 
dreamed tbe very same ; and when we had not the least know- 
ledge of our Mother's sickness, neither in our youthful affections 
were any whit affected with the strangeness of this dream, yet 
the next Carrier brought us word of our Mother's death. Mr. 
Fiennes Aforison in his Itinerary. I am not over-credulous of 
such relations, but methinks the circumstance of publishing it 
at such a time, when there were those living that might have 
disprov'd it, if it had been false, is a great argument of the 
truth of it. 
Stct. 12. ^ wonder the fancy of Lucan and Seneca did not discover it."] 

Pag. 107. For they had both power from Nero to chuse their deaths. 



RELTGTO MEDICI lv 

To conceive our stives Urinals is not so ridiculous.] Reptrti sunt PART II. 
duli-no >t Avicenna testibus qui M MM Jictiliu crederrnt, ft iddrco Sect. 13. 
hominum utturtunt ne con/rinyeretitur solicits fugerent. Poutan. P*f- '08. 
•'// Attic, bellar. {Hist. 22.) Which proceeds .from extremity of 
Melancholy. 

Arirtot i* too severe, that will not allow us to be tritely liberal P"g- i°9- 
without wealth.'] Aristot. I. 1. Ethic, c. 8. 

Thy will be done though in mine own undoing.] This should be Sect. 15. 
the wish of every man, and is of the most wise and knowing, Pa & " 2 - 
Le Christien plus humble it plus sage tt rmeua recognoisstmt que c'est 
que de luy se rapporte a son createur de choisir et ordonner ce qu il 
lug find. II ne le svpplie dautre chose que sa volunte soil fuite. 
Montaign. 



A Letter sent upon the information of Anim- 
adversions to come forth, upon the im- 
perfect and surreptitious copy of Religio 
Medici, whilst this true one was going to 
Press. 

HONOURED SIR, Give your Servant, who 
hath ever honoured you, leave to take 
notice of a Book at present in the Press, 
intituled (as I am informed) Animadversions upon a 
Treatise lately printed under the name of Religio 
Medici ; hereof, I am advertised, you have descended 
to be the Author. Worthy Sir, permit your Servant 
to affirm there is contain'd therein nothing that can 
deserve the R easo n of your Contradictions, much less 
the Candor of your Animadversions : and to certifie the 
truth thereof, That Book (whereof I do acknowledge J 
myself the Author) was penn'd many years past, and j±> 
(what cannot escape your apprehensiolTj~wTfli no inten- 
tion for the Press, (or the least desire to oblige the 
l\u th of any man to its assertions. ) But what hath 
more especiallv emboldened my Pen unto you at 
present, is, That the same Piece, contrived in my 
pri vate stud y, and as an Exer cise unto my sel f, rather 
than Exercitation for any other, having past from my 
hand under a broken and imperfect Copy, by frequent 
transcription it still run forward into corruption, and 

A 



2 RELIGIO MEDICI 

after the addition of some things, omission of others, 
& transposition of many, without my assent or privacy, 
the liberty of these times committed it unto the Press; 
whence it issued so disguised, the Author without dis- 
tinction could not acknowledge it. Having thus 
miscarried, within a few weeks I shall, God willing, 
deliver unto the Press the true and intended Original 
(whereof in the mean time your worthy Self may com- 
mand a view) ; otherwise when ever that Copy shall be 
extant, it will most clearly appear how far the Text 
hath been mistaken, and all Observations, Glosses, or 
Exercitations thereon, will in a great part impugn the 
Pri nter or Transcriber, rather than the Author. If 
after that, you shall esteem it worth your vacant hours 
to discourse thereon, you shall but take that liberty 
which I assume my self, that is, freely to abound in 
your sense, as I have done in my own. However you 
shall determine, you shall sufficiently honour me in the 
Vouchsafe of your Refute, and I oblige the whole 
World in the occasion of your Pen. 



Your Servant. 



T. B. 



Norwich, March 3, 1642. 



\Cfi- 



<Le,l*>*~ 



TO THE READER 

CERTAINLY that man were greedy of Life, who 
should desire to live when all the world were at 
an end; and he must needs be very impatient, 
zcho would repine at death in the society of all things 
that suffer under it. Had not almost every man suffered 
by the Press or were not the tyranny thereof become 
universal, I had not wanted reason for complaint : but in 
times wherein I h ave lived to behold the high est perver- 
sion of that excell ent inventio n, the name of His Majesty 
defamed, the Honour of Parliament depraved, the Writ- 
ings of both dep raved ly, anticipativeh^counterfeitly 
imprinted J complaints may seem ridiculous in private 
persons ; and men of my condition may be as incapable 
of affronts, as hopeless of their reparations. And trucly 
had not the duty I owe tinto the importunity of friends, 
and the allegiance I must ever acknowledge unto truth, 
prevailed with me ; the inactivity of my disposition 
might have made these sufferings continual, and time that 
brings other things to light, should have satisfied me in 
the remedy of its oblivion. But because things evidently 
false are not oncly printed, but many things of truth 
most falsely set forth, in this latter I could not but think 
my self engaged. For though ice have no power to 
redress the former, yet in the other, reparation being 
within our selves, I have at present represented unto the 



V^jL^ 



4 RELIGIO MEDICI 

•world a full and intended Copy of that Piece, which 
was most imperfectly and surreptitiously published 
before. 

, 7,S This, I confess, abqut^ seven_^ars_past, with some 
others of affinity thereto, for my private exercise and 

. satisfaction^ rhad at leisurable hours composed, which 
being communicated unto one, it became common unto 
many, and was by Transcription successively corrupted, 
untill it arrived in a most depraved Copy at the Press. 
He that shall peruse that Work, and shall take notice of 
PvjVS sundiy< partieid arities and persorialjexpressionsj therein, 
f will easily discern the intention was not publick 7)and 
being a private Exercise directjed^,to_jmi_jelf, what is 
delivered therein, was rather c a memorial unto me, than 
an Example or Rule unto any other: and therefore if 
there be any singularity therein correspondent unto the 
private conceptions of any man, it doth not advantage 
them: or if dissentaneous thereunto, it no way over- 
throxvs them. It was penned in such a place, and with 
such disadvajitogS.* that {I protest) from the first setting 
of pen unto paper, I had not the assistance of any good 
Book, zvhereby to promote my invention, or relieve my 
memory ; and therefore there might be many real lapses 
therein, which others might take notice of, and more that 
I suspected my self. It was set down many years past, 
and was the sense of my coiicej)tion at that time, not an 
immutable Law unto my advancingju3gement at all 
times ; and therefore there might be many things therein 
plausible unto my passed_apprehension, which are not 

^-^xigreeable unto my present self There are many things 
delivered Rhetorically, ^ynany expressions therein meerly 
Tropical, and as they best illustrate my intention ; and 
therefore also there are many things to be taken in a soft 
.^ -^ and flexible sense, and not to be called unto the rigid test 



TO THE READER 5 

of Reason. Lastly* all that is contained therein is in 

submission unto maturtr discernments ; and, as I have 
declared, shall no further father them than the best and 
Lamed judgments shall authorize them: under f av our 
of whicli considerations I have made its secrecy publick, 
and committed the truth thereof to every Ingenuous 

Reader. 

THO. BROWNE. 



RELIGIO MEDICI 



FOR my Reli g io n , though there be several 
Circumstances "} that might perswade the 
World I have none at all, as the general 
scandal of mv Profession, .the 1 — Natural course of 
my Studies,4the indifferencv of my Behaviour and * 
Discourse in matters of Religion, "neither violently 
Defending one, nor with that common ardour and 
contention Opposing another; yet, in despight hereof, 
I dare, without usurpation, assume the honourable 
Stile of a CJnistiaji.^ Not that I meerly owe this Title 
to the Font, my Education, or Clime wherein I was 
born, as being bred up either to confirm those Prin- 
ciples my parents instilled into my Understanding, or 
by a general consent proceed in the Religion of my 
Country : But having in my r iper y ears and confirmed 
Judgment, seen and examined alT7~I find my self 
obliged by the Principles of Grace , and the Law of 
mine own R eason , to embrace no other name but this: 
Neither doth herein my zeal so far make me forget the 
general Charity I owe unto t H umanity, 7 as rather to 
hate than pity Turks, Infidih, and (what is worse ) 
Jcics ; rather contenting my self to enjoy that happy 
Stile, than maligning those who refuse so glorious a 

Title, s/ 

1 



1 *LJ 



^*VYl>~V 



T» rt-fc^Lx^- 



o- 



^»vA.A.t^ 









8 



RELIGIO MEDICI 



SECT. 

2 




B 






L UT because the Name of a Christian is become 
too general to express our Faith, there being 
a Geography of Religion as well as Lands, 
and every Clime distinguished not only by their Laws 
and Limits, but circumscribed by their Doctrines and 
Rules of Faith ; to be particular, I am of that Re- 
formed new-cast Religion,, wherein I dislike nothing 
but the Name: of the same belief our Saviour taught, 
the Apostles disseminated, the Fathers authorized, 
and the Martvrs confirmed, but by the sinister ends of 
Princes, the ambition and avarice of Prejates, and the 
fatal corruption of times, so decayed, impaired, and 
fallen from its native Beauty, that it required the 
careful and charitable hands of these times to restore 
it to its pr^mijive__ Integrity. Now the accidental 
occasion whereupon, the slender means whereby the 
low and abject condition of the Person by whom so 
good a work was set on foot, which in our Adversaries 
beget contempt and scorn, fills me with wonder, and is 
the very same Objection the insolent Pagans first cast 
at Christ and his Disciples. 




SECT. 
3 



Y 



\S> 



ET have I not so shaken hands with those 
desperate Resolutions, who had rather 
venture at large their decayed bottom, 
than bring her in to be new trimm'd in the Dock ; 
who had rather promiscuously retain all, than abridge 
any, and obstinately be what they are, than what they 
have been, as to stand in Diameter and Swords point 
^Kwith them^We have reformed from them, not against 
^j^m- /"them ; for omitting those Improperations and Terms 
7> of Scurrility betwixt us, which only difference our 

Affections, and not our _Cause, there is between us 
one common Name and Appellation, one Faith and 






tw> 



THE FIRST PART 9 

necessary body of Principles common to us both ; and BECT. 

therefore I am not scrupulous to converse and live 3 

with them, to enter their Churches in defect of ours, 

a-id either prav with them, or for them. I could 

never perceive any rational Consequence from those 

manv Texts which prohibit the Children of Israel to 

pollute themselves with the Temples of the Heathens; 

we being all Christians, and not divided by such 

detested impieties as might prophane our Prayers, or 

the place wherein we make them ; (or that a resolved J 

Conscience mav not adore her Creator any where, I 

especially in places dev oted to his Service ; where, if 

their Devotions offend him, mine may please him; if 

theirs prophane it, mine may hallow it. Holy-water 

and Crucifix (dangerous to the common people) deceive 

not my judgment, nor abuse my devotion at all : I am, 

I confess, naturally inclined to that which misguided i 

Zeal terms Superstition ; my common conversation I ~| f^jl 

do acknowledge auster e, my behaviour fu ll_of r igour, ' 

sometimes not without morosity ; yet at my Devotion — 

I love to use the civility of my knee, my hat, and _. 

hand/with all jt hose outward and se nsible motions °^ cdbK+Q 

which "may express or promote my invislbleTJevotton. 1 A Church 

I should violate niv own arm rather than a Church \taiunery 

nor willingly deface the name of Saint or Martyr. At dayat " x J2rw<»«. 

o J 4 and twelve of 

the sight of a Cross or Crucifix I can dispense with my the dock; at 



V-* or " 



hat, but scarce with the thought or memory of my u'/urd/" KkJ^i 
Saviour: I cannot laugh at, but rather pitv, the fruit- «*rr*»*i 

. l ~Jj -.hat place 

less journeys of Pilgrims, or contemn the miserable saner, either 
condition of Fryars; for though misplaced in Circum- ^//^"'l'" 
stances there is something in it of D evotion. I could takes himsc!/ 
never hear the Ave-Mary Bell 1 without an elevation, ^, n " c ^' i " ytr 
or think it a sufficient warrant, because they erred in ">»»"**?j> 

- • ii ii • • directed to 

one circumstance, for me to err in all, that is, in the Virgin. 



A*- 



10 RELIGIO MEDICI 

jQsilence and dumb contempt ; whilst therefore they 
directed their Devotions to Her, I offered mine to 
G-odjj and rectifie the Errors of their Prayers by 
rightl y orderi ng mine ow n : At a solemn Procession I 
*p ,>have wept abundantly, while my consorts blind with 
opposition and prejudice, have fallen into an excess of 
scorn and laughter : There are questionless both in 
Greek, Roman, and African Churches, Solemnities 
and Ceremonies, whereof the wiser Zeals do make a 
Christian use, and stand condemned by us, not as 
evil in themselves, but as allurements and baits of 
sup erstition to those vulgar heads that look asquint 
on the face of Truth, and those unstable Judgments 
that cannot resist in the narrow point and centre 
of Virtue without^a reel qr stagger to the Circum- 
ference. -fy&M*p 

SECT. A S there were many Reformers, so likewise 
4 / \ many Reformations ; every Country pro- 

J^^jJ^^-^x JL ceeding in a particular way and method, 
according as their national Interest, together with 
their Constitution and Clime, inclined them; some 
angrily, and with extremity ; others calmly, and with 
mediocrity ; not rending, but easily dividing the 
community, and leaving an honest possibility of a re- 
conciliation ; which though peaceable Spirits do desire, 
and may conceive that revolution of time and the 
mercies of God may effect, yet that judgment that 
shall continue the present antipathies between the two 
extreams, their contrarieties in condition, affection, 
and opinion, may with the same hopes expect an 
union in the Poles of Heaven. 



THE FIRST PART 11 

BUT to difference my self nearer, and draw SECT, 
into a lesser Circle, There is no Church, 5 
whose every part so square s unto my Con- (J^jjl^xA 
science; whose Articles, Constitutions, and Customs, /) 

seem so consonant unto reas on^and as it were framed &rJl£*~+-^ 
to my particular Devotion, as this whereof I hold my 
Belief, the Church of England, to whose Faith I am a . 

■worn Subject; and therefore in a double Obligation ' 7 "^ 
subscribe unto her Articles, and endeavour to observe 
her Constitutions ;Cwhatsoever is beyond, as points in- f^b - 
different Al observe according to the rules of my_private 
reason, or the humour and fashion of my Devotion ; 
neither believing this, because Luther aflirmed it, or 
disproving that, because Calvin hath disavouched it. 
I condemn not all things in the C ouncil of Tre nt, nor 
approve all in the Svnod of Dort. In brief, where the 
Scripture is silent, the Church is my Te xt ; where that V h 

speaks, 'tis but my comment: where there is a joynt ♦ 
silence of both, I borrow not the rules of my Religion M <A4i\ 
from Rome or Geneva, but the dictates of my own \fj 

reason. It is an unjust scandal of our adversaries, and ^.ccJtA 
a gross errour in our selves, to compute the Nativity of 
our Religion from Henry the Eighth, who, though he 
rejected the Pope, refus'd not the faith of Rome, and 
effected no more than what his own Predecessors 
desired and assayed, in Ages past, and was conceived 
the State of Veniee would have attempted in our days. 
It is as uncharitable a point in us to fall upon those 
popular scurrilities and opprobrious scoffs of the Bishop 
of Rome, to whom as a t emporal Prince, we owe the — C^rS--^^ 
duty of good language: I confess there is cause of 
passion between us ; by his sentence I stand excom- 
municated, Heretick is the best language he affords 
me ; yet can no ear witness I ever returned him the 



12 RELIGIO MEDICI 

— name of Antichrist, Man of Sin, or Whore of Babylon. 
It is the method of GharityJ:o suffer without reaction : 
Those usual Satyrs and invectives of the Pulpit may 
. '^Jt._perchance produce a good effect on th e vul gar, whose 
r^Tc . ears are opener to Rhetorick than Logick ; yet do they 
in no wise confirm the faith of wiser Believers, who 
know that a good cause needs not to be pardon'd by 
vjc***^' P ass i° n > Du t can sustain it self upon a temperate 
\£*V ^dispute. 



uv^- 



SECT. "Y COULD never divide my self from any man upon 
6 the difference of an opinion, or be angry with 

I 'i****^ n ' s judgment for not agreeing with me (jn that 

• J j& L *5** V> from which perhaps ^vit hin a few days I should dissent 
i/^rvj my self. I have no Genius_to disputes in Religion, 
^r^^ and have often thought it wisdom to decline them, 
especially upon a disadvantage, or when the cause of 
\ i truth tnight suffer in the weakness of my patronage : 
Where we desire to be informed, "'tis good to contest 
^ with men above ou r selves; but to confirm and estab- 
lish our opinions, 'tis best to argue with judgments 
below our own, that the frequent spoils and Victories 
over their reasons may settle in ourselves an esteem 
^ a and confirmed Opinion of our own. ^Every man is not 
\<0*^ a proper Champion for Truth, nor fit to take up the 
^ {dld*^ Gauntlet in the cause of Verity 3 Many, from the 
ignorance of these Maximes, and an inconsiderate Zeal 
iWm-/ . K unto Truth, have too rashly [c harged the Troops o f 
^vJ^^jT^-Error, and remain as T rophies unto the enemies of 
f~-*A*T; 'Truth : A man may be in as just possession of Truth 
jl^^WV as of a City, and yet be forged-ta surrender ; 'tis there- 
fore far better to enjoy her with peace, than to hazzard 
H^rv*-* her on a battle : if therefore there rise any doubts in 
^ L jA.vV*' my way, I do forjget^_them, or at least defer them till 






^ 



rU/rCd^-*-r> 



THE FIRST PART 13 

my better setled judgement and more manly reason be SECT. 

able to resolve them ; for I perceived every man's own — ^ji 

reason is his be st (Edipits, and will upon a reasonable 

truce, find a way to loose those bonds wherewith the 

subthjtiejjrfjejrror. have enchained our more flexible and ^_ ^ i 

tender judgements. In Philosophy, where Truth seems ' f ^V/ a 

d ouhle-fac'd . there is no man more Paradoxical than ft I J^&^'f 

my .self : but in Divinity I love to keep the Road ; H vj4\JiJu - y«, 

and, though not in an implicite, vet an humble faith, ?Cu**jL<w 

follow the great wheel of the Church, by which I move, 

not reserving any proper Poles or motion from the 

Epicycle V>f mv own brain; by this means I leave noi ^m 

gap for Heresie, Schismes, or Errors, of which atr 

present I hope I shall not injure Truth to say I have 

no taint or tincture : I must confess my gree ner studies 

have been polluted with two or three, not any begotten - 

in the latter Centuries, but old and obsolete, such as H^'^t^s 

could never have been revived, (but by such extravagant K^ ' 

and irregular heads as mine } for indeed Heresies perish C#-hX*^^-*-^ 

not with their Authors, but, like the river Arethusa y xl«^ Ia^U. 

though they lose their currents in one place, they rise ~l "X^-ut 

up again in another : One Genera] Council is not able ^^U 

to extirpate one single Heresies it may be cancelTd -J/ *) 

for the present; but revolution of time, and the like 

aspects from Heaven, will restore it, when it will , A rtvclUm 

flourish till it be condemned again. For as though'"""/ 

mm i 1 1 l r certain thou- 

there were a MetemjmujMmSi a nd the soul oi one man ia nd y e*rs, 
passed into another; Opinions do find, after certain ^"^,« "7 
Revolutions, men and minds like those that first begat rttmmnnu , 
them. To see ourselves again, we need not look fig^Sj ^y / 
Plato's year: 1 every man is not only himself; there he te teach- 
hath been many Diogenes, and as many Timom, 'k'scZoi'* 
though but few of that name; men are liv"d over"*"*'"** 

© ... delivered 

again, the world is now as it_was in Ages past ; there thu opinion. 



14 RELIGIO MEDICI 

was none then, but there hath been some one since that 
Parallels him, and is, as it were, his revived self. 



SECT. TV TOW the first of mine was that of the 
7. I ^L I A rabian s, That the Souls of men per- 
MjpJ^ A ^» ished' - with their Bodies, but should yet 
be raised again at the last day : not that I did 
absolutely conceive a mortality of the Soul ; but if 
that were, which Faith, not Philosophy hath yet 
thoroughly disproved, and that both entred the grave 
together, yet I held the same conceit thereof that we 
all do of the body, that it should rise again. j_Surely 

\ it is but the merits of our unworthy Natures, if we 
sleep in darkness until the last Alarm.~7 A serious 
reflex upon my own u nwqrthines s did malce me back- 
ward from challenging this prerogative of my Soul; 
so that I might enjoy my Saviour at the last, I could 
with patience be nothing almost unto Eternity. The 

>. second was that of Origen, That God would not per- 
sist in his vengeance for ever, but after a definite time 
of his wrath, he would release the damned Souls from 

.--torture : which error I fell into upon a serious con- 
templation of the great Attribute of God, his Mercy ; 
and did a little cherish it in my self, because I found 
therein no malice, and a ready weight to sway me from 
the other extream of despair, whereunto Melancholy 
and Contemplative Natures are too easily disposed. A 
"I third there is which I did never positively maintain or 
practise, but have often wished it had been consonant 
to Truth, and not offensive to my Religion, and that is 
the Prayer for _the dead ; whereunto I was inclinM 
from somecnari table inducements, whereby I could 
scarce contain my Prayers for a friend at the ringing 
of a Bell, or behold his Corps without an Orison for 



THE FIRST PART 15 

his Soul : 'Twas a good way, methought, to be rcmem- 
bred by posterity, and fur more noble than an History. 
These opinions I never maintained with pertinacy, or 
endeavoured to inveagle any mans belief unto mine, 
nor so much as ever revealed or disputed them with my 
dearest friends; by which means I neither propagated 
them in others, nor confirmed them in my self; but 
■offering them to flame upon their own substance, 
without addition of new fuel, they went out insensibly 
of themselves: therefore these Opinions, though con- 
demned bv lawful Councels, were not Heresies in me, C*-vvv*-7 
but bare Errors, and single Lapses of my understand- **T 

ing, without a joynt depravity o f my wil l : Those have 
not onelv depraved understandings, but diseased affec- 
tions, which cannot enjoy a singularity without an JT ) • 
Heresie, or be the Author of an Opinion without they i 
be of a Sect also; this was the villany of the first '<WJ^ 
Schism of Lucifer, who was not content to err alone, 
but drew into his Faction many Legions; and upon 
this experience he tempted only Eve, as well under- 
standing the Communicable nature of Sin, and that to L 
deceive but one, was tacitely and upon consequence to 
delude them both. 

THAT Heresies should arise, we have the Pro- SECT, 
phesie of Christ; but that old ones should 8 
be abolished, we hold no prediction. That 
there must be Heresies, is true, not only in our Church, 
but also in any other : even in doctrines heretical, 
there will be super-heresies ; and Arians not only 
divided from their Church, but also among themselves : 
for heads that are disposed unto Schism and com- 
plexionallv propense to innovation, are naturally dis- 
posed for a community ; nor will be ever confined unto 



16 RELIGIO MEDICI 

the order or (economy of one body ; and therefore 
when they separate from others, they knit but loosely 
among themselves, nor contented with a general breach 
or dichotomy with their Church, do subdivide and mince 
themselves almost into Atoms. rTis true, that men of 
singular parts and humours have not been free from 
singular_^rnmons_and concerts in all Ages; retaining 
something, not only beside the opinion of his own 
Church or any other, but also any particular Author; 
.^which notwithstanding a sober Judgme nt may do 
1^ without offence or heresie ; for there is yet, after all 
S*-X^4 L_the Decrees of Councils and the niceties of Schools, 
•^W^^aV» many things untoucrTd, unimagin'd, wherein the 
V^ liberty of an honest reason may play and expa- 

tiate with security, and far without the circle of an 
Heresie. 

. SECT. A S for those wjp gy M ysteries in Divinity, and /**» 
V0 Vx ^ft9 / \ air y subtlet ies in Religion, which have 'Jfo- ; 

\jjJ^ r ^ n - K •*■ m, unhinged the brains of better heads, they 
i/v^ **" never stretched the Pia Mater of mine. Methinks 

< ^ft^*^there be not impossibilities enough in Religion for an 
\. 5 ^" active faith ; the deepest Mysteries ours contains have 



^ 




not only been illustrated, but maintained, by Syllogism 

and the rule of Reason. VI love to lose my self in a 

^vU^ mystery, to pursue my Reason to an tbaltitudo ! 'Tis 

' ' my solitary recreation to pose my apprehension with 

those involved ^Enigma's and riddles of the Trinity , 

with Incarnation, and Resurrection. I can answer all 

the Objections of Satan and my rebellious reason with 

, that odd resolution I learned of Tertullian^CJertum. est 

\]*V qu'm impossibilc est7\ I desire to exerci se my farfc h in 

3p the difficultest point ; for to credit ordinary and visible 

^ v objects is not faith, but perswasion. Some believe the 



THE FIRST PART 17 

better for seeing Christ's Sepulchre ; and when they 
have seen the Red Sea, doubt not of the Miracle. 
Now contrarilv, I bless my self and am thankful that - 0-# » 

I lived not in the days of Miracles, that I never saw — [v\-/ji->c>* 
Christ nor His Disciples ; I would not have been one 
of those Israelites that pass'd the Red Sea, nor one of 
Christ's patients on whom he wrought his wonders; 
then had my faith been thrust upon me, nor should I 
enjoy that greater blessing pronounced to all that 
believe and saw not. Tis an easie and necessary ^^^ f\0 
\ belief, to credit what our ey_g_and sejise hath examined : 
I believe he was dead, and buried, and rose again ; 
and desire to see him in his glory, rather than to con- 
template him in his Cenotaphe or Sepulchre. Nor is 
this much to believe; as we have reason, we owe this 
faith unto History: .they only had the advantage of a 
bold and noble Faith, who lived before his coming, 
who upon obscure prophesies and mystical Types 
could raise a belief, and expect apparent impossi- 
bilities. 

** I MS true, there is an edge in all firm belief, and SECT. 

with an easie Mftgphnr we may say, the 10 /^TrVA/^ 
.JL S word of Faith ; but in these obscurities I » ! &- 

rather use it in the adjunct the Apostle gives it, a (^Kru^(^^ . 

Buckler; under which I conceive a wary combatant "" yi iw^ *- 

may he invulnerable. Since I was of understanding 
to know we kn ew nothing mv reason hath been more 
pliable to the will o f Faith, : I am now content to /? /? /r^ 
understand a mystery without a rigid definition, in an >-' ' 
easie and Platonick description. That 1 allegorica l ' s^hrra 
description of Ilerjucju. pleaseth me beyond all the trmmmiifu*, ^ rv *^^ 
r-Metaphysical definitions of Divines : where I cannot cirfum /* r - 

r J tntianulUbi. 

satisfie my reason, I love to humour my fancy : I had 






18 



RELIGIO MEDlA ^V^^' 

as live you tell me that ammaest angelus hominis, est 

Corpus Dei, as Entelechia ; Lux est umtfra Dei, as actus 

perspicui ; *where there is an obscurity too deep for our 

AflAt^M*^"*- R eason > 'tis good to sit down with a description, peri- 

^T^»>^ v £*'i' phrasis, or adumbration ; for by acquainting our Reason 

1^ aJ*^*^ how finable] it 












is to display the i yjsibl e and jjbyjinjs 
effects of nature^ it becomes more humble and sub- 
missive unto the subtleties of Faith ; and thus I teach 
my ^haggard and unreclaimed reason to stoop unto the 
lure of Faith. \I believe there was already a tree whose 
fruit our unhappy Parents tasted, though, in the same 
Chapter when God forbids it, 'tis positively said, the 
plants of the field were not yet grown, for God had not 
caus'd it to rain upon the earth. I believe that the 
Serpent (if we shall literally understand it) from his 
proper form and figure, made his motion on his belly 
before the curse. I find the tryal of the Pucellage and 
virginity of Women, which God ordained the Jews, is 
very fallible. Experience and History informs me, that 
not onely many particular Women, but likewise whole 
Nations have escaped the curse of Childbirth, which 
* God seems to pronounce upon the whole Sex ; yet do 
| I believe that all this is true, which indeed my Reason 
{~^would perswade me to be false ; and this I think is no 
vulgar^part of Faith, to believe a thing not only above, 
ut contrary to Reason, and against the Arguments of 
our proper Senses. 



4 



P^ SECT. 



I 



N my solitary and retired imagination (Neque 
enim cum porticus, out me lectulus accepit, desum 
mihi) I remember I am not alone, and therefore 
forget not to contemplate him and his Attributes who 
is ever with me, especially those two mighty ones, his 
Wisdom and Eternity ; with the one I recreate, with 



THE FIRST PART 19 

the other I confound my understanding : for who can 
speak of Eternity without a sohrcism, or think thereof 
Extasie ? 



SECT. 
11 -fcX+su^ 



without an Extasie? Time we may comprehend; 'tis 
but five days elder than our .selves, and hath the same 
Horoscope with the World ; but to retire so far back 
as to apprehend a beginning, to give such an infinite 
start forwards as to conceive an end in an essence that 
we affirm hath neither the one nor the other, it puts 
my Reason to St. Paul ' s Sanctua ry : my Philosophy 
dares not say the Angels can do it; (God hath not — 7 
made a Creature that can comprehend him ;1 'tis a 
privilege of His own nature, 1 am that I am, was his 4t 
own definition unto Muses; and 'twas a short one, to 
confound mortality, that durst question God, or ask 
him what he was; indeed he only is; all others have 
and shalljie; but in Eternity there is no distinction 
of Te nses ; and therefore that terrible term Predestina- 
\ tion, which hath troubled so many weak heads to 
/ conceive, and the wisest to explain, is in respect to 
God no prescious determination of our Estates to come, 
b^a^d^fij ^veQjlast J|f _his Willj alreadv fulfilled, and 
at the instant that he first decreed it ; for to his 
Eternity which is indi visibl e and all together, the last 
Xrump is already s ounded , the reprobates in the flame, 
and the blessed in Abraham's bosome. St. Peter speaks 
modestly, when he saith, a thousand years to God are 
but as one day : for to speak like a Philosopher, those 
continued instances of time which flow into a thousand 
years, make not to Him one moment; what to us is to 
come, to his Eternity is present, his whole duration 
being but one permanent p oint, without Succession, 
Parts, Flux, or Division. — , I 



DcVva 



I - 






KjjLAt^J^- 



V 



V 



<A 'O^ft^* • ^ 



V 4 -' 



20 



RELIGIO MEDICI 



SECT. 

12 



\(*J^ 



I^Cy^ 




THERE is no Attribute that adds more diffi- 
culty to the mystery of the Trinity, where, 
though in a relative way of Father and Son, 
we must deny a priority. I wonder how Aristotle could 
conceive the World eternal, or how he could make 
good two Eternities: his similitude of a Triangle, 
comprehended in a square, doth somewhat illustrate 
the Trinity of our Souls, and tha£JJieiTjjple_IInity of 
Go3~for '"there is in us not three, but a Trinity of 
Souls, because there is in us, if not thre e— distinct 
Souls, yet differing faculties, that can and do subsist 
apart in different Subjects, and yet in us are thus 
united as to make but one Soul, and substance : if one 
Soul were so perfect as to inform three distinct Bodies, 
that were a pretty Trinity : conceive, the distinct 
number of three, not divided nor separated by the 
Intellect, but actually comprehended in its Unity, and 
that is a perfect Trinity. \\ have often admired the 
mystical way of Pythagoras, and the secret Magick of 
numbers. Beware of Philosophy, is a precept not to 
be received in too large a sense; for in this Mass 
of Nature there is a set of things that carry in their 
Front, though not in Capital Letters, yet in Steno- 
graphy and short Characters, something of Divinity, 
which to wiser Reasons., serve as Lu minarie s in the 
Abyss of Knowledge, and to judicious beliefs as Scales 
and Roundles to mount the Pinacles and highest pieces 
of Divinity? tXtte severe Schools shall never laugh me 
out of the Philosophy of Hermes, ] that this visible 
World is but a Picture of the invisible, wherein as in 
a Pourtraict, thiiigTare~hot truel3f,""b~ut in equivocal 
shapes, and as they counterfeit somelmore real substance 
in that invisible Fabrick. 



fjlJ^ 



THE FIRST PART 



21 



± 



THAT other Attribute wherewith I recreat e 
my devotion, is his Wisdom, in which I am 
happy ; and for the contemplation of this 
only, do not repent me that I was bred in the way of 
Study : The advantage I have of the vulgar, with the 
content and happiness I conceive therein, is an ample 
recom pence for all my endeavours, in what part of 
knowledge soever. Wisdom is his most beauteous 
Attribute, no man can attain unto it, yet Solomon 
pleased God when he desired it. He is wise, because j _ 



SECT. 

13 






he knows all things; and he knoweth all things, be- ' 

cause he made them all : but his greatest knowledge is 

in comprehending that ^e made not, that is, himself. ) 1 *- — -t^t- 

And this is also the gnrnatpsj; \ n n w 1 p fl gn in man. For-^x^j^^-C c ^~ 

this do I honour my own profession, and embrace the— L^X^ CtfhA/Gv 

Counsel even of the Devil himself: had he read such 

a Lecture in Paradise as he did at Delphos, 1 we had ' r^"* 1 

better known our selves ; nor had we stood in fear toAw* uip- 

know him. \I know he is wise in all, wonderful in what r'" - 

we conceive, but far more in what we comp rph»nd_n_'" > t ; I • t . . 

for we behold him but asquint, u pon reflex or shado w Q-~*"'£J»£ -*•* 

our understanding is dimmer than Moses Eye ; we arejE; * j ] / 

ignorant of the back-parts or lower side of his Divinity, ^t^l\ 




« 



therefore to prie into the maze of hi* Counsels is not 

only £olly in man, but presujnption even in Angels; u. < ^hX**t~ 

J like us/They are his Servant s, not his Senators; he 
holds no Counsel, but that mystical one of the Trinity, -^ 

wherein though there be three Persons, there is but 
yr±- \pne mind; that d ecree s without Contradiction : nor 
*" needs he anv ; his actions are not begot with delibera- , 

x"" tion, his Wisdom naturally^ nows what^s best; his 

^m>*intellect stands ready fraught with the superlative and 

a, purest Idea s of goodne ss ; consultation and election, 

^T* which are two motions in us, make but one in him ; his 



i 



,V^ 



22 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, actions springing from his power at the first touch of 

V 13 his will. These are Contemplations Metaphysical : my 

^ • \ ^^ humble speculations have another Method, and are 

vA^ [content to t race an^ discoxeiLthpse ex pressi ons he hath 

left in his Creatures, and the obvious effects of Nature ; 

there is no clanger to profound these mysteries, no 

sanctum sanctorum in Philosophy : the World was 

made to be inhabited by Beasts,'Jbut studied and con- 

emplated by Man : Ttis the Debt of our Reason we 

owe unto God, and the homage we pay for not being 

Beasts ; without this, the World is still as though it 

v had not been, or as it was before the sixth day, when 

as yet there was not a Creature that could conceive, or 

*\ say there was a World. The wi sdom of Go d receives 

*si^i\ small honour from those vulgar Heaas that rudely 

^—etare about, and with a grosF^usHcity admire his 

works; those highly magnifie him, whose jiidicioiis 

inquiry into His Acts, and delib erate resear ch into 

-^)L His Creatures, return the duty of a devout and learned 

i^ .«A..> r admiration. Therefore, 




^p^ 



\J*° Search while thou wilt, and let thy reason go. 

To ransome truth, even to th' Abyss below ; 
Rally the scattered Causes ; and that line 
Which Nature twists, be able to untwine : 
It is thy Makers will, for unto none, 
But unto reason can he e'er be known. 
The Devils do know Thee, but those damn'd Meteors 
Build not thy Glory, but confound thy Creatures, 
Teach my indeavours so thy works to read, 
That learning them in thee, I may proceed. 
Give thou my reason that instructive night, 
■r" Whose weary wings may on thy hands still light. 

O^j • V K • Teach me to soar aloft, yet ever so, 

<\)^ ■ "When neer the Sun, to stoop again below. 
J" 1 v Thus shall my humble Feathers safely hover, 

.(•■•rv . s And, though near Earth, more than the Heavens discover. 



/ 



THE FIRST PART *23 

And then at last, when homeward I shall drive, 
Rich with the Spoils of nature to my hive, 
There will 1 sit like that industrious Flie, — 
Buzzing thy praises, which shall never die, 
Till death abrupts them, and succeeding Glory 
Hid me go on in a more lasting story. — 

And this is almost all wherein an humble Creature 
mav endeavour to requite and some way to retribute 
unto his Creator : for if not he that saith, Lord, Lord, 
but he that doth the uill of his Father, shall be saved ; 
certainly our wills must be our pe rformance s, and our 
intents make out our Actions; otherwise our pious 
labours shall find anxiety in our Graves, and our best 
endeavours not hope, but fear a resurrection. 



T 



HERE is but one_ first cause , and yfour>econd SECT. -ft/<vfr 

causes of all things ;0 some are without 14. 



efficient^ as God; others without matter, 



as Angels; somil without form, as the first matter: '•. wn •.. 

but every Essence created or uncreated, ha th its final ] .J 

cause, and some positive end both of its Essence and I \j\J</^ < ^^' 

Operation ; 1 this is the cause_ I grope after in the j. 

works ofNature ; on this hangs the providence of ^ 



works "brTsature ; on this hangs the providence ot " ' 
-^u^God : to raise so beauteous a structur e as the World ' u ^ r J!sf*f 

and the Creatures thereofTwas but his Art ± but their < A- 

jf Jte UI1( l rv an d divided operations, with their predestinated p 7 * 

ends, are from the Treasure of his w isdom. In tRe Xt.£l*£ 

erases, nature, and affections of the Eclipses of the 
Sun and Moon, there is most excellent speculation ; 
but to profound farther, and to contemplate a reason 
why his providence hath so disposed and ordered their 
motions in that va*t circle as to conjoyn and obscure 
each other, is a sweeter piece of Reason, and a diviner 
point of Philosophy ; therefore sometimes, and in some 



24 RELIGIO MEDICI ( 

things, there appears to me as much Divinity in Galen 
his books De Usu Partium, as in Suarez Metaphysicks : 

rHad Aristotle been as curious in the enquiry of this 
cause as he was of the other, he had not left behind 
him an imperfect piece of Philosophy, but an absolute 
tract of Divinity. .~& . f +L^*^ 

t. A w«. ww. r*"- ,a ~M* M '^^ 

; SECT. "^L T^ TURA nihil aget Jrustra, is the only indis- 
15 ^k puted Axiome in Philosophy; there are no 



l\ L^*^ Qj-9l^^H^^ n nature; not any thing framed 

^^j^i" to fill up empty Cantons, and unnecessary spaces: in 
&fi~Ty/' the most imperfect Creatures, and such as were not c ^>L«* 

preserved in the Ark, [but having their Seeds and-^Vi/*-^ 
Principles in the womb of Nature, are every where, v ___ 
where the power of the_Sun is ; in these is the Wisdom -4^ 
of his hand discovered. Out of this rank Solomon 
chose the object of his admiration ; indeed what 
reason may not go to School to the wisdom of Bees, 
Ants, and Spiders PJwhat wise hand teach eth them to 
do what reason cannot teach us ? ruder heads stand 
amazed at those prodigious pieces of Nature, Whales, 
Elephants, Dromidaries and Camels; these, I confess, 
{^ju ** are the Colossus and Majestick pieces of her hand 




but in these narrow Engines there is more curious 
Mathematicks ; |and thefeivilitybf these little Citizens, 



A^^J^but in these narrow Engines there is more curious \ 
more neatly sets forth the Wisdom of their Maker 



j\civility"bf the 
tlie Wisdom 



Who admires not Rcgio-Montanus his Fly beyond his 
Eagle, or wonders not more at the operation of two 
Souls in those little Bodies, than but one in the Trunk 
of a Cedar? I could never content my contemplation 
with those general pieces of wonder, the Flux and Re- 
flux of the Sea, the increase of Nile> the conversion of 
the Needle to the North ; and have studied to match 
and parallel those in the more obvious and neglected 



THE FIRST PART 



25 



pieces of Nature, which without further trouble I can v\^*a 4^ 
do in the Cjjua nography o f my self; we carry with us • 

the wonders we seek witliout us: There is all Africa 
and her prodigiesjn us ; we are that bold and adven- 
turous piece of nature, which he that studies wisely 
learns in a co mpendi um what others labour at in a 
divided piece and endless volume. — - 



^4 • \)'*U/^n^ 

I 



T 



HUS there are two Books from which I collect 

mv Divinity: besides that written one of 

-JL God, another of his servant Nature, that 

universal and publick Manuscript, that lies expans'd 

unto the Eves of all, those that never saw him in the 

one, have discovered him in the other : \this was the 



its supernatural station did the Children of Israel; the 
ordinarv effects of nature wrought more admiration in 
them than in the other all his Miracles; surely the 
Heathens knew better how to joyn and read these 
ni^sticalJLetters than we Christians, who cast a more 
careless Eye on these common Hieroglvphicks, and 
disdain to suck Divinity from the flowers of Nature. \ 
Nor do I so forget_ God as to adore the name of 
Nature; which I define not with the Schools, to be the 
principle of motion and rest, but that streight and 
regular line, that settled and "constant course the 
Wisdom of God hath ordained the actions of His 
creatures, according to their j;cy£Ml^incls,i To make 
a revolution every day, is the Nature of the Sun, 
because of that necessary course which God hath 
ordained it, from which it cannot swerve but by a 
faculty from that voice which first did give it motion. 
Now this course of Nature God seldome alters or 



SECT. 
16 AShtu-a. 



? 









br>-' : 









Or 



26 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, perverts, but likefan excellent Artisthath so contrived 
16 his work, that with the self same instrument, without 
a new creation, he may effect his obscurest designs. 
Thus he sweetneth the Water with a Word, preserveth 
the Creatures in the Ark, which the blast of his mouth 
might have as easily created ; for God is like a skilful 
"* Geometrician, who when more easily and with one 
stfoak oT"rtIs Compass he might describe or divide a 
right line, had yet rather do this in a circle or longer 
way ; according to the constituted and fore-laid 
rinciples of his Art : yet this rule of his he doth 
ometimes pervert, to acquaint the World with his 
Prerogative, lest the arrogancy of our reason should 
question his power, and conclude he could not ; and 
thus I call the effects of Nature the works of God, whose 
hand and instrument she only is ; and therefore to 
ascribe his actions unto her, is to devolve the honour 
of the princi pal age nt upon the instrument ; which if 
with reason we may do,^then let our hammers rise up 
and boast thev have built our houses, and our pens 
receive the honour of our writings. ,yl hold there is a 
general beauty in the works of Goo!, and therefore no 
deformity in any kind or species of creature whatso- 
ever : I cannot tell by what Logick we call a Toad, a 
Bear, or an Elephant ugly, they being created in those 
outward shapes and figures which best express the 
actians-flf, their inward forms^ And having past 
that general VisItation^ofGod , who saw that, all that 
he had made was jjood, that is, conformable to his 
Will, which abhors deformity, that is the rule of order 
^and beauty ; there is no deformity but in Mpnst.rogjhy ; 
wherein, notwithstanding, there is a kind of Beauty. 
Nature so ingeniously contriving the irregular parts, as 
they become sometimes more remarkable than the 




~v- - 




*f> 







'-^•J 



THE FIRST PART 27 

principal Fabrick. To speak yet more narrowly, there " ' I V^-^ 

was never any thing Ugly or mis-shapen, but the Chaos ; j 

wherein, notwithstanding, to speak strictly, there was 

no deformity, because no form ; nor was it yet impreg- 

nant by the voice of God ; now Nature was not at 

variance with Art, nor Art with Nature, they being ^j^+a^ 

both servants of his providence : i Art is the perfection — •* 

of Nature : were the World now as it was the sixth j 

dav, there w ere vet a Chaos : Nature hath made one 

World, and Art another. In brief, all things are 

artificial j for Nature is the Art of God.^l Ar 

THIS is the ordinary and open way of his SECT, 
providence, which Art and Industry have 17 
in a good part discovered, whose effects we 
may foretel without an Oracle : to foreshew these, is 
not Vrophesie, but Prognostication. There is another 
way, full of Meanders and Labyrinths, whereof the 
Devil and Spirits have no exact Ephemerides, and that 
is a more particular and obscure method of his provi- 
dence, directing the operations of individuals and single" 
Essences : this we call Fortune, that serpentine and 
crooked line, whereby he draws those actions his 
wisdom intends, in a more unknown and secret way : 
This cryptick and involved method of his pr_QV.i4.ence 
have I ever admired, nor can I relate the History of 
my life, the occurrences of my days, the escapes of 
dangers, and hits of chance, with a Beta las Memos » s 

to Fortune, or a bare Gramercy to my good Stars:— ^nrC 

Abraham might have thought the Ram in the thicket 
came thither by accident; humane reason would have 
said, that meer chance conveyed Moses in the Ark to 
the sight of Pharofis daughter : what a Labyrinth is 
there in the story of Joseph, able to convert a Stoick ? 




28 



RELIGIO MEDICI 




SECT. p-Surely there are in every man's Life certain rubs, doub- 
17 lings, and wrenches, which pass a while under the effects 
i of chance, but at the last well examined, prove the 
meer hand of God. Twas not dumb chance, that to 
discover the Fougade or Powder-plot, contrived a mis- 
carriage in the Letter. I like the victory of 88. the 
better for that one occurrence, which our enemies 
imputed to our dishonour and the partiality of 
Fortune, to wit, the tempests and contrariety of 
Winds. King Philip did not detract from the Nation, 
when he said, he sent his Armado to fight with men, 
and not to combate with the Winds. Where there is 
a manifest disproportion between the powers and forces 
of two several agents, upon a Maxime of reason we may 
promise the Victory to the Sjy^eriour; but when un- 
expected accidents slip in, and unthought of occur- 
ences intervene, these must proceed from a power that 

" • owes no obedience to those Axioms ; where, as in the 

writing upon the wall, we may behold the hand, but 
see not the spring that moves it. The success of that 
petty province of Holland (of which the Grand Seignour 
proudly said, if they should trouble him as they did 
the Spaniard, he would send his men with shovels and 
pick-axes, and throw it into the Sea,) I cannot alto- 
gether ascribe to the ingenuity and industry of the 
people, but the mercy of God, that hath disposed them 
to such a thriving Genius; and to the will of his Pro- 
vidence, that disposcth her favour to each Country in 
\ their pre-ordinate season. \A\\ cannot be happy at 
*- once ; for, because the glory of one State depends upon 
Vv*^T the mine of another, there is a revolution and vicissi- 

\ tude of their greatness, and must obey the swing of 

^v^ that r wheel,'>not moved by Intelligences, but by the 
^0» hand of God, whereby all Estates arise to their Zenith 



THE FIRST PART 29 ^ t , ^ 

and Vertical points according to their predestinated 

periods. For the lives, not only of men, but of 

Commonwealths, and the whole World, run not upon 

an Helix that still enlargeth ; but on a Circle, where - " : *-<■- 

arriving to their Meridian, they decline in obscurity^J , *j<-kmX^j( 

and fall under the Horizon again, j— * v -****'tyt 

THESE must not therefore be named the effects SECT. 
of Fortune, but in a relative way, and as we 18 
term the works of Nature: it was the ignor- 
ance of mans reason that begat this very name, and by 
a careless term miscalled the Providence of God : for 
there is no liberty for causes to operate in a loose and 
stragling way ; nor anv effect whatsoever, but hath its 
warrant from some unive rsal. or s uperiour Ca use. 'Tis 
not a ridiculous devotion to say a pray before a game 
at Tables ; for even in sortilegies and matters of 
greatest uncertainty, there is a settled and preordered 

course of effects. It is we that are blind, not Fortune r r*^\ to 

because our Eye is too dim to discover the mystery of ty^*^ 

her effects, we foolishly paint her blind, and hoodwink ^.jjA 

the Providence of the Almighty. I cannot justifie that .vfc^x 

contemptible Proverb, That fools only are Fortunate ; — 

or that insolent Paradox, That a wise man is out of the - — 

reach of Fortune ; much less those opprobrious epithets 1 H^X^ 

of Poets, Whore, Bazvd, and Strumpet. 'Tis, I confess, • 

the common fate of men of singular gifts of mind to be 

destitute of those of Fortune, which doth not any way 

deject the Spirit of wiser judgments, who throughly 

understand the justice of this proceeding; and being 

inrichd with higher donatives, cast a more careless eye 

on these vulgar parts of felicity. It is a most unjust 

ambition to desire to engross the mercies of the 

Almighty, not to be content with the goods of mind, 



u-» 



30 



RELIGIO MEDICI 



SECT, without a possession of those of body or Fortune : and 
18 it is an error worse than heresie, to adore these com- 
plemental and circumstantial pieces of felicity, and 
undervalue those perfections and essential points of 
happiness wherein we resemble our Maker. To wiser 
desires it is satisfaction enough to deserve, though not 
to enjoy the favours of Fortune; let Providence pro- 
vide for Fools : 'tis not partiality, but equity in God, 
who deals with us but as our natural Parents; those 
that are able of Bodv and Mind, he leaves to their 
deserts ; to those of weaker merits he imparts a larger 
portion, and pieces out the defect of one, by the access 
of the other. Thus have we no just quarrel with 
Nature, for leaving us naked ; or to envy the Horns, 
Hoofs, Skins, and Furs of other Creatures, being pro- 
vided with Reason, that can supply them all. We 
need not labour with so many Arguments to confute 
Judicial Astrology ; for if there be a truth therein, it 
doth not injure Divinity : if to be born under Mercury 
disposeth us to be witty, under Jupiter to be wealthy ; 
I do not owe a Knee unto those, but unto that 

— - merciful .Hand that hath ordered my indifferent and un- 
certain nativity unto such benevolous Aspects. Those 
that hold that all things are governed by Fortune, had 
not erred, had they not persisted there : The Romans 
that erected a temple to Fortune, acknowledged therein, 
though in a blinder way, somewhat of Divinity ; for 
in a wise supputation all things, begh^Mdjmd jin the 
Almighty. There is a nearer way to Heaven than 
Homer's Chain ; an easy Logick may conjoin heaven 
. and Earth, in one Argument, and with less than a 
Sorites resolve all things unto God. For though we 
christen effects by their most sensible and nearest 
Causes, yet is God the true and infallible Cause of all, 




THE FIRST PART 31 

whose concourse though it be general, yet doth it 
subdivide it self into the particular Actions of every 
thing, and is that Spirit, by which each singular 
Essence not only subsists, but performs its operation.. „ 

THE bad construction, and perverse comment SECT. . 
on these pair of second Causes, or visible 19 *r~ 
hands of God, have perverted the Devo- 
tion of many unto Atheism ; who, forgetting the 
honest Advisoes of Faith, have listened unto the con- 
spiracy of Passion angLHeasoJiw' I have therefore 
always endeavoured to compose those Feuds and angry 
Dissensions between Affection, Faith and Reason : For 
there is in our Soul a kind of Triumvira te, or triple -^^Jk 

Government of three Competitors, which distracts the £ 
Peace of this our Commo n- wealt h, not less than did * -> 
that other the State of Rome. — l v-^-fT T .-» - '"^'-v 

As Reason is a Rebel unto Faith, so Passion unto f *>4*^ 

Reason : As the Propositions of Faith seem absurd I ' 

unto Reason, so the Theorems of Reason unto Passion, v S » v - 

and both unto Reason ; yet a moderate and peaceable 
discretion may so state and order the matter, that /\JLoCO 

thev may be all Kings, and yet make but one 
Monarchy, every one exercising his Soveraignty and > \ ' ^JKJ^jfl 
Prerogative in a due time and place, according to the '^ 

restraint and limit of circumstance. There is, as 
in Philosophy, so in Divinity, sturdy doubts and 
boisterous Objections, wherewith the unhappiness of 
our knowledge too nearly acquainteth us. More of 
these no man hath known than my self, which I con- 
fess I conquered/not in a martial posture,\but on my — <3-doJa>L. 
Knees. For our endeavours are not only to combat j 

with doubts, but always to dispute with the Devil : « 

the villany of that Spirit takes a hint of Infidelity «vJuk,-, ■ 




V 



32 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, from our Studies, and by demonstrating a naturality 

19 in one way, makes us mistrust a miracle in another. 

Thus having perused the ArcMdoxes and read the 

. , secret Sympathies of things, he would disswade my 

VNftTY^" 1 belief from the miracle of the Brazen Serpent, make 

V W me conceit that Image worked by Sympathy, and was 

but an ^Egyptian trick to cure their Diseases without 

" a miracle. Again, having seen some experiments of 

Bitumen, and having read far more of Naphtha, he 

whispered to my curiosity the fire of the Altar might be 

natural ; and bid me mistrust a miracle in Elias, when 

he entrenched the Altar round with Water : for that 

inflamable substance yields not easily unto Water, but 

flames in the Arms of its Antagonist. And thus 

ju would he inveagle my belief to think the combustion 

t~jj&^ T*of Sodom might be natural, and that there was an 

■vfV i\ I Asphaltick and Bituminous nature in that Lake before 

VVfcA^ the Fire of Gomorrah. I know that Manna is now 

— -plentifully gathered in Calabria; and Josephus tells 

me, in his days it was as plentiful in Arabia; the 

Devil therefore made the qucere, Where was then the 

miracle in the days of J/nw.s : the Israelite saw but 

that in his time, the Natives of those Countries behold 

|jW-^c in ours. [Thus the Devj.1 pliyed at Chess with me, and 

. ^>T yielding a Pawn, thought to gain a Queen of me, 

taking advantage of myJioji£sJLjendeavours ; and whilst 

y I laboured to raise the structure of my Reason, he 

strived to undermine the edifice of my Faith. 

SECT. "X T EITHER had these or any other ever such 

20 ^W advantage of me, as to incline me to any 

JL ^i point of Infidelity or desperate positions 

of Atheism ; for I have been these many years of 

opinion there was never any. Those that held Religion 



THE FIRST PART 33 

uas the difference of Man from Beasts, have spoken K ^~ujdik 
probably, and proceed upon a principle as inductive 
as the other. That doctrine of Epicurus, that denied 
the Providence of God, was no Atheism, but a mag- 
nificent and high strained conceit of his Majesty, which 
he deemed too sublime to mind the trivial Actions of 
those inferiour Creatures. > That fatal Necessity of the 
Stoicks, is nothing but the immutable Law of his will.* — ■ 
Those that heretofore denied the Divinity of the Holy 
Ghost, have been condemned, but as Hereticks ; and — \'u^\ 
those that now deny our Saviour (though more than . i \r 

Hereticks) are not so much as Atheists: for though fj| 
they deny two persons in the Trinity, they hold as we ^fi^D i 

do, there is but one God. — ' 

That Villain and Secretary of Hell, that composed 
that miscreant piece of the Three Impostors, though 
divided from all Religions, and was neither Jew, Turk, J ^^_^ 

nor Christian, was not a positive Atheist. I confess tf**^ 

every country hath its Machiav el, every Age its Luciun, 
whereof common Heads must not hear, nor more 
advanced Judgments too rashly venture on : It is the 
Rhetorick of Satan, >and_jnay pervert a loose or pre- 
judicate belief. 

I CONFESS I have perused them all, and can SECT, 
discover nothing that may startle a discreet 21 
belief; yet are there heads carried off with the 
Wind and breath of such motives. I remember a 
Doctor in Prry_sjek jdj^Italy, who could not perfectly s> r. 
believe the immortality of the Soul, because Galen~~\ ^'1 ( - t - j ^-^*^ 
seemed to make a doubt thereof. With another I was ' 
familiarly acquainted in France, a Divine, and a man 
of singular parts, that on the same point was so 
plunged and gravelled with Hhree lines of Seneca, that ttmmkitett, 



\ 



34 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, all our Antidotes, drawn from both Scripture and 
21 Philosophy, could not expel the poyson of his errour. 
ifisaque There are a set of Heads, that can credit the relations 
Mors nihil f of Mariners, yet question the Testimonies of St. Paul; 
vidua est, / a nd peremptorily maintain the traditions of JElian or 
noxiacor- Pl'my,yet in Histories of Scripture raise Queries and 
V patiensani- Objections, believing no more than they can parallel 
\>r ^orimu^" 1 ' injhumane Authors. \I confess there are in Scripture «h 
h • nuiiaque Stories that 6!o exceed the Fables of Poets, and to a M 
V> noTtrl. 11 ™ captious Reader sound like Qaragantua or Bevis :(^' 
Ifl* Search all the Legends of times past, and the fabulous 
conceits of these present, and 'twill be hard to find one 



1V 




ttf- 



that deserves to carry the Buckler unto Sqmjyson; yet 
f~,')lj"' * s a ^ this °f an easie possibiTrFyvTrwe conceive adivine 
^ concourse, or an influence but from/ the little Finger^, of 

y^ theTAhnighty. It is impossible that either in the dis- 
*K^ course of man, or in the infallible Voice of God, to the 

\,if**\ weakness of our apprehensions, there should not appear 
irregularities, contradictions, and antinomies : my self 
could shew a Cat alogue o f doubts, never yet imagined 
•vL- nor questioned, as I know, which are not resolved at 

the first hearing ; not fantastick Queries or Objections 
\£h V s * °^ "^ r ' ^ or ^ cann °t hear of Atoms in Divinity. I can 
read the History of the Pigeon that was sent out of 
the Ark, and returned no more, yet not question how 
^ she found out her Mate that was left behind : That 
d\y$J y ~ Lazarus was raised from the dead, yet not demand 
w VcO-A'wherc in the interim_ Jhus^ouJ_jpait££l ; or raise a '> 
^Ti^ Law-case, whether his Heir mmlrj^jawfujb^_dejam his [ W v v 
«rf ' ^.inheritance bequeathed unto him by his death, and he, * 
V^ though restored to life, have no Plea or Title unto his 
former possessions. Whether Eve was framed out of 
the left side of Adam, I dispute not ; because I stand 
not yet assured which is the right side of a man, or 



$?•# 






THE FIRST PART 35 

whether there be any such distinction in Nature: that 
she was edified out of the Rib of Adam, I believe, yet 
raise no question who shall arise with that Rib at the 3 
Resurrection. Whether Adam was an Hermaphrodite, 
as the Rabbins contend upon the Letter of the Text, 
because it is contrary to reason, there should be an 
Hermaphrodite before there was a Woman ; or a com- 
position of two Natures before there was a second com- 
posed. Likewise, whether the World was created in 
Autumn, Summer, or the Spring, because it was created 
in them all ; for whatsoever Sign the Sun possesseth, — 
those four Seasons are actually existent : It is the Nature 
of this Luminary to distinguish the several Seasons of 
the year, all which it makes at one time in the whole 
Earth, and successive in any part thereof. There are r KJU rrV^ A ^ A) ^ 
i bundle of curiosities, not only in Philosophy, but in *. • 

Divinity, proposed and discussed by men of most sup- .| f\y^C^ 
posed abilities, which indeed are not worthy our vacant \ 
hours, much less our serious Studies. Pieces only n't 
to be placed in PantagrueVs Library, or bound up with inRabit- 

Tartaretus, Dc modo Cacand'i. £► "**• 

> 

THESE are niceties that become not those that SECT. 
peruse so iseriousi a Mystery : There are 22 ) 

others more generally questioned and called 
to the Bar, yet methinks of an easie and possible truth. f 

"Tis ridiculous to put off', or down the general Flood — \ 'i^ca-zv ^> 
at Noah in that particular inundation of Deucalion: C}^-, } 

that there was a . Deluge once, seems not to me so 
great a Miracle, as that there is not one alwa ys. How 
all the kinds of Creatures, not only in their own bulks, 
but with a competency of food and sustenance, might 
be preserved in one Ark, and within the extent of 
three hundred Cubits, to a reason that rightly examines 



36 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, it, will appear very feasible. There is another secret 

22 not contained in the Scripture, which is more hard to 

comprehend, and put the honest Father to the refuge 

of a Miracle : and that is, not only how the distinct 



ftjS> . pieces of the World, and divided Islands should be 
VIA*" r Panthers, and Bears. How America abounded with 



y£ ^ Cyy first planted by men, but inhabited by Tigers, 



Beasts of prey, and noxious Animals, yet contained 
jO not in it that necessary Creature, a Horse, is very 
\\^ i ^O^ ) strange. By what passage those, not only Birds, but 
^ if dangerous and unwelcome Beasts, came over : How 
p' there be Creatures there (which are not found in this 
Triple Continent) ; all which must needs be strange 
unto us, that hold but one Ark, and that the Creatures 
began their progress from the Mountains of Ararat: 
They who to salve this would make the Deluge 
particular, proceed upon a principle that I can no way 
grant ; not only upon the negative of holy Scriptures, 
but of mine own Reason, whereby I can make it 
probable, that the World was as well peopled in the 
time of Noah, as in ours ; and fifteen hundred years 
to people the World, as full a time for them, as four 
thousand years since have been to us. There are 
other assertions and common Tenents drawn from 
Scripture, and generally believed as Scripture, where- 
unto notwithstanding,' I would never betray the liberty 
yjk i N r ~of my Reason. ) 'Tis a Paradox to me, that Methusalem 
\ was the longest liv'd of all the Children of Adam : and 
no man will be able to prove it ; when from the process 
of the Text, I can manifest it may be otherwise. That 
Judas perished by hanging himself, there is no certainty 
in Scripture: though in one place it seems to affirm 
"rc^t, and by a doubtful word hath given occasion to 
\y* translate it; yet in another place, in a more punctual 




U 



THE FIRST PART 37 

description, it makes it improbable, and seems to over- 
throw it. That our Fathers, after the Flood, erected 
the Tower of Babel to preserve themselves against a 
second Deluge, is generally opinioned and believed, 
yet is there another intention of theirs expressed in 
Scripture : Besides, it is improbable from the circum- 
stance of the place, that is, a plain in the Land of 
Shinar: These are no points of Faith, and therefore 
mav admit a free dispute. There are yet others, and 
those familiarly concluded from the Text, wherein 
(under favour) I see no consequence: the Church of 
Rome, confidently proves the opinion of Tutelary 
Angels, from that Answer when Peter knockt at the 
Door; 'Tis not he, but his Angel; that is, might some 
say, his Messenger, or some body from him ; for so the 
Original signifies, and is as likely to be the doubtful 
Families meaning. This exposition I once suggested 
to a young Divine, that answered upon this point; to 
which I remember the Franeisean Opponent replyed 
no more, but That it was a new, and no authentick 
interpretation. 

THESE are but the conclusions and fallible SECT: 
discourses of man upon the Word of God, 23, U rt 
for such I do believe the holy Scriptures: ~ftU, 

vet were it of man, I could not chuse but say, it was 
the singularest and superlative piece^that hath been ^V^ 
extant since the Creation : were I a Pagan, I should 
not refrain the Lecture of it ; and cannot but commend ^c^-^p^ 
the judgment of Ptoltimy^thn.t thought not his Library 
compleat without it. The Alcoran of the Turks 
(I speak without prejudice) is an ill composed Piece, 
containing in it vain and ridiculous Errors in Philo- 
sophy, impossibilities, fictions, and vanities beyond 





38 RELIGIO MEDICI/ 

O V laughter, maintained by evident and open Sophisms, 

Lthe Policy of Ignorance, deposition of Universities, 
and banishment of Learning, that hath gotten Foot 
by Arms and violence : This without a blow, hath 
disseminated it self through the whole Earth. It is 
not unremarkable what Philo first observed, That the 

Law of Moses continued two thousand years without 

the least alteration ; whereas, we see, the Laws of 
other Common-weals do alter with occasions; and 
even those, that pretended their Original from some 
Divinity, to have vanished without trace or memory. 
— • I believe besides Zoroaster, there were divers that writ 
before Moses, who, notwithstanding, have suffered the 
— common fate of time. Mens Works have an age like 
themselves ; and though they out-live their Authors, 
yet have they a stint and period to their duration : 
This only is a work too hard for the teeth of time, 
and cannot perish but in the general Flames, when 
all things shall confess their Ashes. 



■»~ 



SECT. ' HAVE heard some with deep sighs lament the 

24 lost, lines of Cicero ; others with as many 

X. groans deplore the combustion of the Library 

of Alexandria: for my own part, I think there be too 

many in the World, and could with patience behold 

the urn and ashes of the Vatican, could I, with a few 

\ — others, recover the perished leaves of Solomon! I 

would not omit a Copy of Enochs Pillars, had they 

many nearer Authors than Josephus, or did not relish 

, p '° edim somewhat of the Fable. Some men have written more 

his Mon- 

archica than others have spoken ; 1 Pineda quotes more Authors 

guottion* * n one wor k> than are necessary in a whole World. Of 

thousand those three great inventions ~ih Germany, there are 

Authors. two which are not without their incommodities, and 



** 



\>^ 



THE FIRST PART 39 

HaB disputable whether thej exceed not their use and 
commodities. "Tis not a melancholy Utinam of my 
own, but the desires of better heads, that there were 
a general Synod ; not to unite the incompatible differ- 
ence of Religion, but for the benefit of learning, to 
reduce it as it lay at first, in a few, and solid Authors; 
and to condemn to the fire those swarms & millions • - 

of Rhapsodies begotten only to distract and abuse the ^ 

weaker judgements of Scholars, and to maintain the 

trade and mystery qf Typographer*,-^ Wvfo, __ ' yp^ 

I CANNOT but wonder with what exception the SECT. 
Samafitam could confine their belief to the 25 
Pentateuch, or five Rooks of Moses. I am 
ashamed at the Rabbinical Interpretation of the Jews, 
upon the Old Testament, as much as their defection 
from the New. And truly it is beyond wonder, how '"~To /r f^ 
that^contcmptible a nd degenerate issue of JWp6,j once 
so devoted to Jhlthnick Superstition, and so easily seduced 
to the Idolatry of their Neighbours, should now in 
such an obstinate and peremptory belief adhere unto 
their own Doctrine, expect impossibilities, and, in the 
face and eye of the Church, persist without the least 
hope of Conversion.- This is a vice in them, that 
were a vertue in us(; for obstinacy in a bad Cause i$__ — 
but constancy in a good. ] And herein I must accuse j XTj^^ 

those of mv own Religion; for there is not any of C_ i—^ 
such a fugitive Faith, such an unstable belief, as a 
Christian; none that do so oft transform themselves, 
not unt<» several shapes of Christianity and of the 
same Species, hut unto more unnatural and contrary 
forms, of Jew and Mahometan; that, from the name 
of Saviour, can condescend to the bare term of 
Prophet; and from an old belief that he is come, fall 




40 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, to a new expectation of his coming. It is the promise 
25 "of Christ to make us all one Flock ; but how and when 
this Union shall be, is as obscure to me as the last day. 
Of those four Members of Religion we hold a slender 
proportion ; there are, I confess, some new additions, 
yet small to those which accrew to our Adversaries, 
and those only drawn from the revolt of Pagans, men 
but of negative Impieties, and such as deny Christ, 
but because they never heard of him : but the Religion 
r" of the Jew is expressly against the Christian, and the 
i — Mahometan against both. For the Turk, in the bulk 
he now stands, he is beyond all hope of conversion ; if 
he fall asunder, there may be conceived hopes, but not 
without strong improbabilities. \ The Jew is obstinate 
in all fortunes ; the persecution" of fifteen hundred 
years hath but confirmed them in their Errour: they 
have already endured whatsoever may be inflicted, and 
have suffered, in a b ad cause, even to the condemnation 
of their enemies. Persecution is a bad and indirect 
/) jjofe^w^y to plant Religion : It hath been the unhappy 
y***^ method of angry Devotions, not only to confirm 

honest Religion, but wicked Heresies, and extravagant 
Opinions. It was the first stone and Basis of our 
Faith; none can more justly boast of Persecutions, 
and glory in the number and valour of Martyrs; for, 
to speak properly, those are true and almost only 
examples of fortitude : Those that are fetch'd from 
the field, or drawn from the actions of the Camp, are 
not oft-times so truely precedents of valour as audacity, 
and at the best attain but to some bastard piece of 
fortitude : If we shall strictly examine the circum- 
stances and requisites which Aristotle requires to true 
and perfect valour, we shall find the name only in his 
Master Alexander, and as little in that Roman Worthy, 



s 




THE FIRST PART 41 

Julius < tesar; and if any, in that easie and active way 
have done so nobly as to deserve that name, yet in the 
passive and more terrible piece these have surpassed, 
and in a more heroical way may claim the honour of 
that Title. 'Tis not in the power of every honest 
Faith to proceed thus far, or pass to Heaven through 
the flames ; everv one hath it not in that full measure, 
nor in so audacious and resolute a temper, as to endure 
those terrible tests and trials; who notwithstanding, 
in a peaceable way do truely adore their Saviour, 
and have (no doubt) a Faith acceptable in the eyes 
of God. 

NOW afl all that dye in the War are not SECT, 
termed Souldiers ; so neither can I properly 26 
term all those that suffer in matters of 
Religion, Martvrs. The Council of Constunce con- 
demns John Huns for an Ileretick ; the Stories of his Vjf% 
own Party stile him a Martyr: He must needs offend Qtf7vrv( 
the Divinity of both, that says he was neither the- — Pa^^uA* " 
one nor the other : There are many (questionless) f^AX**^ 
canonised on earth, that shall never be Saints in 
Heaven ; and have their names in Histories and 
Martyrologies, who in the eyes of God are not so 
perfect Martyrs, as was that wise Heathen Socrates, \ 'xtl-, -^*s t _/> 
that suffered on a fundamental point of Religion, the 
Unity of God. I have often pitied the miserable 
Bishop that suffered in the cause of Antipodes, yet 
cannot chuse but accuse him of as much madness, for 
exposing his living on such a trifle; as those of ignor- s"\ Xi- 
ance and folly, that condemned him. I think my ( \1Q, ( -CA>\ 
conscience will not give me the lye, if I say there are » 

not many extant that in a noble way fear the face of 

death less than myself: yet, from the moral duty I owe 



y^f 



42 RELIGIO MEDICI 

to the Commandment of God, and the natural respects 
* • *q that I tender unto the conservation of my essence and 
C oA/-*' ^ being, I would not perish upon a Ceremony, Politick 
points, or indifferency : nor is my belief of that un- 
tractible temper, as not to bow at their obstacles, or 
connive at matters wherein there are not manifest 
impieties : The leaven therefore and ferment of all, 
not only Civil, but Religious actions, is Wisdom ;. 
without which, to commit our selves to the flames is 

, „r Homicide, and (I fear) but to pass through one fire 

j^into another. 

SECT. *"■" ~"^HAT Miracles are ceased, I can neither prove, 
27 nor absolutely deny, much less define the 

*A wl j}^ time and period of their cessation : that 

v they survived Christ, is manifest upon the Record of 

Scripture: that they out-lived the Apostles also, and 
were revived at the Conversion of Nations, many years 
after, we cannot deny, if we shall not question those 
Writers whose testimonies we do not controvert in 
points that make for our own opinions ; therefore that 
may have some truth in it that is reported by the 
""^-Jesuites of their Miracles in the Indies ; I could wish 
it were true, or had any other testimony than their 
own Pens. They may easily believe those Miracles 
abroad, who daily conceive a greater at home, the 
transmutation of those visible elements into the Body 
and Blood of our Saviour : for the conversion of Water 
into Wine, which he wrought in Cana, or what the 
Devil would have had him done in the Wilderness, of 
Stones into Bread, compared to this, will scarce deserve 
the name of a Miracle. Though indeed to speak 
properly, there is not one Miracle greater than another, 
they being the extraordinary effects of the Hand of 



THE FIRST PART 43 

God, to which all things are of an equal facility; and 
to create the World as easic as one single Creature. 
For this is also a Miracle, not onely to produce effects 
against, or above Nature, but before Nature ; and to 
create Nature as great a Miracle as to contradict or 
transcend her. We do too narrowly define the Power 
of God, restraining it to our capacities. I hold that 
God can do all things ; how he should work contra- 
dictions, I do not understand, yet dare not therefore 
denv. I cannot see why the Angel of God should 
question Esdras to rccal the time past, if it were 
bevond his own power ; or that God should pose 
mortality in that, which he was not able to perform 
himself. I will not say God cannot, but he will not 
perform many things, which we plainly affirm he 
cannot : this I am sure is the mannerliest proposition, 
wherein, notwithstanding, I hold no Paradox. For 
strictly his power is the same with his will, and they 
both with all the rest do make but one God. ^ d^S 

THEREFORE that Miracles have been, I do SECT. 
believe ; that they may yet be wrought by 28 
the living, I do not deny : but have no confid- 
ence in those which are fa thered on th e dead ; and this f? fl 
hath ever made me suspect the efficacy of reliques, to - \j 

examine the bones, question the habits and appur- 
tenances of Saints, and even of Christ himself. I 
cannot conceive whv the Cross that Helena found, and 
whereon Christ himself dyed, should have power to 
restore others unto life : I excuse not Constantine from 
a fall off his Horse, or a mischief from his enemies, 
upon the wearing those nails on his bridle, which our 
Saviour bore upon the Cross in his hands. I compute 
among Pice fraudes, nor many degrees before con- 



,? <^f 



44 RELIGIO MEDICI 

secrated Swords and Roses, that which Baldwyn, King 

of Jerusalem, return' d the Genovese for their cost and 

pains in his War, to wit, the ashes of John the 

Baptist. Those that hold the sanctity of their Souls 

doth leave behind a tincture and sacred faculty on 

their bodies, speak naturally of Miracles, and do not 

salve the doubt. Now one reason I tender so little 

Devotion unto Reliques, is, I think, the slender and 

y-^ doubtful respect I have always held unto Antiquities: 

\ for that indeed which I admire, is far before Antiquity, 

kl that is, Eternity; and that is, God himself; who, 

•^ though he be styled the ancient of days, cannot receive 

" . v ~^2-' Q, the adjunct of Antiquity, who was before the World, 

( ^ at and shall be after it, yet is not older than it; for in 

*A ^T his years there is no Climacter; his duration is 

Eternity, and far more venerable than Antiquity. 

SECT. T~~"\UT above all things I wonder how the curiosity 
29 i"-X of wiser heads could pass that great and in- 




B 



1. J disputable Miracle, the cessation of Oracles; 

f*)(-4iA'' and in what swoun their Reasons lay, to content 

themselves, and sit down with such a far-fetch"' d and 

ridiculous reason as Plutarch alleadgeth for it. The 

Jews, that can believe the supernatural Solstice of the 

Sun in the davs of Joshua, have yet the impudence to 

' — «deny the Eclipse, which every Pagan confessed, at his 

death : but for this, it is evident beyond all contradic- 

i in ki* tion, 1 the Devil himself confessed it. Certainly it is 

Omcu to not a warran table curiosity, to examine the verity of 

Augustus. J * t •> 

Scripture by the concordance of humane history, or 

Y seek to confirm the Chronicle of Hester or Daniel by 

^the authority of Megasthcnes or Herodotus. I con- 

fess, I have had an unhappy curiosity this way, till I 

laughed my self out of it with a piece of Justww, 



tc^—t 



THE FIRST PART 45 

whet? he delivers that the Children of Israel for being 
scabbed were banished out of Egypt. And truely 
since lTiave understood the occurrences of the World, ^ K ^A 
and know in what counterfeit shapes, and deceitful 
vizards times present represent on the stage things 
past ; I do believe them little more then things to 
come. Some have been of my opinion, and endea- 
voured to write the History of their own lives ; where- 
in Moses hath outgone them all, and left not onely , 
the story of his life, but as some will have it, of his-- 
death also. 

IT is a riddle to me, how this story of Oracles 
hath not worm'd out of the World that doubt- 
ful conceit of Spirits and Witches ; how so 
many learned heads should so far forget their Meta- 
ph\sieks, and destroy the ladder and scale of creatures, 
as to question the existence of Spirits : for my part, I 
have ever believed, and do now know, that there are 
Witches : they that doubt of these, do not onely deny 
them, but spirits ; and are obliquely and upon con- 
sequence a sort not of Infidels, but Atheists. Those 
that to confute their incredulity desire to see appari- 
tions, shall questionless never behold any, nor have the 
power to be so much as Witches ( the Devil hath them 
already in a heresie as capital as Witchcraft ; } and to 
appear to them, were but to convert them. Of all the 
delusions wherewith he deceives morfaTTTy, there is not / mJuLs** 

anv that puzleth me more than the Legerdemain of L/* v *"'' 
Changelings; I do not credit those transformations of 
reasonable creatures into beasts, or that the Devil hath 
a power to transpeciate a man into a Horse, who 
tempted Christ (as a trial of his Divinity) to convert 
but stones into bread. I could believe that Spirits use 




46 RELIGIO MEDICI 

~-jyith man the act of carnality, and that in both sexes ; 
I conceive they may assume, steal, or contrive a 
body, wherein there may be action enough to con- 
tent decrepit lust, or passion to satisfie more active 
veneries ; yet in both, without a possibility of 
generation : and therefore that opinion that Antichrist 
should be born of the Tribe of Dan, by conjunction 
with the Devil, is ridiculous, and a conceit fitter for a 
Rabbin than a Christian. I hold that the Devil doth 
really possess some men, the spirit of Melancholly 

others, the spirit of Delusion others ; that as the Devil 
is concealed and denyed by some, so God and good 
Angels are pretended by others whereof the late de- 
fection of the Maid of Germany hath left a pregnant 
example. 



\jrf~ 



&* 



v" 



SECT. A GAIN, I believe that all that use sorceries, 
31 / \ incantations, and spells, are not Witches, 

A JL or, as we term them, Magicians; I conceive 
there is^ traditionaLMagick,'not learned immediately 
from the Devil, but at second hand from his Scholars, 
who having once the secret betrayed, are able, and do 
emperically practise without his advice, they both 
proceeding upon the principles of Nature ; where 
actives, aptly conjoyned to disposed passives, will 
under any Master produce their effects. Thus I 

j*^ think at first a great part of Philosophy was Witch- 
craft, which being afterward derived to one another, 
proved but Philosophy, and was indeed no more but 
the honest effects of Nature : What invented by us is 
Philosophy, learned from him is Magick. We do 
v" surely owe the discovery of many secrets to the dis- 
krovery of good and bad Angels. I could never pass 
that sentence of Paracelsus, without an asterisk, or 



4 




THE FIRST PART 47 

Annotation ; ' Ascendent canateUatum multa revelat, i ramfe 
qucercntibus mogilalia natures, i.e. opera Dei. I do ""J^T' *?' 

think that nianv mysteries ascribed to our own invcn- appointed u, 
tions, have been the courteous revelations of Spirita; y^hY* 
for those noble essences in Heaven bear a friendlv 
regard unto their fellow Natures on Earth; and there- 
fore believe that those many prodigies and ominous 
prognostieks, which fore-run the ruines of States, 
Princes, and private persons, are the charitable pre- 
monitions of good Angels, which more careless en- 
quiries term but the effects of chance and nature. 

NOW, besides these particular and divided SECT. 
Spirits, there may be (for ought I know) §2 
an universal and common Spir it to the i^^^-iA. 
whole World. It was the opinion of Plato, and it is i\\ AMvJU. 

vet of the Hermetical Philosophers : if there be a 
common nature that unites and tves the scattered + 

and divided individuals into one species, why may 
there not be one that unites them all ? However, I Li^Mio 

am sure there is a commo n Spirit that plavs within us, 
yet makes no part of us; and that is the Spjrji. of 
_God T the fire and scintillation of that noble and 
mighty Essence, which is the life and radical heat of J 
Spirits, and those essences that know not the vertue 
of the Sun, a fire quite contrary to the tire of Hell: 
This is that gentle heat that broodeth on the waters, 
and in six days hatched the AVorld ; this is that irradia- 
tion that dispels the mists of Hell, the clouds of 
horrour, fear, sorrow, despair; and preserves the 
region of the mind in serenity: Whatsoever feels 
not the warm gale and gentle ventilation of this 
Spirit, (though I feel his pulse) I dare not say he 
lives; for truelv without this, to me there is no heat 



48 RELIGIO MEDICI 

under the Tropick ; nor any light, though I dwelt in 
the body of the Sun. 

As when the labouring Sun hath wrought his track 

Up to the top of lofty Cancers back, 

The ycie Ocean cracks, the frozen pole 

Thaws with the heat of the Celestial coale; 

So when thy absent beams begin t' impart 

Again a Solstice on my frozen heart, 

My winter 's ov'r ; my drooping spirits sing, 

And every part revives into a Spring. 

But if thy quickening beams a while decline, 

And with their light bless not this Orb of mine, 

A chilly frost surpriseth every member, 

And in the midst of June I feel December. 

how this earthly temper doth debase 

The noble Soul in this her humble place. 

Whose wingy nature ever doth aspire 

To reach that p'ace whence first it took its fire. 

These flames I feel, which in my heart do dwell, 

Are not thy beams, but take their fire from Hell. 

quench them all, and let thy light divine 

Be as the Sun to this poor Orb of mine ; 

And to thy sacred Spirit convert those fires, 

Whose earthly fumes choak my devout aspires. 

SECT. /^T^HEREFORE for Spirits, I am so far from 
33 denying their existence, that I could easily 

-A. believe, that not onely whole Countries, but 
particular persons, have their Tutelary and Guardian 
Angels : It is not a new opinion of the Church of 
Rome, but an old one of Pythagoras and Plato ; there 
■ \ /"is no heresie in it; and if not manifestly defin'd in 
?> y^ Scripture, yet is it an opinion of a good and whole- 
some use in the course and actions of a mans life, and 
would serve as an Hypothesis to salve many doubts, 
whereof common Philosophy affordeth no solution. 
Now if you demand my opinion and Metaphysicks of 
their natures, I confess them very shallow, most of 
them in a negative way, like that of God ; or in a 



W" 




THE FIRST PART 49 

companiti\e, between our selves and fellow-creatures; SECT, 
for there is in this Universe a Stair, or mani fest Sc ale 88 
of creatures^ rising not disorderly, or in confusion, but ,L 

with a comelv method and proportion. Between crea- \ \k<^ 
tures of meer existence and things of life, there is a large 
disproportion of nature; between plants and animals -k 
or creatures of sense, a wider difference ; between them ■ 
and man, a far greater: and if the proportion hold-* 
one, between Man and Angels there should be yet a 
greater. We do not comprehend their natures, who 
retain the first definition of Porphyry, and distinguish 
them from our selves by iiuuKirtality ; for before his 
Fall, 'tis thought, Man also was Immortal ; yet must 
hc needs affirm that he had a different essence from 
the Angels ; having therefore no certain knowledge of 
their Natures, "tis no bad method of the Schools, what- 
soever perfection we find obscurely in our selves, in a , 
more compleat and absolute way to ascribe unto them. — / 
I believe thev have an exteniporarv knowledge, and 
upon the first motion of their reason dowhat we 
( annot. without .stud^ or deliberation ; that they know 
things by their forms, and define by specifical difference 
what we describe bv accidents and properties; and 
therefore probabilities to us may be demonstrations 
unto them : that they have knowledge not onely of 
the specifical. but numerical forms of individuals, and 
understand bv what reserved difference each single 
Hypostasis (besidei the relation to its species) becomes 
its numerical self. That as tin Sou] hath a power to 
move the body it informs, so there s a faculty to move 
any, though inform none ; ours upon restraint of time, 
place, and distance ; but that invisible hand that con- 
veved Halxikkuk to the Lyons Den, or Philip to Azof us. 
infringeth this rule, and hath a secret conveyance. 

i) 



50 RELIGIO MEDICI 

wherewith mortality is not acquainted : if they have 
that intuitive knowledge, whereby as in reflexion they 
behold the thoughts of one another, I cannot per- 
emptorily deny but they know a great part of ours. 
They that to refute the Invocation of Saints, have 
denied that they have any knowledge of our affairs 
below, have proceeded too far, and must pardon my 
opinion, till I can thoroughly answer that piece of 
r Scripture, At the conversion of a sinner the Angels in 
^"Heaven rejoyce. I cannot with those in that great 
Father securely interpret the work of the first day, 
Fiat lux, to the creation of Angels, though I confess 
there is not any creature that hath so neer a glympse 
'of their nature, as light in the Sun and Elements. We 
stile it a bare accident, but where it subsists alone, 'tis 
a spiritual Substance, and may be an Angel : in brief, 
"*— conceive light invisible, and that is a Spirit. 

S ECT . r | ^*HESE are certainly the Magisterial and 
master-pieces of the Creator, the Flower, 
JL or (as we may say) the best part of nothing, 
actually existing, what we are but in hopes and pro- 
bability ; we are onely that amphibious piece between 
f ^ i ~ X. a corporal and spiritual Essence, that middle form that 
\ links those two together, and makes good the Method 

of God and Nature, that jumps not from extreams, but 
unites the incompatible distances by some middle and 
participating natures : that we are the breath and 
similitude of God, it is indisputable, and upon record 
j<U&^~ ^ no ty Scripture ; but to call ourselves a Microcosm, 
■ or little World, I thought it only a pleasant trope of 
(^ — Rhetorick, till my neer judgement and second thoughts 

told me there was a real truth therein : for first we are 



V$ 



\ a rude mass, and in the rank of creatures, which onelv 



THE FIRST PART 51 

are, and have a dull kind of being, not yet privileged 

with life, or preferred to sense or reason ; next we live 
the life of Plants, the life of Animals, the life of Men, 
and at last the life of Spirits, running on in one nivs- ^ 
terious nature those five kinds of existences, which ? 
comprehend the creatures not onelv of the World, but ^^v^ife"^^-, 
of the Universe ; thus is man that great and true -i 
Amphibiurn, whose nature is disposed to live not onelv "^ j, 
like other creatures in divers elements, but in divided f^ ^ *-*->* 
and disiinguished j£pxkk_L for though there be but one ^ , • 

to sense, there are two to reason, the one visible, the .6p*-^?Ajrv 
other invisible, whereof Moses seems to have left de- 
scription, and of the other so obscurely, that some 
parts thereof are yet in controversie. And truely for 
the first chapters of Genesis, I must confess a great 
deal of obscurity; though Divines have to the power 
of humane reason endeavoured to make all go in a 
literal meaning, yet those allegorical interpretations 
are also probable, and perhaps the mystical method 
of Moses bred up in the Hieroglvphical Schools of the 
Egyptian*. ^-^^T^ 

m 

NOW for that immaterial world, methinks we SECT, 
need not wander so far as beyond the first 3.> 
moveable ; for even in this material Fabrick 
the spirits walk as freely exempt from the affection of 
time, place, and motion, as beyond the extreamest cir- 
cumference : do but extract from the corpulency of 
bodies, or resolve things beyond their first matter, and 
you discover the habitation of Angels, which if I call 
the ubiquitary and omnipresent essence of God, I hope 
I shall not offend Divinity : for before the Creation of 
the World God was reallv all things. For the Aneels. 
he created no new World, or determinate mansion, and _A 






\ 



52 RELIGIO MEDICI 




SECT, therefore they are everywhere where is his Essence, and 
35 Ldo live at a distance even in himself. That God made 
/all things for man, is in some sense true, yet not so far 
as to subordinate the Creation of those purer Creatures 
unto ours, though as ministring Spirits they do, and 
are willing to fulfil the will of God in these lower and 
sublunary affairs of man : God made all things for him- 
self, and it is impossible he should make them for any 
/1\ -r— -—other end than his own Glory ; it is all he can receive, 
t fy^- „ and all that is without himself: for honour being an 
external adjunct, and in the honourer rather than in 
the person honoured, it was necessary to make a Crea- 
ture, from whom he might receive this homage ; and 
that is in the other world Angels, in this, Man ; which 
when we neglect, we forget the very end of our Crea- 
tion, and may justly provoke God, not onely to repent 
that he hath made the World, but that he hath sworn 
r\ ^y v ■ he would not destroy it. iThat there is but one World, 
' _fQJj is a conclusion of Faith.' Aristotle with all his Philo- 
V/nt sophy hath not been able to prove it, and as weakly 

that the world was eternal ; that dispute much troubled 
the Pen of the Philosophers, but Moses decided that 
question, and all is salved with the new term of a 
Vi^T^ Creation, that is, a production of something out of 
nothing; and what is that ? Whatsoever is opposite to 
something ; or more exactly, that which is truely con- 
trary unto God ; for he onely is, all others have an 
- — existence with dependency, and are something but by 
a distinction ; and herein is Divinity conformant unto 
Philosophy, and generation not onely founded on con- 
» r^ trarieties, but also creation ; God being all things, is 
,' A^i-^ contrary unto nothing, out of which were made all 

xji* things, and so nothing became something, and Omncity 
\J*^ ~~ informed Nullity into an Essence. 



T 



THE FIRST PART 53 

HE whole Creation is a Mystery, and partial- SECT, 
hirlvthat of Man; at the blast of his mouth 36 
were the rest of the Creatures made, and at 



his ban- word they started out of nothing : but in the 

frame of Man (as the Text describes it) he played the 

sensible operato r, and seemed not so much to create, as 

make him ; when he had separated the materials of 

other creatures, there consequently resulted a form 

and soul ; but having raised the walls of man. he has 

driven to a second and harder creation of a substance 

like himself, an incorruptible and immortal Soul. For *•* 

these two affections we have the Philosophy and 

opinion of the Heathens, the flat affirmative of Plato, a — 

and not a negative from Aristotle: there is another 

scruple cast in bv Divinity (concerning its production) 

much disputed in the Germane auditories, and with 

that inditferency and equality of arguments, as leave 

the controversie undetermined. I am not of Paracelsus 

mind, that boldly delivers a receipt to make a man 

without cor4u»«tk>n ; vet cannot but wonder at the 

multitude of heads that do deny traduction, having 

no other argument to confirm their belief, then that 

Rhetorical sentence, and Anti-metathesis of Augni.ttine, 

( rcando in/unditur, infitndendo creaiur : either opinion 

will oonsbt well enough with Religion; yet I should 

rather incline to this, did not one objection haunt me, I 

not wrung from speculations and subtilties, but from - ^-^ 

common sense and observation ; _jiot pickt from the wr*\i~^*$i 

leaves of anv Author, but bred amongst the weeds 

and tares of mine own brain :) And this is a conclusion 

from the equivocal and monstrous productions in 

the copulation of Man with Beast : for if the Soul 

of man be not transmitted, and t ransfused in the 

seed of the Parents, why are not those productions 



54 RELIGIO MEDTCI 

meerly beasts, but have also an impression and tincture 
of reason in as high a measure, as it can evidence it 
self in those improper Organs ? Nor truely can I 
peremptorily deny, that the Soul in this her sub- 
lunary estate, is wholly, and in all acceptions in- 
organical, but that for the performance of her ordinary 
actions, there is required not onely a symmetry and 
proper disposition of Organs, but a Crasis and temper 
correspondent to its operations. Yet is not this mass 
of flesh and visible structure the instrument and proper 
corps of the Soul, but rather of Sense, and that the 
hand of Reason. In our study of Anatomy there is a 
mass of mysterious Philosophy, and such as reduced 
the very Heathens to Divinity : yet amongst all those 
rare discourses, and curious pieces I find in the Fabrick 
of man, I do not so much content my self, as in that I 
find not, there is no Organ cr Instrument for the 
rational soul : 'for in the brain, which we term the seat 
of reason, there is not any thing of moment more than 
\^, I can discover in the crany of a beast : and this is a 
C)u sensible and no inconsiderable argument of the in- 
organity of the Soul, at least in that sense we usually 
so conceive it. Thus we are men, and we know not 
how ; there is something in us that can be without us, 
and will be after us, though it is strange that it hath 
no history, what it was before us, nor cannot tell how 
it entred in us. — 



'*A 



V" 



L 



SECT. "^^ TOW for these walls of flesh, wherein the 
37 \ Soul doth seem to be immured, before 

X 11 the Resurrection, it is nothing but an 
elemental composition, and a Fabrick that must fall 
to ashes. A ll flesh is g rass, is not onely metaphoric- 
ally, but litterally] true ; for all those creatures we 

i 



THE FIRST PART 55 

1 1 hold, are but the herbs of the field, digested into SECT. 

Hesh in them, or more remotely earnitied in our selves. 37 

Nav further, ire are what we all abhor, Anthropophagi — \ 

mad Cannibals, devourers not onely of men, but of our ^ ^/ i i'r^♦— - 

selves; and that not in an allegory, but a positive 

truth : for all this mass of flesh which we behold, came 

in at our mouths ; this frame we look upon, hath been 

upon our trenchers; in brief, we have devour'd our, — 

selves. I cannot believe the wisdom of Pythagoras 

did ever positively, and in a literal sense, affirm his 

Metempsychosis, or impossible transmigration of the-! 

Souls of men into beasts : of all Metamorphoses, or 

transmigrations, I believe only one, that is of Lots 

wife; for that of Nebuchodonosor proceeded not so 

far ; in all others I conceive there is no further verity 

than is contained in their implicite sense and morality. 

I believe that the whole frame of a beast doth perish, 

;aid is left in the same state after death as before it \/"\!^~* 

was materialled unto life; that the souls of men know- — 

neither contrary nor corruption ; that they subsist 

beyond the body, and outlive death by the priviledge — *" 

of their proper natures, and without a Miracle ; that ~- 

the Souls of the faithful, as they leave Earth, take *"<- *** 

possession of Heaven: that those apparitions and—- ~~ 

ghosts of departed persons are not the wandring souls 

of men, but the unquiet walks of Devils, prompting 

and suggesting us unto mischief, blood," and villany; 

instilling and stealing into our hearts that the blessed yjL^^^<'->^ 

spirits are not at rest in their graves, but wander 

sollicitous of the affairs of the World ; but that those 

phantasms appear often, and do frequent Cremeteries, 

Charnel-houses, and Churches.it is because those are 

the dormitories of the dead, where the Devil like an 

insolent Champion beholds with pride the spoils and 

Trophies of his Victory over Adam. 



56 RELIGIO MEDICI 



^ SECT. ^ | ^HIS is that dismal conquest we all deplore, 
38 that makes us so often cry (0) A darn, quid 

JL. fecisti ? I thank God I have not those 



c<V* 



1 Vi'J' strait ligaments, or narrow obligations to the World, 

IT" as to dote on life, or be convulst and tremble at the 

,^ « — - name of death : Not that I am insensible of the dread 
~ ,}h and horrour thereof, or by raking into the bowels of 

the deceased, continual sight of Anatomies, Skeletons, 
or Cadaverous reliques, like Vespilloes, or Grave- 
makers, I am become stupid, or have forgot the 
^J§Jm~~\ apprehension of Mortality ; but that marshalling all 
NT* the horrours, and contemplating the extremities 

thereof, I find not any thing therein able to daunt the 
(^-^-courage of a man, much less a well-resolved Christian : 
And therefore am not angry at the errour of our first 
Parents, or unwilling to bear a part of this common 
fate, and like the best of them to dye, that is, to cease 
to breathe, to take a farewel of the iJejGQgrrts, to be a 
kind of nothing for a moment, to be within one 
instant of a spirit. \_When I take a full view and circle 
"^ of my self, without this reasonable moderator, and 

'I n /J\equal piece of Justice, Death, I do conceive my self 
r ft** \i the miserablest person extant ; were there not another 
j/ 1 " life that I hope for, all the vanities of this World 
should not intreat a moment's breath from me : could 
the Devil work my belief to imagine I could never dye, 
I would not outlive that very thought ; I have so 
abject a conceit of this common way of existence, this 
retaining to the §un_anoL .Elements, I cannot think 
this is to be a man, or to live according to the dignity 
of humanity : in exspectation of a better, I can with 
patience embrace this life, yet in my best meditations 
*-^» do often defie death : I honour any man that contemns 
it, nor can I highly love any that is afraid of it : this 



THE FIRST PART 



51 



makes me naturally love a Souldier, and honour those 
tattered and contemptible Regiments, that will dye at 
the command of a Sergeant. For a Pagan there may 
be some motives to be in love with life; but for a 

Christian to be amazed at death, I see not how he can- ^ 

escape this Dilemma, that he is too sensible of this 
life, or hopeless of the life to come. 

SOME Divines count Adam 30 years old at SECT. 
his creation, because they suppose him 39 
created in the perfect age and stature of 
man. And surelv we are all out of the computation 
of our age, and every man is some months elder than 
he bethinks him ; for we live, move, have a being, and 
are subject to the actions of the elements, and the 
malice of diseases, in that other world, the truest! 
Microcosm, the Womb of our Mother. For besides 
that General and common existence we are conceived 
to hold in our Chaos, and whilst we sleep within the 
bosome of our causes, we enjoy a being and life in "7 ^xa-^X^. 
three distinct worlds, wherein we receive most manifest A\ 
graduations : In that obscure World and womb of our 
mother, our time is short, computed by the Moon ; yet 
longer then the days of many creatures that behold the 
Sun, our selves being not yet without life, sense, and 
reason; though for the manifestation of its actions, it 
awaits the opportunity of objects, and seems _to live 
there but in its root and soul of vegetation yVntring 
afterwards upon the scene of the \Vorld, we arise up 
and become another creature, jierforming the reason- 
able actions of manTancTobscurelv manifesting that 
part of Divinitv in us, but not in complement and per- 
fection, till. w^ have once more cast our secondine, that 
is, this sl<iyjgn of Mesh, and are delivered into the last 






V 



58 RELIGIO MEDICI 

world, that is, that ineffable place of Paul , that proper 
ubi of spirits. The smattering I have of the Philoso- 
|\ ^ -pliers Stone (which is something more then the perfect 
K)^Ls ° exaltation of Gold) hath taught me a great deal of 
Divinity, and instructed my belief, how that immortal 
spirit and incorruptible substance of my Soul may lye 
obscure, and sleep a while within this house of flesh. 
Those strange and mystical transmigrations that I 
have observed in Silk- worms, turned my Philosophy into 
Divinity. There is mtnese works of nature, which 
seem to puzzle reason, something Divine, and hath more 
in it then the eye of a common spectator doth discover. 

SECT. T AM naturally bashful, nor hath conversation, 
,40 age or travel, been able to effront, or enharden 

1 nX*^*~^^ V me ' y e ^ * have one P ar t °f modesty which I 

■- ' J^/f^ have seldom discovered in another, that is, (to speak 

£r> truely) I am not so much afraid of death, as ashamed 

V thereof; 'tis the very disgrace and ignominy of our 

, jfN^ natures, that in a moment can so disfigure us, that our 

\a'' nearest friends, Wife, and Children stand afraid and 

start at us. The Birds and Beasts of the field, that 

before in a natural fear obeyed us, forgetting all 

allegiance, begin to prey upon us. This very conceit 

hath in a tempest disposed and left me willing to be 

swallowed up in the abyss of waters ; wherein I had 

perished unseen, unpityed, without wondering eyes, 

tears of pity, Lectures of mortality, and none had said, 

Quantum mutatus ab Mo ! Not that I am ashamed of 

the Anatomy of my parts, or can accuse Nature for 

playing the bungler in any part of me, or my own 

viticms life for contracting any shameful disease upon 

me, ^hereby I might not call my self as wholesome a 

morsel for the worms as any. \ x k. 



I5Xm\a-» 



THE FIRST PART 59 

SOME upon the courage of a fruitful issue, SECT, 
wherein, as in the truest Chronicle, they 41 
seem to outlive themselves, can with greater 
patience away with death. This conceit and counter- / 
feit subsisting in our progenies, seems to me a meer 
fallacy, unworthy the desires of a man, that can but 
conceive a thought of the next World ; who, in a 
nobler ambition, should desire to live in his substance 
in Heaven, rather than his name and shadow in the 
earth. And therefore at my death I mean to take a 



total adieu of the world, not caring for a Monument, I (_ i. ^'yv.^ 
History, or Epitaph, not so much as the memory o£j *^ 

my name to be found any where, but in the universal 
Register of God. I am not yet BO Cynical, as to 
approve the 'Testament of Diogenes, nor do I alto- l W»* *»7W 

»r , • r his friend 

gether allow that Hodomontado ot Lucan ; not u bury 

him, but 

Ccelo tegitur, qui non habet urnam. hang htm 

up with a 

lie that unbtiried lies wants not his Htrse,- statTinhis 

For unto him a Tomb's the Universe. hand /# 

fright away 

But commend in my calmer judgement, those ingenuous th "' ows - 
intentions that desire to sleep by the urns of their 
Fathers, and strive to go the neatest way unto corrup- 
tion. I do not envy the temper of Crows and Daws, 
nor the numerous and weary days of our Fathers 
before the Flood. If there be any truth in Astrology, 
I may outlive a Jubilee ; as yet I have not seen one 
revolution of Saturn, nor hath my pulse beat_ttnYty 
vears; and yet excepting one, have seen the Ashes, 
•sTlefT under ground all the Kings of Europe ; have 
been contemporary to three Emperours, four Grand 
Signiours, and as many Popes : methinks I have out- 
lived my self, and begin to be weary of the Sun j( I 
have shaken hands with delight: in my warm blood 



4 



60 RELIGIO MEDICI 

and Canicular days, I perceive I do anticipate the 
lllAJ vices of age ; the World to me is but a dream or 
VN ^ mock-show, and we all therein but Pantalones and 
^ ^r^S Anticks, to my severer contemplations. ' — IjAjT ' 

SECT. TT is not, I confess, an unlawful prayer to desire 

42 to surpass the days of our Saviour, or wish 

A to outlive that age wherein he thought fittest 

to dye ; yet if (as Divinity affirms) there shall be no 

gray hairs in Heaven, but all shall rise in the perfect 

~ \ state of men, we do but outlive those perfections in 

£yUJ this World, to be recalled unto them by a greater 

Miracle in the next, and run on here but to be retro- 

\V(\>^- grade hereafter. Were there any hopes to outlive 

^ * G vice, or a point to be super-annuated from sin, it were 

\ jjS ) worthy our knees to implore the days of Methuselah. 

S J*^ \ But age doth not rectifie, but inxui^a±e__ojj^_jmtures, 

m^S^ turning bad dispositions into worser habits, and (like 

' diseases) brings on incurable vices ; for every day as we 

• . V grow weaker in age, we grow stronger in sin ; and the 

C S-y^jf~** *. number of our days doth make but our sins innumerable. 

^ jO-^0 'Ihe same vice committed at sixteen, is not the same, 

\J ^fiV^ though it agree in all other circumstances, at forty, 

L— jC" but swells and doubles from the circumstance of our 

ages, wherein, besides the constant and inexcusable habit 

of transgressing, the maturity of our judgement cuts 

off pretence unto excuse or pardon : every sin the oftner 

it is committed, the more it acquireth in the quality 

of evil ; as it succeeds in time, so it proceeds in degrees 

of badness; for as they proceed they ever multiply, 

and like figures in Arithmetick, the last stands for 

more than all that went before it. And though I 

think no man can live well once, but he that could 

live twice, yet for my own part I would not live over 



THE FIRST PART 61 

mv hours past, or begin again the thred of my days: 
not upon Cicero's ground, because I have lived them 
well, but for fear I should live them worse : I find my j 
growing Judgment daily instruct me how to be better, 
but my untamed affections and confirmed vitiosity 
makes me daily do worse: I find in my confirmed age 
the same sins I discovered in my youth ; I committed 
many then because I was a Child, and because I com- 
mit them still, I am yet an infant. Therefore I per- 
ceive a man may be twice a Child before the days 
of dotage ; and stands in need of jEsons Bath before 
threescore. 

AND truely there goes a great deal of provi- SF.CT 
/ \ dence to produce a mans life unto three- 43 
1 \. score : there is more required than an able 
temper for those years ; though the radical humour con- 
tain in it sufficient oyl for seventy, yet I perceive in some 
it gives no light past thirty : men assign not all the 
causes of long life, that write whole Books thereof. 
They that found themselves on the radical balsome, 
or vital sulphur of the parts, determine not why Abel 
lived not so long as J clam. There is therefore a secret 
glome or bottome of our days : 'twas his wisdom to de- 
termine them, but his perpetual and waking providence 
that fulfils and accomplisheth them ; wherein the 
spirits, our selves, and all the creatures of God in a 
secret and disputed way do execute his will. Let them 
not therefore complain of immaturity that die about 
thirty; they fall but like the whole World, w1k>m'^__ 
solid and well-composed substance must not expect the 
duration and period of its constitution : when all 
things are compleated in it, its age is accomplished ; 
and the last and general fever may as naturally destroy 



62 



RELIGIO MEDICI 



^ 




it before six thousand, as me before forty ; there is 
rtherefore some other hand that twines the thread of 
life than that of Nature : we are not onely ignorant in 
Antipathies and occult qualities ; ( our ends are as 
obscure as our beginnings ;> the line of our days is 
drawn by night, and the various effects therein by a 
pensii that is invisible ; wherein though we confess our 
ignorance, I am sure we do not err if we say it is the 
hand of God. 



SECT. 
44 



C-j^ 



lfJ ^\ 




I 




AM much taken with two verses of Lucan, since 
I have been able not onely as we do at School, 
to construe, but understand. 

Victurosque Dei celant ut vivere durent, 
Felix esse rnori. 

We're all deluded, vainly searching ways 
To make us happy by the length of days ; 
For cunningly to make 's protract this breath, 
The Gods conceal the happiness of Death. 

There be many excellent strains in that Poet, where- 
with his Stoical Genius hath liberally supplied him ; 
and truely there are singular pieces in the Philosophy 
of Zeno, and doctrine of the Stoicks, which I perceive, 
delivered in a Pulpit, pass for current Divinity : vet 
herein are they in extreams, tfiaT can aTTow~li man to 
be his own Assassine, and so highly extol the end and 
suicide of Cato ; this is indeed not to fear death, but 
vet to be afraid of life. It is a brave act of valour to 
contemn death ; tbut where life is more terrible than 
death, it is then the truest valour to dare to live ; and 
herein Religion hath taught us a noble example : For 
all the valiant acts of Curtius, Scevola, or Codrus, do 
not parallel or match that one of Job ; and sure there 
is no torture to the rack of a disease, nor any Ponyards 



THE FIRST PART <;:* 

in death it self like those in the way or prologue to it. SECT. 

Emori unloosed me esse murtuum nihil euro; I would 44 

not die, but care not to be dead. Were I of Ciesars --, u ^fsj^Si 

Religion, I should be of his desires, and wish rather to 

go oft' at one blow, then to be sawed in pieces by the - 

grating torture of a disease. Men that look no farther 

than their outsides, think health an appurtenance unto ( k_^Y^~»- 

life, and quarrel with their constitutions for being sick; 

but I, that have examined the parts of man, and know 

upon what tender filaments that Fabrick hangs, do 

wonder that we are not always so; and considering the , . +. 

thousand joors/ that lead to death, do thank my God t X^. 

that we can die but once. Tis not onelv the mischief ' y Q] I'm. 

of diseases, and villany of poysons, that make an end of 

us ; we vainly accuse the fury of Guns, and the new \ 

inventions of death ; it is in the power of every hand _ , 

to destrov us, and we are beholding unto every one we \ ,L- '-€-<l ^A 

meet, he doth not kill us. There is therefore but one ,'") p 

comfort left, that, though it be in the power of the 

weakest arm to take away life, it is not in the strongest 

to deprive us of death : God would not exempt himself 

from that, the misery of immortality in the flesh ; he 

undertook not that was immortal. Certainly there is 

no happiness within this circle of flesh, nor is it in the_\ 

Opticks of these eyes to behold felicity; the first day *n ~JbL 

of our J ubilee is Death ; the Devil hath therefore <^"^ K, 

failed of bis defiles ; we are happier with death than \ = jQ^^\h^ 

should have been without it : there is no misery but 
in himself, where there is no end of misery ; and so 
indeed in his own Bense the Stoick is in the right. He /- vK~"~^--o/^ 
forgets that he can dye who complains of misery ; we ^d^V 

are in the power of no calamity while death is in our 



owu. 



64 RELIGIO MEDICI 



SECT. "|W TOW besides the literal and positive kind of 

45 I ^k death, there are others whereof Divines 

L ^1 make mention, and those I think, not 

meerly Metaphorical, as mortification, dying unto sin 

i i and the World ; therefore, I say, every man hath a 

•^ x }h double Horoscope, one of his humanity, his birth; 

P~^ ^ another of his Christianity, his baptism, and from this 
do I compute or calculate my Nativity ; not reckoning 
those Horce combustce and odd days, or esteeming my 
self any thing, before I was my Saviours, and inrolled 
in the Register of Christ : Whosoever enjoys not this 
life, I count him but an apparition, though he wear 
about him the sensible affections of flesh. In these 
moral acceptions, the way to be immortal is to dye 
, — daily ; nor can I think I have the true Theory of death, 
when I contemplate a skull, or behold a Skeleton with 
those vulgar imaginations it casts upon us ; I have 
therefore enlarged that common Memento mori, into a 
more Christian memorandum, Memento quatuor Novis- 
sima, those four inevitable points of us all, Death, 
Judgement, Heaven, and Hell. Neither did the con- 
templations of the Heathens rest in their graves, with- 
out further thought of Rhadamanth or some judicial 
proceeding after death, though in another way, and 
upon suggestion of their natural reasons. I cannot 
but marvail from what Sibyl or Oracle they stole the 
Prophesie of the worlds destruction by fire, or whence 
Lucan learned to say, 

Communis mundo superest rogus, ossibus astra 
Misturus. 

There yet remains to tli World one. common Fire, 
Wherein our bones with stars shall make one Pyre. 

Y>£f< ^ I believe the World grows near its end, yet is neither 

9jo old nor decayed, nor shall ever perish upon the ruines 

] y s~ of its own Principles. As the work of Creation was 






s 



THE FIRST PART vO G5 

above nature, so its adversary annihila tion ; without 
which the World hath not its end, but its mutatioiu 
Now what force should be able to consume it thus 
fur, without the breath of God, which is the truest 
consuming flame, my Philosophy cannot inform me. 
Some believe there went not a minute to the Worlds 
creation, nor shall there go to its destruction ; those 
six days, so punctually described, make not to them 
one moment, but rather seem to manifest the method 
and Idea of the great work of the intellect of God, 
than the manner how he proceeded in its operation. I 
cannot dream that there should be at the last day any- 
such Judicial proceeding, or calling to the Bar, as 
indeed the Scripture seems to imply, and the literal 
Commentators do conceive : for unspeakable mysteries 
in the Scriptures are often delivered in a vulgar and 
illustrative wav ; and being written unto man, are 
delivered, not as they truely are, but as they may be 
understood ; wherein notwithstanding the different in- 
terpretations according to different capacities may 
stand firm with our devotion, nor be any way preju- 
dicial to each single edification. 

NOW to determine the day and year of this SECT. 
inevitable time, is not onely convincible and 46 
statute-madness, but also manifest impiety: 
How shall we interpret Ellas (iOOO years, or imagine-— 
the secret communicated to a Rabbi, which God hath 
denved unto his Angels ? It had been an excellent 
Quaere to have posed the Devil of Dclpho.s, and must 
needs have forced him to some strange amphibology; 
it hath not onelv mocked the predictions of sundry 
Astrologers in Ages past, but the prophesies of many 
melancholv heads in these present, who neither under- 

E 




66 



RELIGIO MEDICI 



In those 
days there 
shall come 
lyars and 
false pro- 
phets. 




/ 



standing reasonably things past or present, pretend a 
knowledge of things to come ; heads ordained onely to 
manifest the incredible effects of melancholy, and to 
fulfil old prophecies rather than be the authors of new. 
In those days there shall come Wars and rumours of 
Wars, to me seems no prophecy, but a constant truth, 
in all times verified since it was pronounced : There 
shall be signs in the Moon and Stars ; how comes he 
then like a Thief in the night, when he gives an item 
of his coming? That common sign drawn from the 
revelation of Antichrist, is as obscure as any : in our 
common compute he hath been come these many years; 
but for my own part to speak freely,[I am half of 
^opinion that Antichrist is the Philosophers stone in 
ivinity_^3 for the discovery and invention thereof, 
though there be prescribed rules and probable induc- 
tions, yet hath hardly any man attained the perfect 
iscovery thereof. That general opinion that the 
World grows neer its end, hath possessed all ages past 
as neerly as ours ; I am afraid that the Souls that now 
depart, cannot escape that lingring expostulation of 
the Saints under the Altar, Quonsque, Domine ? How 
long, O Lord ? and groan in the expectation of that 
great Jubilee. 



SECT. 
47 



J^> 



T] 



HIS is the day that must make good that 

great attribute of God, his Justice ; that 

must reconcile those unanswerable doubts 

that torment the wisest understandings, and reduce 



\( \J\ those seeming inequalities, and respective distributions 

^Vvr^ * in this world, to an equality and recompensive Justice 

in the next. This is that one day, that shall include 

and comprehend all that went before it; wherein, as in 

the last scene, all the Actors must enter, to compleat 



THE FIRST PART G7 

and make up the Catastrophe of this great piece. This*^\ 

is the day whose memory hath onely power to make us 

honest in the dark, and to be vertuous withoutj a^wij- < — I 

ness. Ipsa sui pretium virtus sihi, that Vertue is her --i 

own reward, is but a cold principle, and not able to 

maintain our variable resolutions in a constant and 

setled wav of goodness. I have practised that honest 

artifice of Senec a, and in my retired and solitary imagi- .-. 

nations, to detain me from the foulness of vice, have \j \yf\A 1 -*- v*— 

fancied to my self the presence of my dear and worthiest (T^^ 

friends, before whom I should lose my head, rather than i 

be vitious : yet herein I found that there was nought ^ v1 ^ 

but moral honesty, and this was not to be vertuous for 

his sake who must reward us at the last. I have tryed 

if I could reach that great resolution of his, to be honest 

without a thought of Heaven or Hell; and indeed I 

found, upon a natural inclination, and inbred loyalty 

unto virtue, that I could serve her without a livery ; yet 

not in that resolved and venerable way, but that the 

frailtv of mv nature, upon * easie temptation, might 

be induced to forget her. The life therefore and spirit v v 

of all our actions, is the igsuwrrtuin, and a stable <7K^W 

apprehension that our ashes shall enjoy the fruit of — ^ »~ 

our pious endeavours: without this, all Religion is a-i OpJ^^vc^vv 

fallacy, and those impieties of Lucian, Euripides, and •* r*£~t7i 

Julian, are no blasphemies, but subtle verities, and ^ CTH-W^-/ 

Atheists have been the onely PhiIosophers. v /^v_/'V'- \. <iJ-^tKM 



H 



OW shall the dead arise, is no question of my SECT. 
Faith ; to believe only possibilities, is not 48 
Faith, but meer Philosophy. Many things 



are true in Divinity, which are neither inducible by n ^gj-^ ** 

*»Aocn*« t%^t« pnnhrmil^U \}\ SeilSe ' onri in q n \ r f nmn-c in L-C 

Insert any, 1672. 



reason, nor confirniable by sense : and many things in c ^^.A^ 



£i* «**"" 



68 



RELIGIO MEDICI 




SECT. Philosophy confirmable by sense, yet not inducible by 
48r^ reason. Thus it is impossible by any solid or demon- 
strative reasons to perswade a man to believe the con- 
version of the Needle to the North ; though this be 
possible and true, and easily credible, upon a single 
^experiment unto the sense. I believe that our 
estranged and divided ashes shall unite again ; that 
our separated dust after so many Pilgrimages and 
t ransformatio ns into the parts of Minerals, Plants, 
Animals, Elements, shall at the Voice of God return 
into their primitive shapes, and joyn again to make 
up their primary and predestinate forms. As at the 
Creation there was a separation of that confused mass 
into its pieces ; so at the destruction thereof there 
shall be a separation into its distjncj^ifldiiiduals. As 
. at the Creation of the World, all the distinct species 
C /t ^jJlA*"that we behold lay involved in one mass, till the fruitful 
Voice of God separated this united multitude into its 
" several species : so at the last day, when those cor- 
rupted reliques shall be scattered in the Wilderness of 
forms, and seem to have forgot their proper habits, 
. v^v-4 V" 1 God by a powerful Voice shall command Jheni back 
c^x^-M^ into trreiT^iropeT shap~es"7an3 call them out by their 
single individuals : Then shall appear the fertility of 
Adam, and^lhe magick of that sperm that hath dilated 
**7into so many millionsL.I have often beheld as a miracle, 
\ t^V^t^thsit artificial resurrection and revivification of Mercury, 
'*£*iAr\? how being mortified into a thousand shapes, it assumes 

^ j k c / \ again its own, and returns into its numerical self. Let 
^\&A \ us speak naturally, and like Philosophers, the forms of 



J 



\ 



alterable bodies in these sensible corroptions perish 
not ; nor as we imagine, wholly quit their mansions, 
\lM>^ 7p but retire and contract themselves into their secret and 
'unaccessible parts, where they may best protect them- 



THE FIRST PART 



69 



selves from the action of their Antagonist. A plant or 
vegetable consumed to ashes, by a contemplative and 
ichool-Philosopher seems utterly destroyed, and the 
form to have taken his leave for ever : But to a sensible 
Artist the forms are not perished, but withdrawn into 
their incomb ustible p art, where thev lie secure from the]l— .x. Q 
action of that devouring element. This is made good ^<A^i 

by experience, which can from the Ashes of a Plant 
revive the plant, and from its cinders recal it into its 
stalk and leaves again. What the Art of man can do 1 
in these inferiour pieces, what blasphemy is it to affirm 
the finger of God cannot do in these more perfect and 
sensible structures? This is that mystical Philosophy, 
from whence no true Scholar becomes an Atheist, but 
from the visible effects of nature grow s up a rea l Divine, 
and beholds not in a~(TreamV as Ezekiet, but in an 
ocular and visible object the types of his resurrec- 
tion. 









k 



a 



W 



0\V, the necessary Mansions of our restored SECT. 



N ( 
selves, are those two contrary and incom- 
patible places we call Heaven and Hell; to 
define them, or strictly to determine what and where 
these are, surpasseth my Divinity. That elegant 
Apostle which seemed to have a glimpse of Heaven, 
hath left but a negative description thereof; which 
neither ei/e hath seen, nor ear hath heard, nor can enter 
into the heart of man \ he was translated out of himself 
to behold it; but being returned into himself, could 
not express it. St. Johns description by Emerals, 
Chrysolites, and precious Stones, is too weak to express 
the material Heaven we behold. Briefly therefore, 
where the Soul hath the full measure and complement 
of happiness ; where the boundless appetite of that 



40 



70 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, ''spirit remains compleatly satisfied, that it can neither 
49 desire addition nor alteration ;\ that I think is truly 
Heaven : and this can onely be in the injoyment of 
that essence, whose infinite goodness is able to termi- 
nate the desires of it self, and the unsatiable wishes of 
ours ; wherever God will thus manifest himself, there is 
Heaven though within the circle of this sensible world. 
Thus the Soul of man may be in Heaven any where, even 
within the limits of his own projDer^ody ; and when it 
ceaseth to live in the body, it may remain in its own 
soul, that is, its Creator : and thus we may say that 
St. Paul, whether in the body, or out of the body, was 
— yet in Heaven. To place it in the Empyreal, or bc- 
^yond the tenth sphear, is to forget the world's destruc- 
tion ; for when this sensible world shall be destroyed, 
all shall then be here as it is now there, an Empyreal 
" — 'Heaven, a quasi vacuity ; when to ask where Heaven is, 
is to demand where the Presence of God is, or where we 
have the glory of that happy vision. Moses that was 
bred up in all the learning of the Egyptians, committed 
a gross absurdity in Philosophy, when with these eyes 
of flesh he desired to see God, and petitioned his 
Maker, that is, truth it self, to a contradiction. Those 
that imagine Heaven and Hell neighbours, and con- 
ceive a vicinity between those two extreams, upon 
consequence of the Parable, where Dives discoursed 
with Lazarus in Abraham's bosorae, do too grosly con- 
ceive of those glorified creatures, whose eyes shall 
easily out-see the Sun, and behold without a perspec- 
tive the extreamest distances : for if there shall be 
in our glorified eyes, the faculty of sight and reception 
of objects, I could think the visible species there to be 
in as unlimitable a way as now the intellectual. I 
grant that two bodies placed beyond the tenth sphear, 



I 



THE FIRST PART 71 

or in a vacuitv, according to Aristotle's Philosophy, 
could not behold each other, because there wants a 
bodv or Medium to hand and transport the visible 
ravs of the object unto the sense ; but when there 
shall be a general defect of either Medium to convey, 
or light to prepare and dispose that Medium, and yet 
a perfect vision, we must suspend the rules of our 
Philosophy, and make all good by a more absolute 
piece of opticks. 

CANNOT tell how to say that fire is the essence of SECT. , 

Hell : I know not what to make of Purgatory , or 50 [t '-v. 
conceive a flame that can either prey upon, or 
purifie the substance of_a Soul ; those flames of sulphur 
mention'd in the Scriptures, I take not to be understood 
of this present Hell, but of that to come, where fire shall 
make up the complement of our tortures^and have a ~~j 
bodv or subject wherein to manifest its tyranny. Some 
who have had the honour to be textuary in Divinity, are 
of opinion it shall be the same specifical fire with ours.— — 
This is hard to conceive, yet can I make good how 
even that mav prev upon our bodies, and yet not con- 
sume us : for in this matt-rial World there are bodies 
that persist invincible in the powerfullest flames; and 
though by the action of fire they fall into ignition and 
liquation, vet will they never suffer a destruction. I 
would gladly know how Moses with an actual fire 
calcin'd, or burnt the Golden Calf into powder : for 
that mvstical metal of Gold, whose solarv and celestial 
nature I admire, exposed unto the violence of fire, grows~3 ^ 
onely hot, and liquifies, but consumeth not ; so when the 
consumable and volatile pieces of our bodies shall be 
refined into a more impregnable and fixed temper, like 
Gold, though they suffer from the action of flames, they 



72 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, shall never perish, but lye immortal in the arms of fire. 
50 And surely if this frame must suffer onely by the action 
of this element, there will marry^ bodies escape, and not 
onely Heaven, but Earth will not be at an end, but 
--rather a beginning. For at present it is not earth, but 
a composition of fire, water, earth, and air ; but at that 
time, spoiled of these ingredients, it shall appear in a 
substance more like it self, its ashes. Philosophers that 
opinioned the worlds destruction by fire, did never 
dream of annihilatwn,~whTch~ iiT beyond the power of 
sublunary causes ; for the last * action of that element 
is but vitrification, or a reduction of a body into glass; 
and therefore some of our Chymicks facetiously affirm, 
that at the last fire all shall be christallized and rever- 
berated into glass, which is the utmost action of that 
element. Nor need we fear this term annihilation, or 
wonder that God will destroy the works of his Creation: 
for man subsisting, who is, and will then truely appear, 
a Microcosm, the world cannot be said to be destroyed. 
For the eyes of God, and perhaps also of our glorified 
selves, shall as really behold and contemplate the World 
in its Epitome or contracted essence, as now it doth at 
large and in its dilated substance. In the seed of a 
Plant to the eyes of God, and to the understanding of 
man, there exists, though in an invisible way, the per- 
fect leaves, flowers, and fruit thereof: (for things that 
are in posse to the sense, are actually existent to the 
understanding). Thus God beholds all things, who 
contemplates as fully his works in their Epitome, as in 
their full volume ; and beheld as amply the whole 
world in that little compendium of the sixth day, as in 
the scattered and dilated pieces of those five before. 

* Last and proper, 1672. 



M 



THE FIRST FART 73 

EN commonly set forth the torments of Hell iSECT. 
bv fire, and the extremity of corporal afHic- : 51 
tions, and describe Hell in the same method 



that Mahomet doth Heaven. This indeed makes a 

nojsg^Jid..drnms_in_ poniila r ears; but if this be the 

terrible piece thereof, it is not worthy to stand in 

diameter with Heaven, whose happiness consists in 

that part that is best able to comprehend it, that 

immortal essence, that translated divinity and colony 

of God, the Soul. Surely though we place Hell under 

Earth, the Devil's walk and purine is about it : men 

speak too popularly who place it in those naming 

mountains, which to grosser apprehensions represent ^ 

Hell. The heart of man is the place the Devils dwelO s *$' I A-J*^ 

in; I feel sometimes a Hell within myself; Lveifer-^ s/\ 

keeps his Court in my breast; Legion is revived in me. 

There are as many Hells, as Ana.ragoras conceited 
worlds ; there was more than one Hell in Magdalene, 
when there were seven Devils ; for every Devil is an 
Hell unto himself; he holds enough of torture in his 
own ubi, and needs not the misery of circumference to 
afflict him. And thus a distracted Conscience here, is 
a shadow or introduction unto Hell hereafter. Who 
can but pity the merciful intention of those hands that 
do destroy themselves? the Devil, were it in his power, 
would do the like; which being impossible, his miseries 
are endless, and he suffers most in that attribute 
wherein he is impassible, his immortality. 

I THANK God that with joy I mention it, I was SECT, 
never afraid of Hell, nor never grew pale at the 52 
description of that place ; I have so fixed mv con-—, 
temptations on Heaven, that I have almost forgot the - 
Idea of Hell, and am afraid rather to lose the Joys of 



74 RELIGIO MEDICI 

-f/vf?T.the one, than endure the misery of the other : to be 
\ deprived of them is a perfect Hell, and needs methinks 

no addition to compleat our afflictions ; that terrible 
term hath never detained me from sin, nor do I owe 
any good action to the name thereof ; I fear God, yet 
am not jifraid of him ; his mercies make_me ashamed 
of my sins^before His* Judgements afraid thereof: these 
are the forced and secondary method of his wisdom, 
which he useth but as the last remedy, and upon pro- 
vocation ; a course rather to deter the wicked, than 
incite the virtuous to his worship. I can hardly think 
there was ever any scared into Heaven ; they go the 
fairest way to Heaven that would serve God without 
a Hell ; other Mercenaries, that crouch into him in 
fear of Hell, though they term themselves the servants, 
are indeed but the slaves of the Almighty. 

ND to be true, and speak my soul, when I 
survey the occurrences of my life, and call 
into account the Finger of God, I can per- 
ceive nothing but an abyss and mass oTlnercies, either 
$s in general to mankind, or in particular to my self: 

r . ' ■ ' and whether out of the prejudice of my affection, or 
K-ky an inverting and partial conceit of hjs _mer cies, I know 

1 /{J^\ not ; but those which others term crosses, afflictions, 
^<>y £? judgements, misfortunes, to me who inquire farther 
into them then their visible effects, they both appear, 
and in event have ever proved, the secret and dis- 
sembled favours of his affection. It is a singular piece 
of Wisdom to apprehend truly, and without passion, 
the Works of God, and so well to distinguish his 
Justice from his Mercy, as not miscall those noble 
Attributes : yet it is likewise an honest piece of 
Logick, so to dispute and argue the proceedings of 




THE FIRST PART 75 

God, as to distinguish even his judgments into mercies. 
For God is merciful unto all, because better to the 
worst, than the best deserve ; and to say he punisheth 
none in this world, though it be a Paradox, is no 
absurdity. To one that hath committed Murther, if 
the Judge should only ordain a Fine, it were a madness 
to call this a punishment, and to repine at the sentence, 
rather than admire the clemency of the Judge. Thus 
our offences being mortal, and deserving not onely 
Death, but Damnation ; if the goodness of God be 
content to traverse and pass them over with a loss, 
misfortune, or disease; what frensie were it to term 
this a punishment, rather than an extremity of mercy ; 
and to groan under the rod of his Judgements, rather 
than admire the Scepter of his Mercies? Therefore to 
adore, honour, and admire him, is a debt of gratitude 
due from the obligation qf_ourjiature, states, and con- "" 
ditions j and with these thoughts, he that knows them 
best, will not deny that I adore him. That I obtain 
Heaven, and the bliss thereof, is accidental, and not ~ 
the intended work of my devotion ; it being a felicity '«. 
I can neither think to deserve, nor scarce in modesty \ 
to expect. For these two ends of us all, either as 
rewards or punishments, are mercifully ordained and 
di>proportionablv disposed unto our actions; the one 
being so far beyond our deserts, the other so infinitely 
below our demerits. 



T 



HERE is no Salvation to those that believe SECT, 
not in Christ, that is, say some, since his ,**4 ""V 

Nativity, apd as Divinity afh'rmeth, before < ~^J^-~f l 



also ; which makes^me much apprehend the ends of 
those honest Worthies and Philosophers which dyed 
before his Incarnation. \ It is hard to place those 

V 



76 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT. Souls in Hell, whose worthy lives do teach us Virtue 
54 on Earth : methinks amongst those many subdivisions 
of Hell, there might have been one Limbo left for 
these. What a strange vision will it be to see their 
Poetical fictions converted into Verities, and their 
imagined and fancied Furies into real Devils? how 
strange to them will sound the History of Adam, when 
~*""~they shall suffer for him they never heard of? when 
they who derive their genealogy from the Gods, shall 
know they are the unhappy issue of sinful man ? It 
is an insolent part of reason, to controvert the Works 
of God, or question the Justice of his proceedings. 
Could Humility teach others, as it hath instructed 
me, to contemplate the infinite and incomprehensible 
distance betwixt the Creator and the Creature ; or 
did we seriously perpend that one simile of St. Paul, 
Shall the Vessel say to the Potter, Why hast thou made 
me thus ? it would prevent these arrogant disputes of 
reason, nor would we argue the definitive sentence of 
God, either to Heaven or Hell. Men that live accord- 
ing to the right rule and law of reason, live but in 
their own kind, as beasts do in theirs; who justly 
obey the prescript of their natures, and therefore can- 
not reasonably demand a reward of their actions, as 
onely obeying the natural dictates of their reason. It 
will therefore, and must at last appear, that all sal- 
— -— vation is through Christ; which verity I fear these 
great examples of virtue must confirm, and make it 
good, how the perfectcst actions of earth have no 
title or claim unto Heaven. 



THE FIKST TART 77 

NOR truelv do I think the lives of these or of SECT, 
any other, were ever correspondent, or in all 55 
points conformable unto their doctrines. It 
is evident that Aristotle transgressed the rule of his 
own Ethicks ; the Stoicks that condemn passion, and 
command a man to laugh in Phaiarit his Bull, could 
not endure without a groan a fit of the Stone or 
Colick. The Sapticks that afiirmed they knew nothing, 
even in that opinion confute themselves, and thought 
thev knew more than all the World beside. Diogenes—^ 
I hold to be the most vain-glorious .man of his time, 
and more ambitious in refusing all Honours, than ^ 
Alexander in rejecting none. Vice and the Devil put 
a Fallacy upon our Reasons, and provoking us too 
hastilv to run from it, entangle and profound us 
deeper in it. The Duke of Venice, that weds himself 
unto the Sea by a Ring of Gold, I will not argue 
of prodigality, because it is a solemnity of good use 
and consequence in the State : but the Philosopher 
that threw his money into the Sea to avoid Avarice, 
was a notorious prodigal. There is no road or ready" 
wav to virtue ; it is not an easie point of art to 
disentangle our selves from this riddle, or web of Sin : 
To perfect virtue, as to Religion, there is required a 
Panoplia, or compleat armour; that whilst we lye at 
close ward against one Vice, we lye not open to the 
venny of another. And indeed wiser discretions that 
have the thred of reason to conduct them, offend 
without pardon ; whereas, under-heads may stumble 
without dishonour. There go so many circumstances 
to piece up one good action, that it is a lesson to be 
good, and we are forced to be virtuous by the book. 
Again, the Practice of men holds not an equal pace, 
yea, and often runs counter to their Theory ; we 



Sr 



78 RELIGIO MEDICI 

naturally know what is good, but naturally pursue 

j what is evil: the Rhetorick wherewith I perswade 

, ^^v^another, cannot perswade my self: there is a depraved 

*, " \ XjJ-* ^appetite in us, that will with patience hear the learned 

V x y\ instructions of Reason, but yet perform no farther 

than agrees to its own irregular humour. In brief, we 

all are monsters, that is, a composition of Man and 

Beast ; wherein we must endeavour to be as the Poets 

""fancy that wise man Chiron, that is, to have the region 

of Man above that of Beast, and Sense to sit but at 

the feet of Reason. Lastly, I do desire with God that 

all, but yet affirm with men, that few shall know 

Salvation ; that the bridge is narrow, the passage 

-strait unto life : yet those who do confine the Church 

of God, either to particular Nations, Churches or 

Families, have made it far narrower then our Saviour 

ever meant it. 




SECT. r ~ ""^HE vulgarity of those judgements that wrap 
56 the Church of God in Strdbd's cloak, and 

J- restrain it unto Europe, seem to me as bad 
Geographers as Alexander, who thought he had Con- 
quered all the World, when he had not subdued the 
half of any part thereof. For we cannot deny the 
Church of God both in Asia and Africa, if we do not 
forget the Peregrinations of the Apostles, the deaths 
of the Martyrs, the Sessions of many, and, even in our 
reformed judgement, lawful Councils, held in those 
parts in the minority and nonage of ours. Nor must 
a few differences, more remarkable in the eyes of man 
than perhaps in the judgement of God, excommunicate 
from Heaven one another, much less those Christians 
who are in a manner all Martyrs, maintaining their 
Faith, in the noble way of persecution, and serving God 



THE FIRST PART 79 

in the Fire, whereas we honour him in the Sunshine. 

Tis true, we all hold there is a number of Elect, and 

many to be saved ; yet take our Opinions together, and 

from the confusion thereof there will be no such thing 

as salvation, nor shall any one be saved. For first, the 

Church of Home condemneth us, we likewise them; the 

Sub-reformists and Sectaries sentence the Doctrine of 

our Church as damnable ; the Atomist, or Familist, 

reprobates all these ; and all these, them again. Thus 

whilst the Mercies of God do promise us Heaven, our 

conceits and opinions exclude us from that place. 

There must be, therefore, more than one St. Peter : 

particular Churches and Sects usurp the gates of 

Heaven, and turn the key against each other: and thus 

we go to Heaven against each others wills, conceits and 

opinions; and with as much uncharity as ignorance, 

do err I fear in points not only of our own, but one X «" ^ 

anothers salvation. . f* 

I BELIEVE many are saved, who to man seem "7 SECT. 
reprobated ; and many are reprobated, who in the , 57 
opinion and sentence of man, stand elected : there ' 
will appear at the Last day, strange and unexpected 
examples both of his Justice and his Me rev ; and 
therefore to define cither, is folly in man, and insolencv 
even in the Devils : those acute and subtil spirits in all 
their sagacity, can hardly divine who shall be saved; 
which if they could Prognostic*:, their labour were at 
an end ; nor need they compass the earth seeking whom 
they may devour. Those who upon a rigid application 
of the Law, sentence Solomon unto damnation, con- 
demn not onely him, but themselves, and the whole 
World : for by the Letter and written Word of God, 
we are without exception in the state of Death ; but 



> 

\ 



80 RELIGIO MEDICI 

there is a prerogative of God, and an arbitrary plea- 
sure above the Letter of his own Law, by which 
alone we can pretend unto Salvation, and through 
which Solomon might be as easily saved as those who 
condemn him. 



SECT. *"" "^HE number of those who pretend unto Salva- 
5g tion, and those infinite swarms who think to 

JL pass through the eye of this Needle, have 
much amazed me. That name and compellation of 
little-Flock t doth not comfort, but deject my Devotion; 
especially when I reflect upon mine own unworthiness, 
wherein, according to my humble apprehensions, 
I am below them all. I believe there shall never 
be an Anarchy in Heaven, but as there are Hier- 
archies amongst the Angels, so shall there be degrees 
of priority amongst the Saints. Yet is it (I protest) 
• "\ jjP\beyond my ambition to aspire unto the first ranks; 
y-V*^' my desires onely are, and I shall be happy therein, 

to be but the last man, and bring up the Rere in 
\ Heaven. 



SECT. A GAIN, I am confident and fully perswaded, yet 
59 I \ dare not take my oath, of my Salvation : I 

1. JL am as it were sure, and do believe without all 
doubt, that there is such a City as Constantinople ; yet 
for me to take my Oath thereon were a kind of Perjury, 
because I hold no infallible warrant from my own sense 
to confirm me in the certainty thereof: And truly, 
though many pretend an absolute certainty of their 
Salvation, yet when an humble Soul shall contemplate 
our own unworthiness, she shall meet with many 
doubts, and suddenly find how little we stand in need 



THE FIRST PART 81 

of the Precept of St. Pauh Work out your salvation 

with fear and trembling. That which is the cause of 

mv Election, I hold to be the cause of my Salvation, 

which was the mercy and beneplacit of God, before 

I was, or the foundation of the World. Before 

Abraham teas, / am, is the saying of Christ ; yet is it 

true in some sense, if I say it of myself; for I was not 

onelv before myself, but Adam, that is, in the Idea of 

God, and the decree of that Synod held from all 

Eternity. And in this sense, I say, the World was 

before the Creation, and at an end before itjiad, a \ / 

beginning; and thus was I dead be|ore_LMLa£_alive : f (» ' 

though my grave be England, my dying place was 

Paradise : and Eve miscarried of me, before she 

conceiv'd of Cain. , 

INSOLENT zeals that do decry good Works, and SECT, 
rely onely upon Faith, take not away merit : for GO 
depending upon the efficacy of their Faith, they 
enforce the condition of God, and in a more sophistical [ o^ 

way do seem to challenge Heaven. It was decreed by 
God, that only those that lapt in the water like Dogs, 
should have the honour to destroy the Midianites ; yet 
could none of those justly challenge, or imagine he 
deserved that honour thereupon. I do not deny, but 
that true Faith, and such as God requires, is not onely 
a mark or token, but also a means of our Salvation ; 
but where to find this, is as obscure to me, as my last 
end. And if our Saviour could object unto his own 
Disciples and Favourites, a Faith, that, to the quantity 
of a grain of Mustard -seed, is able to remove 
Mountains ; surelv that which we boast of, is not any 
thing, or at the most, but a remove from nothing. 
This is the Tenor of my belief; wherein, though there 

v 






82 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, be many things singular, and to the humour of my 

60 irregular self; yet if they square not with maturer 

Judgements I disclaim them, and do no further favour 

them, than the learned and best judgements shall 

authorize them. 



11ELIGIO MEDICI 83 




THE SECOND PART 

OVV for that other Virtue of Charity, without SECT. 
which Faith is a meer notion, and of no 1 
X ^ existence, I have ever endeavoured to nourish "~-f 

the merciful disposition and humane inclination I 
borrowed from mv Parents, and regulate it to the 
written and prescribed Laws of Charity; and if I hold 
the true Anatomy of mv self, I am delineated and 
naturally framed to such a piece of virtue. For I am 
of a constitution so general, that it comforts and 
sympathizeth with all things; I have no antipathy^ 
or rather Idio-syncrasie, in dvetj humour, air, any 
thing : I wonder not at the French for their dishes 
of Frogs, Snails, and Toadstools, nor at the Jews 
for Locusts and Grasshoppers ; but being amongst 
them, make them my common Viands, and I find 
they agree with my Stomach as well as theirs. I 
could digest a Sallad gathered in a Churchyard, as 
well as in a Garden. 1 cannot start at the presence 
of a Serpent, Scorpion, Lizard, or Salamander: at the 
sight of a Toad or Viper, I find in me no desire to \\ 
take up a stone to destroy them. I feel not in my \ \' f) - l - fV ' 
self those common Antipathies that I can discover in i \ 
others : Those National repugnances do not touch me, 
nor do I behold with prejudice the French, Italian, 
Spaniard, or Dutch ; but where I find their actions in 
balance with my Country-men's, I honour, love, and 



84 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, embrace them in the same degree. I was born in the 
1 eighth Climate, but seem for to be framed and con- 
stellated unto all : I am no Plant that will not prosper 
out of a Garden : All places, all airs make unto me one 
*—■ Countrey ; I am in England, every where, and under 
f -any Meridian. I have been shipwrackt, yet am not 
enemy with the Sea or Winds ; I can study, play, or 
I - sleep in a Tempest. In brief, I am averse from 
nothing; my Conscience would give me the lye if I 
should absolutely detest or hate any essence but the 
Devil; or so at least abhor any thing, but that we 
\ \ might come to composition. If there be any among 

.<> y, those common objects of hatred I do contemn and 

p laugh at, it is that great enemy of Reason, Virtue and 

Ss Religion, the Multitude ; that numerous piece of mon- 

\ ,6 strosity, which taken asunder seem men, and the 

reasonable creatures of God; but confused together, 
make but one great beast, and a monstrosity more 
prodigious than Hydra : it is no breach of Charity to 
call these Fools ; it is the style all holy Writers have 
afforded them, set down by Solomon in Canonical 
Scripture, and a point of our Faith to believe so. 
Neither in the name of Multitude do I onely include 
the base and minor sort of people; there is a rabble 
C- Yyyeven amongst the Gentry, a sort of Plebeian heads, 
whose fancy moves with the same wheel as these ; men 
in the same Level with Mechanicks, though their 
fortunes do somewhat guild their infirmities, and their 
purses compound for their follies. But as in casting 
account, three or four men together come short in 
account of one man placed by himself below them: 
So neither are a troop of these ignorant Doradoes, of 
that true esteem and value, as many a forlorn person, 
whose condition doth place him below their feet. Let 



THE SECOND PART 



85 



us speak like Politicians\there is a Nobility without 
Heraldry, a natural dignity, whereby one man is ranked' 
with another; another filed before him, according to 
the quality of his Desert, and preheminence of his 
good parts : Though the corruption of these times, 
and the byas of present practice wheel another wayv- 
Thus it was in the first and primitive Commonwealths, 
and is yet in the integrity and Cradle of well-ordcrM 
Polities, till corruption getteth ground, ruder desires 
labouring after that which wiser considerations con- 
temn ; every one having a liberty to amass and heap 
up riches, and they a licence or faculty to do or 
purchase any thing. 

THIS general and indifferent temper of mine 
doth more nearly dispose me to this noble 
virtue. It is a happiness to be born and 
framed unto virtue, and to grow up from the seeds of 
nature, rather than the inoculation and forced graffs of 
education: yet if we are directed only by our particular 
Natures, and regulate our inclinations by no higher 
rule than that of our reasons, we are but Moralists; 
Divinity will still call us Heathens. Therefore this 
great work of charity must have other motives, ends, 
and impulsions : I give no alms only to satisfie the 
hunger of my Brother, but to fulfil and accomplish the 
Will and Command of my God : I draw not my purse 
for his sake that demands it, but his that enjoyned it; 
I relieve no man upon the Rhetorick of his miseries, 
nor to content mine own commiserating disposition : 
for this is still but moral charity, and an act that 
oweth more to passion than reason. He that relieves 
another upon the bare suggestion and bowels of pity, 
doth not this so much for his sake, as for his own ; 



^M^ut 



SECT. 

2 






_# 



t-vq 



86 RELIGIO MEDICI 

O SECTr*1for by compassion we make others misery our own, and 
2 /-so by relieving them, we relieve our selves also. It 
is as erroneous a conceit to redress other Mens mis- 
fortunes upon the common considerations of merciful 
natures, that it may be one day our own case ; for this 
is a sinister and politick kind of charity, whereby we 
seem to bespeak the pities of men in the like occasions: 
and truly I have observed that those professed Elee- 
mosynaries, though in a croud or multitude, do yet 
direct and place their petitions on a few and selected 
^^py^Vpersons : there is surely a Physiognomy, which those 
AV^^Ti 'experienced and Master Mendicants observe ; whereby 
they instantly discover a merciful aspect, and will 
1 single out a face, wherein they spy the signatures 

\S and marks of Mercy : for there are mystically in our 
faces certain Characters which carry in them the motto 
of our Souls, wherein he that can read A. B. C. may 
read our natures. I hold moreover that there is a 
r* Phytognomy, or Physiognomy, not only of Men but of 

V^ ' Plant s, and Vegetable s ; jand in every one of them, some 

^At^ / outward figures which hang as signs or bushes of their 
$} f\ * inward forms. The Finger of God hath left an In- 

/\ scription upon all his works, not graphical, or composed 
f \i/\ of Letters, but of their several forms, constitutions, 

O parts, and operations; which aptly joy ned together do 

. /make one word that doth express their natures. By 
\\°^ these Letters God calls the Stars by their names ; and 
Q^ by this Alphabet Adam assigned to every creature a 

name peculiar to its nature. Now there are, besides 
these Characters in our Faces, certain n ^ystical figures 
>ur Hands, which I dare not call meer dashes, strokes 
„j voice, or at random, because delineated by a Pencil 
>f that never works in vain ; and hereof I take more par- 

ticular notice, because I carry that in mine own hand, 




THE SECOND PART 87 

which I could never read of, nor discover in another. SECT, 
AnstutU I confess, in his acute and singular Book of 2 
Physiognomy, hath made no mention of Chiromancy; 
vet I believe the Egyptians, who were neerer addicted 
to those abstruse and mvstical sciences, had a know- 
ledge therein ; to which those vagabond and counterfeit 
Egyptians did after pretend, and perhaps retained a 
few corrupted principles, which sometimes might verifie 
their prognosticks. 

It is the common wonder of all men, how among 
so many millions of faces, there should be none 
alike: Now contrary, I wonder as much how there 
should be any. He that shall consider how many 
thousand several words have been carelesly and with- 
out study composed out of 2-i Letters; withal, how 
many hundred lines there are to be drawn in the 
Fabrick of one Man ; shall easily find that this variety 
is necessary : And it will be very hard that they shall 
so concur, as to make one portract like another. Let 
a Painter carelesly limb out a million of Faces, and 
vou shall find them all different ; yea let him have his 
Copy before him, vet after all his art there will remain 
a sensible distinction ; for the pattern or example of 
every thing is the perfectest in that kind, whereof we 
still come short, though we transcend or go beyond it, 
because herein it is wide, and agrees not in all points 
unto the Copy. Nor doth the similitude of Creatures 
disparage the variety of Nature, nor any way confound 
the Works of God. For even in things alike there is 
diversity; and those that do seem to accord, do 
manifotlv disagree. And thus is man like God ; for 
in the same things that we resemble him, we are utterly 
different from him. There was never any thing so like 
another, as in all points to concur; there will ever 




88 RELIGIO MEDICI 

some reserved difference slip in, to prevent the identity, 
without which, two several things would not be alike, 
but the same, which is impossible. 

UT to return from Philosophy to Charity: I 
hold not so narrow a conceit of this virtue, 
as to conceive that to give Alms is onely to 
be Charitable, or think a piece of Liberality can com- 
prehend the Total of Charity. Divinity hath wisely 
f /]U, divided the act thereof into many branches, and hath 
LJ^^ /r taught us in this narrow way, many paths unto good- 

ness : as many ways as we may do good, so many ways 
we may be charitable : there are infirmities, not onely 
of Body, but of Soul, and Fortunes, which do require 
the merciful hand of our abilities. I cannot contemn 
a man for ignorance, but behold him with as much 
pity as I do Lazarus. It is no greater Charity to 
cloath his body, than apparel the nakedness of his 
Soul. It is an honourable object to see the reasons 
of other men wear our Liveries, and their borrowed 
understandings do homage to the bounty of ours: 
It is the cheapest way of beneficence, and like the 
*, o° natural charity of the Sun, illuminates another with- 
N *\fx x out obscuring it self. To be reserved and caitiff in 
\ ^Aj^\ ^his P art °f goodness, is the sordidest piece of 
JSpovetousness, and more contemptible than pecuniary 
Avarice. To this (as calling my self a Scholarfl am 
obliged by the duty of my condition: I make not 
therefore my head a grave, but a treasure of know- 
Y~^ ledge; I intend no Monopoly, but a community in 

learning ; I study not for my own sake only, but for 
theirs t hat stud y not f oj^the^nselyes. I envy no man 
that knows more than my seTfTTjuTpity them that know 
less. I instruct no man as an exercise of my knowledge, 




>n; 




THE SECOND PART 89 

or with an intent rather to nourish and keep it alive SECT, 
in mine own head, then beget and propagate it in his ; 3 
and in the midst of all my endeavours, there is but 
one thought that dejects me, that my acquired parts 
must perish with my self, nor can be Legacied among 
my honoured Friends. I cannot fall out, or contemn 

a man for an errour, or conceive why a difference in - 

Opinion should divide an affection : For Controversies, ^jT*--^* 
Disputes, and Argumentations, both in Philosophy and 
in Divinity, if they meet with discreet and peaceable 
natures, do not infringe the Laws of Charity : in all 
disputes, so much as there is of passion, so much there_ 
is of nothing to the purpose; for then Reason, like a 
bad Hound, spends upon a false Scent, and forsakes 
the question first started. \ And this is one reason why 
Controversies are never determined ; for though thcv 
be amply proposed, they are scarce at all handled, 
they do so swell with unnecessary Digressions; and the 
Parenthesis on the party, is often as large as the main 
discourse upon the subject. The Foundations of Re- 
ligion are already established, and the Principles of 
Salvation subscribed unto by all : there remains not tf~ 
many controversies worth a Passion, and yet never any 
disputed without, not onTyTiTT) i Vfn i t y , but inferiour 
Arts:- What a ^arpa^Ofivofia^ia and hot skirmish is 
betwixt S. and T. in Lruian: How do Grammarians 
hack and slash for the Genitive case in Jupiter ? How 
do they break their own pates to salve that of Priscian\ 
Si foret in icrris, ridcrct Democritus. Yea, even 
amongst wiser militants, how many wounds have been 
given, and credits slain, for the poor victory of an 
opinion, or beggerlj conquest of a distinction? Scholars 
are men of Peace, they bear no Arms, but their tongues 
axe sharper than Actus his razor ; their Pens carry 



90 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, farther, and give a lowder report than Thunder : I had 
3 rather stand the shock of a Basilisco, than the fury of 
a merciless Pen. It is not meer Zeal to Learning, or 
Devotion to the Muses, that wiser Princes Patron the 
Arts, and carry an indulgent aspect unto Scholars ; but 
a desire to have their names eternized by the memory 
of their writings, and a fear of the revengeful Pen of 
succeeding ages : for these are the men, that when 
they have played their parts, and had their exits, must 
step out and give the moral of their Scenes, and deliver 
unto Posterity an Inventory of their Virtues and Vices. 
And surely there goes a great deal of Conscience to the 
compiling of an History : there is no reproach to the 
scandal of a Story ; it is such an au then tick kind of 
falshood, that with authority belies our good names to 
all Nations and Posterity. 




W SECT. r \^\ 

ft* 



HERE is another offencejunto Charity, which 

no Author hath ever written of, ana* few take 

(\ jj^-V* JL. notice of; and that's the reproach, not of 

fJr whole professions, mysteries and conditions, but of 

whole Nations ; wherein by opprobrious Epithets we 

miscal each other, and by an uncharitable Logick, 

from a disposition in a few, conclude a habit in all. 

Le mutin A nyloix, S; le bravache Escossois ; 
Le bo iu f re Italian, Sf le fol Francois ; 
Le poiiltron Bomain, le larron de Gattcongne, 
L'Espagnol superbe, § PAleman yvrongne. 

St. Paul, that calls the Cretians lyars, doth it but 
indirectly, and upon quotation of their own Poet. It 
is as bloody a thought in one way, as Nerd's was in 
another. For by a word we wound a thousand, and 
at one blow assassine the honour of a Nation. / It is 
as compleat a piece of madness to miscal and rave 



THE SECOND PART 



91 



against the times, or think to recal men to reason, by SECT, 
a fit of passion : Democritus, that thought to laugh the 4- 
times into goodness, seems to me as deeply Hypo- 
chondriack, as Heraclihu that bewailed them. It 
moves not my spleen to behold the multitude in their 
proper humours, that is, in their fits o f folly a nd 
madness, as well understanding that wisdom is not 
propliaiToMinto the World, and "'tis the priviledge of a 
few to be Vertuous. They that endeavour to abolish 
V r ice, destroy also Virtue; for contraries, though they 
destroy one another, are yet in life of one another. 
Thus Virtue (abolish vice) is an Idea; again, the com- 
munity of sin doth not disparage goodness ; for when 
Vice gains upon the major part, Virtue, in whom it 
remains, becomes more excellent; and being lost in 
some, multiplies its goodness in others, which remain 
untouched, and persist intirein the general inundation. 
I can therefore behold Vice without a Satyr, content " 
only with an admonition, or instructive reprehension, ^J 
for Noble Natures, and such as are capable of goodness, 
are railed into vice, that might as easily be admonished 
into virtue ; and we shoidd be all so far the Orators 
of goodness, as to protract her from the power of Vice, 
and maintain the cause of injured truth. )No man can 
justly censure or condemn another, because indeed no 
man truly knows another. This I perceive in my self^ 
for I am in the dark to all the world, and my nearest 
friends behold me but in a cloud : those that know me 
but superficially, think less of me than I do of mv self; 
those of my necr acquaintance think more; God, who 
truly knows me, knows that I am nothing; for he only 
beholds me and all the world ; who looks not on us 
through a derived ray, or a trajection of a sensible 
species, but beholds the substance without the helps of 



C<r*u4- 



*■ 




U^b 



92 REL1GIO MEDICI 

accidents, and the forms of things, as we their opera- 
tions. ^Further, nojnan can judge another, because no 
man knows himselfa for we censure others but as they 
disagree from that humour which we fancy laudible in 
our selves, and commend others but for that wherein 
they seem to quadrate and consent with us. So that 
in conclusion, all is but that we all condemn, ^elf-love. 
'Tis the general complaint of these times, and perhaps 
of those past, that charity grows cold ; which I perceive 
most verified in those which most do manifest the fires 
and flames of zeal ; for it is a virtue that best agrees 
with coldest natures, and such as are complexioned for 
r-v humility. But how shall we expect Charity towards 
pothers, when we are uncharitable to our selves ? Charity 
begins at home, is the voice of the World ; yet is every 
man his greatest enemy, and as it were, his own Exe- 
cutioner. Non occides, is the Commandment of God, 
yet scarce observed by any man ; for I perceive every 
man is his own Atropos, and lends a hand to cut the 
thred of his own days. Cain was not therefore the 
first Murtherer, but Adam, who brought in death ; 
whereof he beheld the practice and example in his own 
son Abel, and saw that verified in the experience of 
another, which faith could not perswade him in the 
Theory of himself. 

SECT. / "~ ""^HERE is, I think, no man that apprehends his 
H Y^ 5 . own miseries less than my self, and no man 

q ^a>^ j -A. that so neerly apprehends anothers. I could 
y^-k^ lose an arm without a tear, and with few groans, me- 

thinks, be quartered into pieces ; yet can I weep most 
seriously at a Play, and receive with true passion, the 
counterfeit grief of those known and professed Im- 
postures. It is a barbarous part of inhumanity to add 




THE SECOND PART 



93 



unto any afflicted parties misery, or indeavour to 
multiply in anv man, a passion, whose single nature is 
already above his patience : this was the greatest afflic- 
tion of Job ; and those obliijue expostulations of his 
Friends, a deeper injury than the down-right blows of 
the Devil. It is not the tears of our own eyes only, 
but of our friends also, that do exhaust the current of 
our sorrows ; which falling into many streams, runs 
more peaceably, and is contented with a narrower 
channel. It is an act within the power of charity, to 
translate a passion out of one brest into another, and 
to divide a sorrow almost out of it self; for an afflic- 
tion, like a dimension, may be so divided, as if not 
indivisible, at least to become insensible. Now with 
my friend I desire not to share or participate, but to 
engross, his sorrows ; that by making them mine own, 
fmay more easily discuss them ; for in mine own 
reason, and within my self, I can command that, which 
I cannot intreat without my self, and within the circle 
of another. I have often thought those noble pairs 
and examples of friendship not so truly Histories of 
what had been, as fictions of what should be; but I 
now perceive nothing in them but possibilities, nor 
any thing in the Heroick examples of Damon and 
Pythias, Achilles and Patrorlus, which methinks upon 
some grounds I could not perform within the narrow 
compass of my self. That a man should lay down his 
life for his Friend, seems strange to vulgar affections, 
and such as confine themselves within that Worldly 
principle, Charity begins at home. For mine own 
part I could never remember the relations that I held 
unto my self, nor the respect that I owe unto my own 
nature, in the cause of God, my Country, and my 
Friends. Next to these three I do embrace my self: 



SECT. 



<tf 




f 

i 



'_£-j-£#WU 



~r 




94 RELIGIO MEDICI 

pi confess I do not observe that order that the Schools 

\ ordain our affections, to love our Parents, Wives, 

Children, and then our Friends ; for excepting the 

injunctions of Religion, I do not find in my self such a 

necessary and indis soluble Sympathy to all those of my 

„ blood. I hope I donot break the fifth Commandment, 

\ f~ if I conceive I may love my friend before the nearest of 

my blood, even those to whom I owe the principles of 

life : il never yet cast a true affection on a womamj but 

I have loved my friend as I do virtue, my soul, my 

God. From hence me thinks I do conceive how God 

loves man, what happiness there is in the love of God. 

V^*^ V^ Omitting all other, there are three most mystical 

\ un ions, two natures in one person ; three persons in 

one nature ; one soul in two bodies. For though 

indeed they be really divided, yet are they so united, 

as they seem but one, and make rather a duality than 

two distinct souls. 



\ 



SECT. ^"~ ""^HERE are wonders in true affection; it is a 
3 body of Enigma's, mysteries, and riddles; 

#' n^- -A- wherein two so become one, as they both 




q body of Enigma's, mysteries, and riddles; 

^ JL 

^\o/^ become two : I love my friend before my self, and 
yet methinks I do not love him enough : some few 
months hence, my multiplied affection will make me 
believe I have not loved him at all : when I am from 
him, I am dead till I be with him ; when I am with 
him, I am not satisfied, but would still be nearer him. 

E United souls are not satisfied with imbraces, but desire 
to be truly each other; which being impossible, their 
desires are infinite, and must proceed without a possi- 
bility of satisfaction. Another misery there is in affec- 
tion, that whom we truly love like our own, we forget 
their looks, nor can our memory retain the Idea of 



V 



THE SECOND PART 



95 



their faces ; and it is no wonder, for they are our selves, 
and our affection makes their looks our own. This 
noble affection falls not on vulgar and common consti- 
tutions, but on such as are markM for virtue : he that 
can love his friend with this noble ardour, will in a 
competent degree affect all. Now if we can bring our 
affections to look_ beyond the body, and cast_ an eye 
upon the soul, we have fount!" out the true object, not 
only of friendship, but Charity; and the greatest happi- 
ness that we can bequeath the soul, is that wherein we 
all do place our last felicity, Salvation ; which though 
it be not in our power to bestow, it is in our charity 
and pious invocations to desire, if not procure and 
further. I cannot contentedly frame a prayer for my 
self in particular, without a catalogue for my friends; 
nor request a happiness wherein my sociable disposition 
doth not desire the fellowship of my neighbour. I 
never hear the Toll of a passing Bell, though in my 
mirth, without my prayers and best wishes for the 
departing spirit : I cannot go to cure the body of my 
patient, but I forget my profession, and call unto God - 
for his soul : I cannot see one say his prayers, but 
in stead of imitating him, I fall into a supplication for 
him, who perhaps is no more to me than a common 
nature: and if God hath vouchsafed an ear to my 
supplications, there are surely many happy that never 
saw me, and enjoy the blessing of mine unknown devo- 
tions. To prav for Enemies, that is, for their salvation, 
is no harsh precept, but the practice of our daily and 
ordinary devotions. I cannot believe the story of the 
Italian : our bad wishes and uncharitable desires pro- 
ceed no further than this life; it is the Devil, and the 
uncharitable votes of Hell, that desire our misery in 
the World to come. 



SECT. 

G 



o 



YfVft*^ 



96 RELIGIO MEDICI 



^ 



SECT. '"" ~"^0 do no injury, nor take none, was a prin- 
7 ciple, which to my former years, and im- 

-A- patient affections, seemed to contain enough 
of Morality ; but my more setled years, and Chris- 
tian constitution, have fallen upon severer resolutions. 
I can hold there is no such thing as injury ; that 
if there be, there is no such injury ns T^-pngp , and 
no such revenge as the contempt of an injury: that 
\ V^AsJ^to hate another, is to malign himself; that the truest 
vS way to love another, is to despise our selves. I were 

unjust unto mine own Conscience, if I should say 
I am at variance with any thing like my self. I find 
there are many pieces in this one fabrick of man ; 
this frame is raised upon a mass of Antipathies : 
I am one methinks, but as the World ; wherein 
notwithstanding there are a swarm of distinct es- 
sences, and in them another World of contrarieties ; 
we carry private and domestick enemies within, pub- 
lick and more hostile adversaries without. The 
Devil, that did but buffet St. Paul, plays methinks 
• C at sharp with me. Let me be nothing, if within 
\\y^~ the compass of my self I do not find the battail 

of Lcpanto, Passion against Reason, Reason against 
Faith, Faith against the Devil, and my Conscience 
against all. There is another man within me, that's 
angry with me, rebukes, commands, and dastards 
me. I have no Conscience of Marble, to resist the 
hammer of more heavy offences; nor yet too soft 
and waxen, as to take the impression of each single 
peccadillo or scape of infirmity : I am of a strange 
rjbelief, that it is as easie to be forgiven some sins, as to 
/r-j -t p/ */t/* va "commit some others. For my Original sin, I hold it 
y^ to be washed away in my Baptism, for my actual trans- 
^r gressions, I compute and reckon with God, but from my 



> 



THE SECOND PART 97 

last repentance, Sacrament, or general absolution ; and SECT, 
therefore am not terrified with the sins or madness of 7 
mv youth. I thank the goodness of God, I have no sins 
that want a name; I am not singular in offences; my 
transgressions are Epidemical, and from the common 
breath of our corruption. For there are certain tem- 
pers of body, which matcht with an humorous depravity 
of mind, do hatch and produce vitiosities, whose new- 
ness and monstrosity of nature admits no name; this 
was the temper of that Lecher that carnal'd with 
a Statua, and constitution of Nero in his Spintrian 
recreations. For the Heavens are not only fruitful in 
new and unheard-of stars, the Earth in plants and 
animals; but mens minds also in villany and vices: 
now the dulness of my reason, and the vulgarity of 
mv disposition, never prompted ray invention, nor 
sollicited mv affection unto any of those; yet even 
those common and quotidian infirmities that so neces- 
sarily attend me, and do seem to be my very nature, 
have so dejected me, so broken the estimation that I 
should have otherwise of my self, that I repute my 
self the most abjectest piece of mortality. Divines 
prescribe a fit of sorrow to repentance ; there goes 
indignation, anger, sorrow, hatred, into mine; passions 
of a contrary nature, which neither seem to sute 
with this action, nor my proper constitution. It 
is no breach of charity to our selves, to be at vari- 
ance with our Vices; nor to abhor that part of 
us, which is an enemy to the ground of charity 
our God ; wherein we do but imitate our great selves 
the world, whose divided Antipathies and contrary 
faces do yet carry a charitable regard unto the 
whole by their particular discords, preserving the 
common harmony, and keeping in fetters those powers, 

c; 



98 RELIGIO MEDICI 

whose rebellions once Masters, might be the ruine 
of all. 




SECT. X THANK God, amongst those millions of Vices I 
8 do inherit and hold from Adam, I have escaped 

JL one, and that a mortal enemy to Charity, the first 
and father-sin*, not onely of man, but of the devil, 
Pride ; a vice whose name is comprehended in a Mono- 
syllable, but in its nature not circumscribed with a 
World. I have escaped it in a condition that can 
hardly avoid it. Those petty acquisitions and reputed 
perfections that advance and elevate the conceits of 
A other men, add no feathers unto mine. I have seen a 

Grammarian towr and plume himself over a single line 
in Horace, and shew more pride in the construction of 
one Ode, than the Author in the composure of the 
whole book. For my own part, besides the Jargon and 
Patois of several Provinces, I understand no less than 
six Languages ; yet I protest I have no higher conceit 
of my self, than had our Fathers before the confusion 
of Babel, when there was but one Language in the 
World, and none to boast himself either Linguist or 
Critick. I have not onely seen several Countries, 
beheld the nature of their Climes, the Chorography of 
their Provinces, Topography of their Cities, but under- 
stood their several Laws, Customs, and Policies ; yet 
cannot all this perswade the dulness of my spirit unto 
such an opinion of my self, as I behold in nimbler and 
conceited heads, that never looked a degree beyond 
their Nests. I know the names, and somewhat more, 
of all the constellations in my Horizon; yet I have 
seen a prating Mariner, that could onely name the 
pointers and the North Star, out-talk me, and conceit 

* Farther-sin, 1682. 



THE SECOND PART 



99 



himself a whole Sphere above me. I know most of the 
Plants of mv Countrey, and of those about me ; yet 
methinks I do not know so many as when I did but 
know a hundred, and had scarcely ever Simpled further 
than Cheop~gide. For indeed, heads of capacity, 
and such as are not full with a handful, or easie 
measure of knowledge, think they know nothing, till 
they know all; which being impossible, they fall upon 
the opinion of Socrates, and only know thev know not — 
anv thing. I cannot think that Homer pin'd away 
upon the riddle of the fishermen ; or that Aristotle, 
who understood the uncertainty of knowledge, and con- 
fessed so often the reason of man too weak for the 
works of nature, did ever drown himself upon the 
Mux and refiux of Euripus. We do but learn to-dayyj 
what our better advanced judgements will unteach to- ; 
morrow ; and Aristotle doth but instruct us, as Pltffo^ 
did him ; that is, to confute himself. I have run 
through all sorts, vet find no rest in any: though our 
first studies and junior endeavours may style us Peri- 
pateticks, Stoicks. or Academicks, yet I perceive the 
wisest heads prove, at last, almost all S*cepticks, and 
stand like Janus in the field of knowledge. I have 
therefore one common and authentick Philosophy I 
learned in the Schools, whereby I discourse and satisfie 
the reason of other men ; another more reserved, and 
drawn from experience, wherebv I content mine own. 
Solomon, that complained of ignorance in the height of - 
knowledge, hath not only humbled my conceits, but 
discouraged my endeavour*. There is vet another 
conceit that hath sometimes made me shut my books, 
which tells me it is a vanity to waste our days in the 
blind pursuit of knowledge; it is but attending a little 
longer, and we shall enjoy that by instinct and infusion 



SECT. 
8 



]i 



*J^ 




"^Ji^JuX.^ 



100 RELIGIO MEDICI 

which we endeavour at here by labour and inquisition. 
It is better to sit down in a modest ignorance, and rest 
contented with the natural blessing of our own reasons, 
than buy the uncertain knowledge of this life, with sweat 
and vexation, which Death gives every fool gratia, and 
is an accessary of our glorification. 



I 



WAS never yet once, and commend their resolu- 
SECT. tions who never marry twice: not that I disallow 

\9j p JL of second marriage; as neither in all cases, of 
y^Polygamy, which considering some times, and the un- 
equal number of both sexes, may be also necessary. 
The whole World was made for man, but the twelfth 
part of mariiot-wojnaiL: Man is the whole World, and 
the Breath of God ; Woman the Rib and crooked piece 
of man. I could be content that we might procreate 
like trees, without conjunction, or that there were any 
way to perpetuatetKe WoTtd without this trivial and 
vulgar way of coition ; it is the foolishest act a wise 
^man commits in all his life; nor is there any thing 
that will more deject his cool'd imagination, when he 
shall consider what an odd and unworthy piece of folly 
he hath committed. I speak not in prejudice, nor am 
averse from that sweet Sex, but naturally amorous of 
all that is beautiful; I can look a whole day with 
k delight upon a handsome Picture, though it be but of 
| an Horse . It is my temper, and I like it the better, to 
affect all~narniony ; and sure there is musick even in 
the beautv, and the silent note which Cupid strikes, 
far sweeter than the sound of an instrument. For 
there is a musick where ever there is a harmony, order 
or proportion ; and thus far we may maintain the 
^"~ musick of the Sphears : for those well-ordered motions, 
and regular paces, though they give no sound unto the 



THE SECOND PART 101 

ear, vet to the understanding they strike a note most SECT, 
full of harmony- Whosoever is harmonically composed, 9 N 
delights in harmony; jvhich_makes me much distrust j 7 '^rc^ T ~° 
_th e_ symmetry of those heads^ which declaim agains t" ' 
all Church-M usick. For my self, not only from my 
ohedience, but my particular Genius, I do embrace it: 
for even that vulgar and Tavern-Musick, which makes y 
one man merry, another mad, strikes in me a deep fit ^ 
of devotion, and a profound contemplation of the first 
Composer. There is something in it of Divinity more 
than the ear discovers : it is an Hieroglyphi c al and 
shadowed lesson of the whole World, and creatures of 
God ; such a melody to the ear, as the whole World 
well understood, would afford the understanding. In 
brief, it is a sensible fit of that harmony, which intel- 
lectually sounds in the ears of God. I will not say 
with Plato, the soul is an harmony, but harmonical, 
and hath its nearest sympathy unto Musick : thus 
some whose temper of body agrees, and humours the 
constitution of their souls, are born Poets, though 
indeed all are naturally inclined unto Rhythme. x This > Urbem 
made Tacitus in the very first line of "his Story, fall * cma ?. iH 
upon a verse, and Cicero the worst of Poets, but R*s" 

/A 

2 declaiming for a Poet, falls in the very first sentence 
upon a perfect 3 Hexameter. I feel not in me those jj^ 
sordid and unchristian desires of my profession ; I do 3 /n Ha N 
not secretly implore and wish for Plagues, rejoyce >"<«"» 
at Famines, revolve Bphemerides and Almanacks, in mtHcerUtr I 
expectation of malignant Aspects, fatal Conjunctions, **"• 
and Eclipses : I rejoyce not at unwholesome Springs, 
nor unseasonable Winters ; my Prayer goes with the 
Husbandman's; I desire every thing in its proper 
season, that neither men nor the times be put out of 
temper. Let me be sick my self, if sometimes the 



102 



RELIGIO MEDICI 



SECT. 
9 




malady of my patient be not a disease unto me ; I 
desire rather to cure his infirmities than my own neces- 
sities : where I do him no good, methinks it is scarce 
honest gain ; though I confess 'tis but the worthy 
aryof our well-intended endeavours. I am not only 
ashamed, but heartily sorry, that besides death, there 
are diseases incurable ; yet not for my own sake, or that 
they be beyond my Art, but for the general cause and 
sake of humanity, whose common cause I apprehend as 
mine own. And to speak more generally, those three 
Noble Professions which all civil Commonwealths do 
honour, are raised upon the fall of Adam, and are not 
exempt from their infirmities; there are not only diseases 
incurable in Physick, but cases indissolvable in Laws, 
Vices incorrigible in Divinity : if general Councils may 
err, I do not see why particular Courts should be 
infallible; their perfectest rules are raised upon the 
erroneous reasons of Man ; and the Laws of one, do 
but condemn the rules of another ; as Aristotle oft- 
times the opinions of his Predecessours, because, 
though agreeable to reason, yet were not consonant to 
his own rules, and Logiek of his proper Principles. 
Again, to speak nothing of the Sin against the Holy 
Ghost, whose cure not onely, but whose nature is 
unknown ; I can cure the Gout or Stone in some, sooner 
than Divinity Pride or Avarice in others. I can cure 
Vices by Physick, when they remain incurable by 
Divinity; and shall obey my Pills, when they contemn 
their precepts. I boast nothing, but plainly say, we all 
labour against our own cure ; for death is the cure of 
all diseases. There is no Catholicon or universal 
remedy I know but this, which, though nauseous to 
queasie stomachs, yet to prepared appetites is Nectar, 
and a pleasant potion of immortality. 



- 



THE SECOND PART 103 

'OR niv Conversation, it is like the Sun's with all SECT. 



F« 
men, and with a friendly aspect to good and 10 
bad. Methinks there is no man bad, and the _ ^u-rz^uL 

TV * 

worst, best; that is, while they are kept within the 
circle of those qualities, wherein they are good; there 
is no man's mind of such discordant and jarring a 
temper, to which a tunable disposition may not strike 
a harmonv. Magna virtutes, nee minora vitia ; it is 
the posie of the best natures, and may be inverted on 
the worst ; there are in the most depraved and venemous 
dispositions, certain pieces that remain untoucht, which 
by an Antipcristasis become more excellent, or by the 
excellency of their antipathies are able to preserve 
themselves from the contagion of their enemy vices, 
and persist intire beyond the general corruption. For 
it is also thus in nature. The greatest Balsomes do lie 
enveloped in the bodies of most powerful Corrosives; 
I say moreover, and I ground upon experience, that 
poisons contain within themselves their own Antidote, 
and that which preserves them from the venome of 
themselves, without which they were not deleterious to 
others onely, but to themselves also. But it is the 
corruption that I fear within me, not the contagion of 
commerce without me. 'Tis that unruly regiment with- 
in me. that will destroy me; 'tis I that do infect my 
-elf; the man without a Navel vet lives in me; I feel 
that original canker corrode and devour me ; and 
therefore Defcnda me Dios <h me, Lord deliver me 
from my self, is a part of my Letany, and the first 
voice of my retired imaginations. There is no man 
alone, because every man is a Microcosm, and carries 
the whole World about him ; Nunquam minus solus 
quam rum solus, though it be the Apothegme of a wise 
man, is vet true in the mouth of a fool; indeed, though 



*\<. 



104 RELIGIO MEDICI 

in a Wilderness, a man is never alone, not only because 
he is with himself and his own thoughts, but because 
he is with the Devil, who ever consorts with our soli- 
tude, and is that unruly rebel that musters up those 
disordered motions which accompany our sequestred 
imaginations. And to speak more narrowly, there is 
no such thing as solitude, nor any thing that can be 
said to be alone and by itself, but God, who is his own 
circle, and can subsist by himself; all others, besides 
their dissimilary and Heterogeneous parts, which in a 
manner multiply their natures, cannot subsist without 
the concourse of God, and the society of that hand 
which doth uphold their natures. In brief, there can 
be nothing truly alone and by it self, which is not truly 
one ; and such is only God : All others do transcend 
an unity, and so by consequence are many. 



<y\ t 'J^tfECT "TW TOW for my life, it is a miracle of thirty years/ 

11 ^k which to relate, were not a History buta 

-1. ^1 piece of Poetry, and would sound to common 

VVy-> ears like a Fable ;j_for the World, I countjtji ot an In .n, 

\ />,-Sj but_an ..Hospital ; and a place noQal lye. but to dye in . 



f 



The world that I regard is myself; it is the Microcosm 
O^ r'i^-- °f m y own fr ame that I ca st mine eye on \ for the 
\ fT^J^r other, I use it but like m y Globe, and turn it round 

ij i— sometimes for my recreatiojnTjMen that look upon my 
outside, perusing only my condition and Fortunes, do 
err in my Altitude, for I am above Atlas his shoulders. 
The earth is a point not only in respect of the Heavens 
above us, but of that heavenly and celestial part within 
us : that mass of Flesh that circumscribes me, limits 



\ Jv^L/) not my mind : that surface that tells the Heavens it 
*4neJv t-T" hath an end, cannot persuade me I have any : I take 
^V/y V my circle to be above three hundred and sixty ; though 




THE SECOND PART 105 

the number of the Ark do measure my body, it com- SIM T. 
prehendeth not my mind : whilst I study to find how I 11 
am a Microcosm, or little World, I find my self some- 
thing more than the great. There is surely a piece of ~~\ 
Divinity in us. something that was before the Elements, 
and owes no homage unto the Sun. Nature tells me I 
am the Image of God, as well as Scripture : he that 
understands "not thuslhuch, hath not his introduction 
or first lesson, and is yet to begin the Alphabet of 
man. Let me not injure the felicity of others, if I say 
I am as happy as any : Ruat cah/m, Fiat voluntas tua, 
salveth all ; so that whatsoever happens, it is but what 
our daily prayers desire. In brief, I am content, and \^ , jlJa ^ 
what should providence add more? Surely this is it p i' 
we call Happiness, and this do I enjoy ; with this I am 
happy in a dream, and as content to enjoy a happiness 
in a fancy, as others in a more apparent truth and 
realty. There is surely a neerer apprehension of anv 
thing that delights us in our dreams, than in our waked 
senses ; without this I were unhappy : for my awaked 
judgment discontents me, ever whispering unto me, 
that I am from mv friend ; but mv friendlv dreams in 
night requite me, and make me think I am within his 
arms. I thank God for my happy dreams, as I do for 
my good rest, for there is a satisfaction in them unto 
reasonable desires, and such as can be content with a . 

fit of happiness. "*\ And surelv it is not a melancholy r ~? Jx^Kf^^i 
conceit to think wt^_are all asleep in this World, and 
that the conceits of this life are as meer dreams to 
those of the next, as the Phantasms of the night, to 
the conceits of the da\\_/ rhere is an equal delusion in 
both, and the one doth but seem to be the embleme or 
picture of the other ; we are somewhat more than our 
selves in our slet ps, and the slumber of the bodv seems 



106 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, to be but the waking of the soul. It is the ligation of 
1 1 sense, but the liberty of reason, and our waking con- 
ceptions do not match the Fancies of our sleeps. At 
luCA my Nativity, ray Ascendant was the watery sign of 
-J>^ C&orpius; I was born in the Planetary hour of Saturn, 
and I think I have a piece of that Leaden Planet in 
rae. I am no way facetious, nor disposed for the mirth 
and galliardize of company ; yet in one dream I can 
compose ajvhole Comedy, behold the action, appre- 
hend the jests",""and laugh' my self awake at the conceits 
| thereof : were my memory as faithful as my reason is 
then fruitful, I would never study but in my dreams ; 
and this time also would I chuse for my devotions : but 
our grosser memories have then so little hold of our 
abstracted understandings, that they forget the story, 
and can only relate to our awaked souls, a confused 
and broken tale of that that hath passed. Aristotle, 
who hath written a singular Tract of Sleep, hath not 
methinks throughly defined it ; nor yet Galen, though 
he seem to have corrected it ; for those Noctambuloes 
and night-walkers, though in their sleep, do yet injoy 
the action of their senses : we must therefore say that 
there is something in us that is not in the jurisdiction 
of Morpheus ; and that those abstracted and ecstatick 
souls do walk about in their own corps, as spirits with 
the bodies they assume; wherein they seem to hear, 
and feel, though indeed the Organs are destitute of 
sense, and their natures of those faculties that should 
inform them. Thus it is observed, that men some- 
times upon the hour of their departure, do speak and 
reason above themselves ; for then the soul beginning 
to be freed from the ligaments of the body, begins to 
reason like her self, and to discourse in a strain above 
mortality. 



•*-■' 



THE SECOND PART 107 

WE term sleep a death, and yet it is waking SECT. 
that kills us, and destroys those spirit* that 12 
are the house of life. Tis indeed a part \a€ i -s 

of life that best expresseth death ; for every man ^ 
truely lives, so long as he acts his nature, or some way 
makes good the faculties of himself: 'l'hanistocles 
therefore that slew his Soldier in his sleep, was a 
merciful Executioner: 'tis a kind of punishment the 
mildness of no laws hath invented; I wonder the fancy 
of Lucan and Seneca did not discover it. It is that 
death by which we may be literally said to i\yv daily; 
a death which Adam dved before his mortality; a 
death whereby we live a middle and moderating point 
between life and death ; in fine, so like death, I dare 
not trust it without my prayers, and an half adieu 
unto the World, and take my farewell in a Colloquy 
w ith God. 



The night is come, like, to the day ; 
hepart not thou great Hod away. 
Let not my .sins, blurk as the night, 
EcHpse the lustre of thy light. 
Keep still in my Horizon ; for to me 
The Sun makes not the day, but thee. 
Thou whose nature cannot sleep, 
On >uy temples centry keep : 
Guard ate gainst those watchful Joes, 

Whose eyes Of* n/ien irhile mine iln.se. 
Let 7uj dream- my head infest, 

Hut such as Jacob's temples blest. 

White I do rest, my Soul advanee ; 

Make my sleep a lady trance. 

That 1 may, my rest being wrought, 

Awake into some holy thought ; 
And with us active vigour run 
My course, as doth tlic nimble Sun. 
Sleep is a death ; make me try. 
By sl ee pi ng i what it is to die: 
And as gently lay my head 
On my grave, u- now my bed. 



108 RELIGIO MEDICI 

Howere I rest, great God, let me 
Awake again at last with thee. 
And thus assur'd, behold I lie 
Securely, or to awake or die. 
These are my drowsie days ; in vain 
I do now wake to sleep again : 
come that hour, tohen I shall never 
Sleep again, but wake for ever. 

This is the Dormative I take to bedward ; I need no 
other Laudanum than this to make me sleep ; after 
which, I close mine eyes in security, content to take 
my leave of the Sun, and sleep unto the resurrection. 

SECT, r- m ^HE method I should use in distributive Justice, 
13 I often observe in commutative; and keep a 

JL Geometrical proportion in both; whereby be- 
coming equable to others, I become unjust to my self, 
and supererogate in that common principle, Do unto 
"^ntJiers as thou wouldst be done unto thy self. I was not 
born unto riches, neither is it I think/ my Star [ to be 
wealthy; or if it were, the freedom of my mind, and 
frankness of my disposition, were able to contradict 

■s ^^v^iiid cross my fates. For to me avarice seems not so 
much a vice, as a deplorable piece of madness; to 
conceive ourselves Urinals, or be perswaded that we are 
dead, is not so ridiculous, nor so many degrees beyond 
the power of Hellebore, as this. The opinion of 
Theory, and positions of men, are not so void of 
reason as their practised conclusions : some have held 
that Snow is black, that the earth moves, that the 
Soul is air, fire, water ; but all this is Philosophy, 
and there is no delirium, if we do but speculate the 
folly and indisputable dotage of avarice, to that 
subterraneous Idol, and God of the Earth. I do 
confess I am an Atheist ; I cannot perswade myself to 



THE SECOND PART 109 

honour that the World adores; whatsoever virtue its SECT. 

prepared substance may have within my body, it hath 13 

no influence nor operation without: I would not 

entertain a base design, or an action that should call 

me villain, for the Indies; and for this only do I love 

and honour my own soul, and have methinks two arms 

too few to embrace myself. Aristotle is too severe, 

that will not allow us to be trucly liberal without 

wealth, and the bountiful hand of Fortune; if this be 

true, I must confess I am charitable only in my liberal 

intentions, and bountiful well-wishes. But if the 

example of the Mite be not only an act of wonder, but 

an example of the noblest Charity, surely poor men 

may also build Hospitals, and the rich alone have 

not erected Cathedrals. I have a private method 

which others observe not; I take the opportunity of 

my self to do good ; I borrow occasion of Charity) 

from mine own necessities, and supply the wants of 

others, when I am in most need my self; for it is j 

an honest stratagem to make advantage of our selves, 

and so to husband the acts of vertue, that where they 

were defective in one circumstance, they may repa\ 

their want, and multiply their goodness in another. 

1 have not Peru in my desires, but a competence, and 

ability to perform those good works to which he hath 

inclined my nature. He is rich, who hath enough to 

be charitable; and it is hard to be so poor, that a . 

noble mind may not find a way to this piece of good- j^ p.( 

ness. He that givetk to the poor, Jendeth to the Lord; ~ 

there is more Rhetorick in that one sentence, than in 
a Library of Sermons ; and indeed if those Sentences 
were understood by tin- Reader, with the same Em- 
phasis as they are delivered bv the Author, we needed 
not those Volumes of instructions, but might be honest 



• 



110 RELIGIO MEDICI 

\"""bv an Epitome. Upon this motive only I cannot 
\ behold a Beggar without relieving his Necessities with 
| my Purse, or his Soul with my Prayers ; these scenical 
and accidental differences between us, cannot make me 
forget that common and untoucht part of us both ; 
there is under these Cantoes and miserable outsides, 
these mutilate and semi-bodies, a soul of the same 
alloy with our own, whose Genealogy is God as well 
as ours, and in as fair a way to Salvation as our selves. 
Statists that labour to contrive a Common-wealth 
without our poverty, take away the object of charity, 
not understanding only the Common-wealth of a 
Christian, but forgetting the prophecie of Christ. 



SECT. "|k TQW there is another part of charity, which 
14 ^L is the Basis and Pillar of this, and that is 

sJN^- JL ^1 the love of God, for whom we love our 

)\ neighbour ; for this I think charity, to love God for 

himself, and our neighbour for God. All that is truly 

r>^ amiable is God, or as it were a divided piece of 

him, that retains a reflex or shadow of himself. Nor 
is it strange that we should place affection on that 

\sS* i* nt which is invisible; all that we truly love is thus; 

> j^ what we adore under affection of our senses, deserves 

\ -^ not the honour of so pure a title. Thus we adore 

virtue, though to the eyes of sense she be invisible : 
thus that part of our noble friends that we love, 
is not that part that we imbrace, but that insens- 
ible part that our arms cannot embrace. God being 
all goodness, can love nothing but himself, and the 
traduction of his holy Spirit. Let us call to assize the 
loves of our parents, the affection of our wives and 
children, and they are all dumb shows and dreams, 
without reality, truth or constancy : for first, there is 



THE SECOND PART 111 

a strong bond of affection between us and our Parents ; 
yet how easily dissolved ? We betake our selves to a 
woman, forget our mother in a wife, and the womb 
that bare us, in that that shall bear our Image : this 
woman blessing us with ehildren, our affection leaves 
the level it held before, and sinks from our bed unto 
our issue and picture of Posterity, where affection holds 
no steady mansion. They, growing up in years, desire 
our ends ; or applying themselves to a woman, take 
a lawful way to love another better than our selves. 
Thus I perceive a man may be buried alive, and behold 
his grave in his own issue. 



I CONCLUDE therefore and say, there is no happi- SECT, 
ness under (or as Copernicus will have it, above) U>4- 
the Sun. nor 'any Crambe in that repeated verity — — — ■ 

and burthen of all the wisdom of Solomon, All is vanity i 

and nwation of Spirit. There is no felicity in that the 
World adores : Aristotle whilst he labours to refute the 
Idea's of Plato, falls upon one himself: for his mmmum 
bonum is a Chimcera, and there is no such thing as his 
Felicity. That wherein God himself is happy, the holy 
Angels are happy, in whose defect the Devils are 
unhappy ; that dare I call happiness : whatsoever con- 
duceth unto this, may with an easy Metaphor deserve 
that name : whatsoever else the World terms Happiness, 
is to me a story out of Pliny, a tale of Boccace or 
Malizspini ; an apparition or neat delusion, wherein 
there is no more of Happiness, than the name. Bless 
me in this life with but peace of mv Conscience, com- 
mand of my affections, the love of thy self and my 
dearest friends, and I shall be happy enough to pity 
Caesar. These are, O Lord, the humble desires of my 



112 RELIGIO MEDICI 

SECT, -\iost reasonable ambition, and all I dare call happiness 

15 on earth ; wherein I set no rule or limit to thy Hand or 

Providence ; dispose of me according to the wisdom of 

thy pleasure. Thy will be done, though in my own 

undoing. 



FINIS 



PSEUDODOXIA EPIDEMICA 

OR ENQUIRIES 

INTO VERY MANY RECEIVED 

TENENTS AND COMMONLY 

PRESUMED TRUTHS 



TO THE READER 

WOC LI) Truth dispense, we could be content, 
with Plato, that knowledge were but remem- 
brance; that intellectual acquisition were 

but reminiseential evocation, and new Impressions but the 
colouring of old stamps which stood pale in the soul 
re. For what is icorse, knowledge is made by 
oblivion, and to purchase a clear and warrantable body 
of Truth, we must forget and part with much we know. 
Our tender Enquiries talcing up Learning at large, and 
together with true and assured notions, receiving many, 
wherein our reviewing judgments do find no satisfac- 
tion. And therefore in this Encyclopaedic and round of 
Knowledge, like the great and exemplary Wheels of 
Heaven, we must observe two Circles : that while we arc 
iliiily carried about, and whirled on by the swing and 
rapt of the one, we may maintain a natural and proper 
course, in the slow and sober -wheel of the other. And 
this we shall more readily perform, if zee timely survey 
our knowledge; impartially singling out those encroach- 
ments, which junior compliance and popular credulity 
hath admitted. Whereof at present we have endeavoured 
a long and serious Adviso; proposing not only a large 
and copious List, but from experience and reason attempt- 
ing their decisions. 

And Jirst we crave exceeding pardon in the audacity 

us 



116 PSEUDODOXIA 

of the Attempt, humbly acknowledging a zcork of such 
concernment unto truth, and difficulty in it self, did well 
deserve the conjunction of many heads. And surely 
more advantageous had it been unto Truth, to have 
fallen into the endeavors of some co-operating advancers, 
that might have performed it to the life, and added 
authority thereto; which the privacy of our condition, 
and unequal abilities cannot expect. Whereby notwith- 
standing zee have not been diverted ; nor have our 
solitary attempts been so discouraged, as to dispair the 
favourable look of Learning upon our single and 
unsupported endeavours. 

Nor have we let fall our Pen, upon discouragement 
of Contradiction, Unbelief and Difficulty of disswasion 
from radicated beliefs, and points of high prescription, 
although we are very sensible, how hardly teaching years 
do learn, what roots old age contracteth unto errors, and 
hozv such as are but acorns in our younger brows, grow 
Oaks in our elder heads, and become inflexible unto the 
pozverfullcst arm of reason. Although we have also 
beheld, what cold requitals others have found in their 
several redemptions of Truth ; and how their ingenuous 
Enquiries have been dismissed zvith censure, and obloquie 
of singularities. 

Some consideration we hope from the course of our 
Profession, which though it leadeth us into many truths 
that pass undiscerned by others, yet doth it disturb their 
Communications, and much interrupt the office if out- 
Pens in their well intended Transmissions. And there- 
fore surely in this work attempts will exceed perform- 
ances ,• it being composed by snatches q ftime, a$ medical 
inspection vacations, and the fruitless importunity of Uroscopy 
of nnet. wou i^ permit us. And therefore also, perhaps it hath 
not found that regidar and constant stile, those infallible 



^\ r 



TO THE READER 117 

experiments and those assured determination*, which the 
subject sometime requireth, and might be expected from 
others, whose quiet doors and unmolested hours afford no 
such distraction*. Although whoever shall indifferently 
perpend the exceeding difficulty, which either tJw obscurity 
of the subject, or unavoidable paradoxology must often 
put upon the Attemptor, he will easily discern, a work of 
this nature is not to be performed upon one legg ; and 
should smel ofoyl, if duly and deservedly handled. 

Our first intentions considering the common interest of 
Truth* resolved to propose it unto the Latins republ'upie 
and equal Judges of Europe, but arcing in the first place 
thin service unto our Country, and therein especiallu unto 
its ingenuous Gentry, we have declared our self in a 
language best conceived. Although I confess the quality 
of the Subject will sometimes carry us into expressions 
beyond meer English apprehensions. And indeed, if 
elegancy still proceedeth, and English Pens maintain 
that stream, we have of late observed to flow from many ; 
WS shall within few years be fain to learn Latins to 
understand English, and a work will prove of equal 
facility in cither. Nor have we addressed our Pen or 
~~Stile unto the people (whom Books do not redress, and 
are this way incapable of reduction), but unto the know- 
ing and leading part of Learning. As well under- 
standing (at least probably hoping) except they be 
watered from higher regions, and fructifying meteors of 
Knowledge, these -weeds must lose their alimental sap, 
and wither of themselves. Whose conserving influence, 
could our endeavours prevent ; we should trust the rest 
unto the sythe of Time, and hoptfull dominion of 
Truth. 

We hope it will not be unconsidered, that we Jind no 
open tract, or constant manudut turn in this Lalryrinth ; 



118 



PSEUDODOXIA 



repi t» 

JT€7r«7TeU- 

ixiviuv, 
A thcnai, 
lib. 7. 



but are oft-times fain to wander in the America and 
untravelled parts of Truth. For though not many 
years past, Dr. Primrose hath made a learned Discourse 
of vulgar Errors in Physick, yet have we discussed but 
two or three thereof Scipio Mercurii hath also left an 
excellent tract in Italian, concerning popular Errors; 
but confining himself only unto those in Physick, he hath 
little conduced unto the generality of our doctrine. 
Lauren this Ioubertus, by the same Title led our ex- 
pectation into thoughts of great relief; whereby notwith- 
standing we reaped no advantage ; it anszaering scarce 
at all the promise of the inscription. Nor perhaps (if 
it were yet extant) should we find any farther Assistance 
from that ancient piece of Andreas, pretending the same 
Title. And therefore we are often constrained to stand 
alone against the strength of opinion, and to meet the 
Goliah and Giant of Authority, xvilh contemptible pibbles, 
and feeble arguments, drawn from the scrip and slender 
stock of our selves. Nor have we indeed scarce named 
any Author whose name we do not honour; and if 
detraction could invite lis, discretion surely would contain 
us from any derogatory intention, where highest Pens 
and friendliest eloquence must fail in commendation. 

And therefore also we cannot but hope the equitable 
considerations, and candour of reasonable minds. We 
cannot expect the frown of Theology herein ; nor can 
they which behold the present state of things, and con- 
troversie of points so long received in Divinity, condemn 
our sober Enquiries in the doubtfull upper tinancics of 
Arts, and Reccptaries of Philosophy . Surely Philologers 
and Critical Discoursers, xvho look beyond the shell and 
obvious exteriours of things, will not be angry with our 
narrower explorations. And we cannot doubt, our 
Brothers in Physick (whose knowledge in Naturals 



TO THE READER 119 

wUl lead them into a nearer apprehension of many things 
delivered) will friendly accept, if not countenance our 
endeavours. Nor can zee conceive it may be unwelcome 
unto those honoured Worthies, who endeavour the ad- 
vancement of Learning : as being likely to find a clearer 
progression^ when so many rubs are levelled, and many 
untruths taken off, which passing as principles with 
common beliefs, disturb the tranquility of Axioms, which 
otherwise might he raised. And zci.se men cannot bid 
know, that arts and learning want this expurgation: 
iind if the course of truth be permitted unto its self, like 
that of time and uncorrected computations, it cannot 
escape many errors, which duration still enlargeth. 

Lastly, we are not Magisterial in opinions, nor have 
we Dictator-like obtruded our conceptions ; but in the 
humjlily_qf\Eru2uiries or disquisitions, have only pro- 
posed them unto more ocular discerners. And therefore 
opinions are free, and open it is for any to think or 
declare the contrary. And we shall so far encourage 
contradiction, as to promise no disturbance, or re-oppose 
any Pen, that shall fallaciously or captiously refute us; 
that shall only lay hold of our lapses, single out Digres- 
sions, Corollaries, or Ornamented conceptions, to evidence 
his own in as indifferent truths. And shall only talcP} 
notice of such, xchose experimental and Judicious know- \ 
ledge sliall solemnly look upon it ; not only to destroy of * 
ours, but to establish of his own ; riot to traduce or 
extenuate, but to explain and dilucidate. to add and 
ampliate, according to the laudable custom of the Ancients 
in their sober promotions of Learning. Unto whom not- 
withstanding, ice shall not contcntiously rejoin, or only 
tojustifie our own, but to apjdaud or confirm his maturer 
assertions; and shall confer what is in us unto his 7iame 
and honour ; Ready to be swallowed in any worthy 



120 PSEUDODOXIA 

enlarger: as having- acquired our end, if any way, or 
under any name we may obtain a work, so much desired, 
and yet desiderated of Truth. 

THOMAS BROWN. 



THE POSTSCRIPT 

Readers, 

TO enform you of the Advantages of the present 
Impression, and disabuse your expectations of 
any future Enlargements ; these are to adver- 
tise thee, that this Edition comes forth with very many 
Explanations, Additions, and Alterations throughout, 
besides that of one entire Chapter: But that now this Work 
is compleat and perfect, expect no further Additions. 



THE FIRST BOOK 
OR GENERAL PART 

CHAPTER I 

Of the Causes of Common Errors. 



T 



I 1 E First and Father-cause of common Error, is, CHAT. 
The common in firmi ty of Human_Nature ; of I 
whose deceptible condition, although perhaps Tkt Intro- 
there should not need any other eviction, than the duct,on - 
frequent Errors we shall our selves commit, even in the 
express declarement hereof: yet shall we illustrate the 
same from more infallible constitutions, and persons pre- 
sumed as far from us in condition, as time, that is, our 
first and inijenerated forefathers. From whom as we 
derive our Being, and the several wounds of constitution ; 
so, may we in some manner excuse our infirmities in the 
depravity of those parts, whose Traductions were pure 
in them, and their Originals but once removed from 
God. Who notwithstanding (if posterity may take leave 
to judge of the fact, as they are assured to suffer in the 
punishment) were grossly deceived, in their perfection ; Matter of 
and so weakly deluded in the claritv of their under- £ rfa 'f' s - 
standing, that it hath left no small obscurity in ours, our/irst 
How error should gain upon them. ToZdleso 

For first, They were deceived by Satan ; and that not ittiotd. 
in an invisible insinuation ; but an open and discoverable 

121 



122 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, apparition, that is, in the form of a Serpent; whereby 
I although there were many occasions of suspition, and 
such as could not easily escape a weaker circumspection, 
yet did the unwary apprehension of Eve take no advan- 
tage thereof. It hath therefore seemed strange unto 
some, she should be deluded by a Serpent, or subject her 
reason to a beast, which God had subjected unto hers. 
It hath empuzzled the enquiries of others to apprehend, 
and enforced them unto strange conceptions, to make 
out, how without fear or doubt she could discourse with 
such a creature, or hear a Serpent speak, without sus- 
pition of Imposture. The wits of others have been so 
bold, as to accuse her simplicity, in receiving his Temp- 
tation so coldly ; and when such specious effects of the 
Fruit were Promised, as to make them like God ; not to 
desire, at least not to wonder he pursued not that 
benefit himself. And had it been their own case, 
would perhaps have replied, If the tast of this Fruit 
maketh the eaters like Gods, why remainest thou a 
Beast ? If it maketh us but like Gods, we are so already. 
If thereby our eyes shall be opened hereafter, they are 
at present quick enough, to discover thy deceit ; and we 
desire them no opener, to behold our own shame. If 
to know good and evil be our advantage, although we 
have Free-will unto both, we desire to perform but 
one; We know 'tis good to obey the commandement 
of God, but evil if we transgress it. 

They were deceived by one another, and in the 
greatest disadvantage of Delusion, that is, the stronger 
by the weaker: For Eve presented the Fruit, and Adam 
received it from her. Thus the Serpent was cunning 
enough, to begin the deceit in the weaker, and the 
weaker of strength, sufficient to consummate the fraud 
in the stronger. Art and fallacy was used unto her; a 



THE FIRST ROOK 123 

naked offer proved sufficient unto him : So his super- CHAP, 
struction was his Ruine, and the fertility of his Sleep I 
an issue of Death unto him. And although the con- 
dition of Sex, and posteriority of Creation, might 
somewhat extenuate the Error of the Woman : Yet Adam »/• 
was it very strange and inexcusable in the Man ; espe- ^Xw»fe«T 

ciallv, if as some affirm, he was the wisest of all men the wisest 

11 • i i j. man t!iat 

since; or if, as others have conceived, he was not „,„.,,,„,. 

ignorant of the Fall of the Angels, and had thereby 
Example and punishment to deterr him. 

They were deceived from themselves, and their own 
apprehensions; for Eve either mistook, or traduced the 
commandment of God. Of every Tree of the Garden Adamant 
thou may e*t freely eat, but of the Tree of knowledge of t j£/ g u, 
good and evil thou .shaft not eat : for in the day thou 
cutest thereof, thou shalt surely die. Now Eve upon 
the question of the Serpent, returned the Precept in 
different terms : You shall not eat of it, neither shall 
i/ou touch it, less perhaps you die. In which delivery, 
there were .10 less than two mistakes, or rather addi- 
tional mendacities ; for the Commandment forbad not 
the touch of the Fruit ; and positively said, Ye shall 
surely die : but she extenuating, replied, ne forte mori- 
amini, lest perhaps ye die. For so in the vulgar transla- 
tion it runneth, and so it is expressed in the Thargum 
or Paraphrase of Jonathan. And therefore although 
it be said, and that very truely, that the Devil was a 
Iyer from the beginning, yet was the Woman herein 
the first express beginner: and falsified twice, before 
the reply of Satan. And therefore also, to speak 
strictlv, the sin of the Fruit was not the first Offence : 
They tir>t transgressed the Rule of their own Reason • 
and after the Commandment of God. 

They were deceived through the Conduct of their 



124 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. Senses, and by Temptations from the Object it self, 
I whereby although their intellectuals had not failed in 
the Theory of truth, yet did the inservient and brutal 
Faculties controll the suggestion of Reason : Pleasure 
and Profit already overswaying the instructions of 
Honesty, and Sensuality perturbing the reasonable com- 
mands of Vertue. For so it is delivered in the Text : 
That when the Woman saw, that the Tree was good for 
food, and that it was pleasant unto the eye, and a Tree 
to he desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof 
and did eat. Now hereby it appeareth, that Eve, before 
the Fall, was by the same and beaten away of allure- 
ments inveigled, whereby her posterity hath been de- 
luded ever since ; that is, those three delivered by St. 
John, The lust ofthejlesh, the lust of the eye, and the 
pride of life: Where indeed they seemed as weakly to 
fail, as their debilitated posterity, ever after. Whereof 
notwithstanding, some in their imperfection, have 
resisted more powerful temptations ; and in many 
moralities condemned the facility of their seductions. 
Adam Again, they might, for ought we know, be still de- 

1%"^"°' ceived in the "^belief of their Mortality, even after 
ducedtotat. they had eat of the Fruit: For, Eve observing no im- 
mediate execution of the Curse, she delivered the Fruit 
unto Adam: who, after the tast thereof, perceiving 
himself still to live, might yet remain in doubt, 
whether he had incurred Death; which perhaps he did 
not indubitably believe, until he was after convicted 
in the visible example of Abel. For he that would not 
believe the Menace of God at first, it mav be doubted 
whether, before an ocular example, he believed the 
whether Curse at last. And therefore they are not without 
teTdeTto a11 reason, who have disputed the Fact of Cain: that 
*.v/Abei. is, although he purposed to do mischief, whether he 



THE FIRST BOOK 125 

intended to kill hi* Brother; or designed that, whereof (HAP. 
he had not beheld an example in his own kind. There I 
might he somewhat in it, that he would not have done, 
or desired undone, when he brake forth as desperately, 
as before he had done uncivilly. My iniquity is greater 
than can be forgiven vie. 

Some nieities I confess there are which extenuate, 
but many more that aggravate this Delusion ; which 
exceeding the bounds of this Discourse, and perhaps, 
our Satisfaction, we shall at present pass over. And / /"'^ 
therefore whether the Sin of our First Parents were the ," {-*-' 

greatest of any since; whether the transgression of Eve l 
seducing, did not exceed that of Adam seduced; or ' \>^C- 

whether the resistibility of his Reason, did not equiva- 
lence the facility of her Seduction; we shall refer it to the 
Schoolman ; Whether there was not in Eve as great 
injustice in deceiving her husband, as imprudence in 
being deceived her self; especially, if foretasting the 
Fruit, her eyes were opened before his, and she knew 
the effect of it, before he tasted of it ; we leave it unto 
the Moralist. Whether the whole relation be not 
Allegorical, that is, whether the temptation of the 
Man by the Woman, be not the seduction of the 
rational and higher parts by the inferiour and feminine 
faculties ; or whether the Tree in the midst of 
the Garden, were not that part in the Center of the 
body, in which was afterward the appointment of Cir- 
cumcision in Males, we leave it unto the Thalmudut, rfeThafatn< 
Whcthcr there were any Policy in the Devil to tempt lilst ' s Alle ' 

J r gorus upon 

them before the Conjunction, or whether the Issue tkt History 
before tentation. might in justice have suffered with %,^ % paff. 
those after, we leave it unto the Lawyer : Whether Adam 
foreknew the advent of Christ, or the reparation of his 
Error bv his Saviour; how the execution of the Curse 



126 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, should have been ordered, if, after Eve had eaten, Adam 
I had yet refused. Whether if they had tasted the Tree 
of life, before that of Good and Evil, they had yet 
suffered the curse of Mortality : or whether the efficacy 
of the one had not over-powred the penalty of the 
other, we leave it unto God. For he alone can truly 
{-determine these^ aHchait things else; Who as he hath 
proposed the World unto our disputation, so hath he 
reserved many things unto his own resolution ; whose 
determination we cannot hope from flesh, but must 
with reverence suspend unto that great Day, whose 
justice shall either condemn our curiosities, or resolve 
our disquisitions. 

Lastly, Man was not only deceivable in his Integrity, 
but the Angels of light in all their Clarity. He that 
said, He would be like the highest did errc, if in some 
way he conceived himself so already : but in attempting 
so high an effect from himself, he mis-understood the 
nature of God, and held a false apprehension of his 
own ; whereby vainly attempting not only insolencies, 
but impossibilities, he deceived himself as low as Hell. 
In brief, there is nothing infallible but God, who can- 
not possibly erre. \Eor things are really true as they 
' x > "^W^ ^ correspond unto his conception; and have so much 
verity as they hold oi^TOhToTmity unto that Intellect, in 
"^ whose Idea they had their first determinations. And 
therefore being the Rule, he cannot be Irregular; nor, 
being Truth it self, conceaveably admit the impossible 
society of Error. 




THE FIRST BOOK 127 

CHAPTER II 
A further Illustration of the same. 

BEING thus deluded before the Fall, it is no 
wonder if their conceptions were deceitful, and 
could scarce speak without an Error after. 
Por, what is verv remarkable (and no man that I 
know hath vet observed) in the relations of Scripture 
before the Flood, there is but one speech delivered by 
Man, wherein there is not an erroneous conception ; 
and, strictly examined, most hainously injurious unto 
truth. The pen of Moses is brief in the account before 
the Flood, and the speeches recorded are but six. The 
first is that of Adam, when upon the expostulation of 
God, he replied ; / heard thy voice in the Garden, and 
because I was naked I hid my self. In which reply, 
there was included a verv gross Mistake, and, if with 
pertinacity maintained, a high and capital Error. For 
thinking by this retirement to obscure himself from 
God, he infringed the omnisciencv and essential Ubi- 
quity of his Maker, Who as he created all things, so 
is he beyond and in them all, not only in power, as under 
his subjection, or in his presence, as being in his cogni- 
tion ; but in his very Essence, as being the soul of their 
rausalities, and the essential cause of their existencies. 
Certainly, his posterity at this distance and after so 
perpetuated an impairment, cannot but condemn the 
poverty of his conception, that thought to obscure 
himself from his Creator in the shade of the Garden, 
who had beheld him before in the darkness of his 
Chaos, and the great obscurity of Nothing ; that 
thought to fly from God. which could not fly himself; 



CHAP. 
11 



128 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, or imagined that one tree should conceal his nakedness 
II from Gods eye, as another had revealed it unto his own. 
Those tormented Spirits that wish the mountains to cover 
them, have fallen upon desires of minor absurdity, and 
^ chosen ways of less improbable concealment. Though 
this be also as ridiculous unto reason, as fruitless unto 
their desires ; for he that laid the foundations of the 
Earth, cannot be excluded the secrecy of the Moun- 
tains ; nor can there any thing escape the perspicacity 
of those eyes which were before light, and in whose 
opticks there is no opacity. This is the consolation of 
all good men, unto whom his Ubiquity affordeth con- 
tinual comfort and security : And this is the affliction 
of Hell, unto whom it affordeth despair, and remediless 
calamity. For those restless Spirits that fly the face of 
the Almighty, being deprived the fruition of his eye, 
would also avoid the extent of his hand ; which being 
impossible, their sufferings are desperate, and their 
afflictions without evasion ; until they can get out of 
Trismegistus his Circle, that is, to extend their wings 
above the Universe, and pitch beyond Ubiquity. 

The Second is that Speech of Adam unto God ; The 
woman whom thou gavest me to be with me, she gave me 
of the Tree, and I did eat. This indeed was an unsatis- 
factory reply, and therein was involved a very impious 
Error, as implying God the Author of sin, and accusing 
his Maker of his transgression. As if he had said, If 
thou hadst not given me a woman, I had not been 
deceived : Thou promisedst to make her a help, but 
she hath proved destruction unto me : Had I remained 
alone, I had not sinned ; but thou gavest me a Consort, 
and so I became seduced. This was a bold and open 
accusation of God, making the fountain of good, the 
contriver of evil, and the forbidder of the crime an 



THE FIRST HOOK 129 

abettor of the fact prohibited. Surely, his mercy was CHAP. 
great that did not revenge the impeachment of his II 
justice ; And his goodness to be admired, that it refuted 
not his argument in the punishment of his excusation, 
and only pursued the first transgression without a 
penalty of this the second. 

The third was that of Eve \ The Serpent beguiled me, 
and I did eat. In which reply, there was not only a very 
feeble excuse, but an erroneous translating her own 
offence upon another; Extenuating her sin from that 
which was an aggravation, that is, to excuse the Tact at 
all, much more upon the suggestion of a beast, which 
was before in the strictest terms prohibited by her 
God. For although we now do hope the mercies of 
God will consider our degenerated integrities unto 
some minoration of our offences ; yet had not the sin- 
cerity of our first parents so colourable expectations, 
unto whom the commandment was but single, and their 
integrities best able to resist the motions of its trans- 
gression. And therefore so heinous conceptions have 
risen hereof, that some have seemed more angry there- 
with, than God himself: Being so exasperated with 
the offence, as to call in question their salvation, and 
to dispute the eternal punishment of their Maker. 
Assuredly with better reason may posterity accuse 
them than thev the Serpent or one another ; and the 
displeasure of the Pelagian* must needs be irreconcilable, 
who peremptorily maintaining they can fulfil the whole 
Law, will insatisfactorily condemn the non-observation 
of one. 

The fourth, was that speech of ( 'ain upon the demand 
of God, Where i-<t thy brother f and he said, / know not. 
In which Negation, beside the open impudence, there 
was implied a notable Error ; for returning a lie unto 

I 



130 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, his Maker, and presuming in this manner to put off the 

II Searcher of hearts, he denied the omnisciency of God, 

whereunto there is nothing concealable. The answer Oi 

Satan in the case of Jo6, had more of truth, wisdom, and 

Reverence, this; Whence earnest thou Satan? and he said, 

From compassing of the Earth. For though an enemy 

of God, and hater of all Truth, his wisdom will hardly 

permit him to falsifie with the All-mighty. For well 

understanding the Omniscience of his nature, he is not 

TheDeviii so ready to deceive himself, as to falsifie unto him whose 

knew noi our co „ n ^i n is no way deludable. And therefore when in 

iiavwur to O J 

beGodwhcn the tentation of Christ he played upon the fallacy, and 
***** thought to deceive the Author of Truth, the Method 
of this proceeding arose from the uncertainty of his 
Divinity; whereof had he remained assured, he had 
continued silent ; nor would his discretion attempt so 
unsucceedable a temptation. And so again at the last 
day, when our offences shall be drawn into accompt, 
the subtilty of that Inquisitor shall not present unto 
God a bundle of calumnies or confutable accusations, 
but will discreetly offer up unto his Omnisciency, a 
true and undeniable list of our transgressions. 

The fifth is another reply of Cain upon the denounce- 
ment of his curse, My iniquity is greater then can be 
forgiven : For so it is expressed in some Translations. 
The assertion was not only desperate, but the conceit 
erroneous, overthrowing that glorious Attribute of 
God, his Mercy, and conceiving the sin of murder un- 
pardonable. Which how great soever, is not above 
the repentance of man ; but far below the mercies of 
God, and was (as some conceive) expiated in that 
punishment he suffered temporally for it. There are 
but two examples of this error in holy Scripture, and 
they both for Murder, and both as it were of the same 



THE FIKST BOOK 181 

person; for Christ was mystically slain in Abel, and CHAP. 
therefore Cain had some influence on his death as well II 
as Judas; but the sin had a different effect on Com, 
from that it had on Judas ; and most that since have 
fallen into it. For they like Judas desire death, and 
not imfrequently pursue it: Cain on the contrary grew 
afraid thereof, and obtained a securement from it. 
Assuredly, if his despair continued, there was punish- 
ment enough in life, and Justice sufficient in the mercy 
of his protection. For the life of the desperate equalls 
the anxieties of death ; who in uncessant inquietudes 
but act the life of the damned, and anticipate the 
desolations of Hell. Tis indeed a sin in man, but a 
punishment only in Devils, who offend not God but 
afflict themselves, in the appointed despair of his 
mercies. And as to be without hope is the affliction of 
the damned, so is it the happiness of the blessed ; who 
having all their expectations present, are not distracted 
with futurities : So is it also their felicity to have no 
Faith ; for enjoying the beatifical vision, there is 
nothing unto them inevident; and in the fruition of 
the object of Faith, they have received the full evacua- 
tion of it. 

The last speech was that of Lantech, I have s/ain a man 
to my wound, and a young man to my hurt : If Cam be 
avenged seven fold, truly Lantech seventy and seven fold. 
Now herein there seems to be a very erroneous Illation : 
from the Indulgence of God unto Cain, concluding an 
immunity unto himself; that is, a regular protection from 
a single example, and an exemption from punishment in c»m, as tht 
a fact that naturally deserved it. The Error of this fkinkwm 
offender was contrarv to that of Cam, whom the Rabbins *•—* 
conceive that Iximcch at this time killed. He despaired i. a mecb, 
in Gods mercy in the same Fact, where this presumed Gtn - *• ' 3 - 



132 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, of it ; he by a decollation of all hope annihilated his 
II mercy, this by an immoderancy thereof destroyed his 
Justice. Though the sin were less, the Error was as 
great ; For as it is untrue, that his mercy will not 
forgive offenders, or his benignity co-operate to their 
conversions ; So is it also of no less falsity to affirm His 
justice will not exact account of sinners, or punish such 
as continue in their transgressions. 

Thus may we perceive, how weakly our Fathers did 
Erre before the Floud, how continually and upon 
common discourse they fell upon Errors after; it is 
therefore no wonder we have been erroneous ever 
since. And being now at greatest distance from the 
beginning of Error, are almost lost in its dissemina- 
tion, whose waies are boundless, and confess no cir- 
cumscription. 

CHAPTER III 

Of the second cause of Popular Errors ; the 
erroneous disposition of the People. 

HAVING thus declared the infallible nature of 
Man even from his first production, we have 
beheld the general cause of Error. But as 
for popular Errors, they are more neerly founded upon 
an erroneous Inclination of the people ; as being the 
most deceptable part of Mankind and ready with open 
armes to receive the encroachments of Error. Which 
condition of theirs although deducible from many 
Grounds, yet shall we evidence it but from a few, and 
such as most neerly and undeniably declare their 
natures. 

How unequal discerners of truth they are, and 



THE FIRST BOOK 133 

openly exposed unto Error, will first appear from their CHAP. 
unqualified intellectuals, unable to umpire the diffi- III 
culty of its dissensions. For Error, to speak largely, fYSf^ 

is a false judgment of things, or, an assent unto 
falsity. Now whether the object whereunto they de- \ 

liver up their assent be true or false, they are incom- 
petent judges. 

For the assured truth of things is derived from the 
principles of knowledge, and causes which determine 
their verities. Whereof their uncultivated understand* 
ings, scarce holding any theory, they are but bad dis- 
cerners of verity ; and in the numerous track of Error, 
but casuallv do hit the point and unity of truth. 

Their understanding is so feeble in the discernment of p <C"{) 
falsities, and averting the Errors of reason, that it sub- - ^ 
mitteth unto the fallacies of sense, and is unable to *v-i 

rectifie the Error of its sensations. Thus the greater 
part of Mankind having but one eye of Sense and Reason, Argument* 
conceive the Earth far bigger than the Sun, the fixed "^"""'m'tt 
Stars lesser than the Moon, their figures plain, and their tmaiUnz 
spaces from Earth equidistant. For thus their Sense ^^^ 
informeth them, and herein their reason cannot Rectifie 
them ; and therefore hopelesly continuing in mistakes, 
they live and die in their absurdities ; passing their days 
in perverted apprehensions, and conceptions of the 
World, derogatory unto God, and the wisdom of the 
Creation. 

Again, being so illiterate in the point of intellect, 
and their sense so incorrected, they are farther indis- 
posed ever to attain unto truth ; as commonly proceeding 
in those waves, which have most reference unto sense, 
and wherein there lycth most notable and popular 
delusion. 

For being unable to wield the intellectuall arms of 



134 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, reason, they are fain to betake themselves unto wasters, 
III and the blunter weapons of truth: affecting the gross 

% and sensible ways of Doctrine, and such as will not con- 
sist with strict and subtile Reason. Thus unto them 

— *■*• a piece of Rhetorick is a sufficient argument of Logick ; 
Fabu. an Apologue of Esop, beyond a Syllogysm in Barbara ; 
parables than propositions, and proverbs more power- 
ful than demonstrations. And therefore are they led 
rather by Example, than Precept ; receiving perswasions 
from visible inducements, before electual instructions. 
And therefore also they judge of human actions by the 
event ; for being uncapable of operable circumstances, 
or rightly to judge the prudentiality of affairs, they 
only gaze upon the visible success, and therefore con- 
demn or cry up the whole progression. And so from 
this ground in the Lecture of holy Scripture, their 
apprehensions are commonly confined unto the_Hteral 
sense of the Text, from whence have ensued the gross 
\ ajjd duller sort of Heresies. For not attaining the 
deuteroscopy, and second intention of the words, they 
are fain to omit the Superconsequencies, Coherencies, ^ 
Figures, or Tropologies ; and are not sometime per- 
swaded by fire beyond their literalities. And therefore 
also things invisible, but into intellectual discernments, 
to humour the grossness of their comprehensions, have 
been degraded from their proper forms, and God Him- 
self dishonoured into manual expressions. And so 
likewise being unprovided, or unsufficient for higher 
speculations, they will alwayes betake themselves unto 
sensible representations, and can hardly be restrained 
the dulness of Idolatry : A sin or folly not only de- 
rogatory unto God but men ; overthrowing their 
Reason, as well as his Divinity. In brief, a reciproca- 
tion, or rather, an inversion of the Creation, making 



THE FIRST BOOK 135 

God one way, as he made us another; that is, after our CHAP. 
Image, as he made us after His own. Ill 

Moreover, their understanding thus weak in it self, 
and perverted by sensible delusions, is yet farther im- 
paired by the dominion of their appetite; that is, the 
irrational and brutal part of the soul, which lording it 
over the soveraign faculty, interrupts the actions of 
that noble part, and choaks those tender sparks, which 
Adam hath left them of reason. And therefore they 
do not only swarm with Errors, but vices depending 
thereon. Thus they commonly affect no man any 
further than he deserts his reason, or complies with 
their aberrancies. Hence thev imbrace not vertue for"? 
it self, but its reward ; and the argument from pleasure 
or Utility is far more powerful, than that from vertuous- , 
Honesty : which Mahomet and his contrivers well under- '£- — i 
stood, when he set out the felicity of his Heaven, by 
the contentments of flesh, and the delights of sense, 
slightly passing over the accomplishment of the Soul, 
and the beatitude of that part which Earth and visi- 
bilities too weakly affect. But the wisdom of our 
Saviour, and the simplicity of his truth proceeded 
another way ; defying the popular provisions of happi- 
ness from sensible expectations ; placing his felicity in 
things removed from sense, and the intellectual enjoy- 
ment of God. And therefore the doctrine of the one 
was never afraid of Universities, or endeavoured the 
banishment of learning, like the other. And though 
Galen doth sometimes nibble at Moses t and, beside the 
Apostate Christian, some Heathens have questioned his Julian. 
Philosophical part, or treaty of the Creation : Yet is 
there surely no reasonable Pagan, that will not admire 
the rational and well grounded precepts of Christ ; 
whose life, as it was conformable unto his Doctrine, so 



136 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP. 
Ill 






\ 



V 



Non sani 
esse homi- 
nis, non 
sanus juret 
Orestes. 



was that unto the highest rules of Reason ; and must 
therefore flourish in the advancement of learning, and 
the perfection of parts best able to comprehend it. 

Again, Their individual imperfections being great, 
they are moreover enlarged by_ their aggregation ; and 
being erroneous in their single numbers, once hudled 
together, they will be Error it self. For being a con- 
fusion of kuayes and fools^ and a farraginous concur- 
rence of all conditions, tempers, sexes, and ages ; it is 
but natural if their determinations be monstrous, and 
many wayes inconsistent with Truth. And therefore 
wise men have alwaies applauded their own judgment, 
in the contradiction of that of the people ; and their 
soberest adversaries, have ever afforded them the stile 
of fools and mad men ; and, to speak impartially, their 
actions have made good these Epithets. Had Orestes 
been Judge, he would not have acquitted that Lystrian 
rabble of madness, who, upon a visible miracle, falling 
into so high a conceit of Paul and Barnabas, that they 
termed the one Jupiter, the other Mcrcurlus ; that they 
brought Oxen and Garlands, and were hardly restrained 
from sacrificing unto them ; did notwithstanding sud- 
denly after fall upon Paid, and having stoned him drew 
him for dead out of the City. It might have hazarded 
the sides of Democritus, had he been present at that 
tumult of Demetrius ; when the people flocking to- 
gether in great numbers, some crying one thing, and 
some another, and the assembly was confused, and the 
most part knew not wherefore they were come together ; 
notwithstanding, all with one voice for the space of two 
hours cried out, Great is Diana of the Ephesians. It 
had overcome the patience of Job, as it did the meek- 
ness of Moses, and would surely have mastered any, but 
the longanimity, and lasting sufferance of God ; had 



THE FIRST BOOK 137 

they beheld the Mutiny in the wilderness, when, after CHAP. 
ten great Miracles in Egypt, and some in the same III 
place, they melted down their stoln ear-rings into a 
Calf, and monstrously cryed out; These arc thy Gods, 
O Israel, that brought thee out of' the land o/*Egypt. It 
much accuseth the impatience of Peter, who could not 
endure the staves of the multitude, and is the greatest 
example of lenitv in our Saviour, when he desired of 
God forgiveness unto those, who having one day brought 
him into the Citv in triumph, did presently after, act 
all dishonour upon him, and nothing could be heard 
but, Crucifigt, in their Courts. Certainly he that con- 
siilereth these things in God's peculiar people will 
easily discern how little of truth there is in the wayes 
of the Multitude; and though sometimes they are 
flattered with that J/>horism, will hardly believe, The 
voice of the people to be the voice of God. 

Lastly, being thus divided from truth in themselves, 
they are yet farther removed by advenient deception. 
For true it is (and I hope I shall not offend their 
vulgarities,) if I say, thev are daily mocked into Error 
bv subtler devisors, and have been expressly deluded by 
all professions and ages. Thus the Priests of Elder 
time, have put upon them many incredible conceits, 
not only deluding their apprehensions with Ariolation, 
South-saying, and such oblique Idolatries, but winning 
their credulities unto the literal and down-right adore- 
ment of Cats, Lizzards, and Beetles. And thus also in 
some Christian Churches, wherein is presumed an irre- 
provable truth, if all be true that is suspected, or half 
what is related ; there have not wanted many strange 
deceptions, and some thereof are still confessed by the 
name of Pious Frauds. Thus Theudas an Impostor was 
able to lead away Four thousand into the Wilderness, 



138 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, and the delusions of Mahomet almost the fourth part of 
III Mankind. Thus all Heresies, how gross soever, have 
found a welcome with the people. For thus, many of 
the Jews were wrought into belief that Herod was the 
Messias ; and David George of Ley den ami Arden, were 
not without a party amongst the people, who main- 
tained the same opinion of themselves almost in 
our days. 

Physitians (many at least that make profession 

thereof) beside divers less discoverable wayes of fraud, 

have made them believe, there is the book of fate, or 

Tfu Author's the power of Aarons breast-plate, in Urins. And there- 

upon7ud g . f° re hereunto they have recourse, as unto the Oracle of 

mentby life, the great determinator of Virginity, Conception, 

Fertility, and the Inscrutable infirmities of the whole 

Body. For as though there were a seminality in 

Urine, or that, like the Seed, it carried with it the 

4«J . n ' s >ldea of every part, they foolishly conceive, we visibly 

i /^\ behold therein the Anatomy of every particle, and can 

.y C M^ thereby indigitate their Diseases: And running into 

- 1 y -'^jj\ any demands, expect from us a sudden resolution in 

^A^ things, whereon the Devil of Delphos would demurr ; 

^ and we know hath taken respite of some dayes to 

answer easier questions. 

Saltimbancoes, Quacksalvers, and Charlatans, deceive 

Places in them in lower degrees. Were Esop alive, the Piazza 

VriTwhert an( * Pont-Neuf could not but speak their fallacies; 

Mounte- mean while there are too many, whose cries cannot 

thtir pranks, conceal their mischief. For their Impostures are full 

of cruelty, and worse than any other; deluding not 

only unto pecuniary defraudations, but the irreparable 

deceit of death. 

Astrologers, which pretend to be of Cabala with the 
Starrs (such I mean as abuse that worthy Enquiry) 



THE FIRST BOOK 139 

have not been wanting in their deceptions ; who having CHAP, 
won their belief unto principles whereof they make III 
great doubt themselves, have made them believe that 
arbitrary events below, have necessary causes, above ; 
whereupon their credulities assent unto any Prognos- 
ticks; and dailv swallow the Predictions of men, which, 
considering the independency of their causes, and con- 
tigency in their Events, are only in the prescience 
of God. 

Fortune-tellers, Juglers. Geomancers, and the like 
incantorv Impostors, though commonly men of Inferiour 
rank, and from whom without Illumination they can 
expect no more than from themselves, do daily and 
professedly delude them. l T nto whom (what is deplor- 
able in Men and Christians) too many applying them- 
selves, betwixt jest and earnest, betray the cause of 
Truth, and sensibly make up the legionary body of Error. 

Stdtists and Politicians, unto whom Rag'tutu 1 di Stato, 
is the first Considerable, as though it were their busi- 
ness to deceive the people, as a Maxim, do hold, that 
truth is to be concealed from them ; unto whom 
although they reveal the visible design, yet do they 
commonly conceal the capital intention. And there- 
fore have thev ever been the instruments of great 
designes, yet seldom understood the true intention of 
anv, accomplishing the drifts of wiser heads, as inani- 
mate and ignorant Agents, the general design of the 
World; who though in some Latitude of sense, and in 
a natural cognition perform their proper actions, yet 
do they unknowingly concurr unto higher ends, and Thepeepu 
blindly advance the great intention of Nature. Now °^ k °" r ' fr 
how far thev mav be kept in ignorance a greater ex- lu -? er « na 
ample there is in the people of Rome ; who never knew ,£*/««*« 
the true and proper name of their own City. For, "/'<*'"- a/>. 



140 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, beside that common appellation received by the 
III Citizens, it had a proper and secret name concealed 
from them : Cujus alteram nomen discere secretis Cere- 
moniarum nefas habetur, saith Plinie ; lest the name 
thereof being discovered unto their enemies, their 
Penates and Patronal God might be called forth by 
charms and incantations. For according unto the 
tradition of Mag'itians, the tutelary Spirits will not 
remove at common appellations, but at the proper 
names of things whereunto they are Protectors. 

Thus having been deceived by themselves, and con- 
tinually deluded by others, they must needs be stuffed 
with Errors, and even over-run with these inferiour 
falsities ; whereunto whosoever shall resign their 
reasons, either from the Hoot of deceit in themselves, 
or inability to resist such trivial deceptions from others, 
although their condition and fortunes may place them 
many Spheres above the multitude; yet are they still 
within the line of Vulgarity, and Democratical enemies 
of truth. 

CHAPTER IV 

Of the nearer and more Immediate Causes of 
popular Errors, both in the wiser and 
common sort,VJNIisapprehension, Fallacy, 
or false Deduction, Credulity, Supinity, 
Adherence unto Antiquity, Tradition and 
Authority. 

THE first is a mistake, or a misconception of 
things, either in their first apprehensions, 
or secondary relations. So Eve mistook the 
Commandment, either from the immediate injunction 



THE FIRST BOOK 141 

of God, or from the secondary narration of her CHAP. 
Husband. So might the Disciples mistake our IV 
Saviour, in his answer unto Peter concerning the death 
of John, as is delivered, John 21. Peter seeing John, 
sa'ul unto Jesus, Lord, and what shall this man do? 
Jesus saith, If I -will, that he tarry till I come, what is 
that unto thee? Then went this saying abroad among' 
the brethren, that that Disciple should not die. Thus 
began the conceit and opinion of the Centaures: that rhtbciii/oj 
is, in the mistake of the first beholders, as is declared m htnc* 
by Servius ; when some young Thessalians on horse- ««<"'<"»"'■ 
back were beheld afar off, while their horses watered, 
that is, while their heads were depressed, they were 
conceived by the first Spectators, to be but one animal ; 
and answerable hereunto have their pictures been drawn 
ever since. 

And, as simple mistakes commonly beget fallacies, 
so men rest not in false apprehensions, witTiout absurd 
and inconsequent deductions; from fallacious founda- 
tions, and misapprehended mediums, erecting conclu- 
sions no wav inferrible from their premises. Now the 
fallacies whereby men deceive others, and are deceived 
themselves, the Ancients have divided into Verbal and 
Ileal. Of the Verbal, and such as conclude from mis- 
takes of the Word, although there be no less than six, 
yet are there but two thereof worthy our notation, and 
unto which the rest may be referred ; that is the fallacy 
of Equivocation and Amphibology which conclude from F.guivota- 

.1 L -- i_r J ii I* tionand Am- 

the ambiguity ot some one word, or the ambiguous^,-^ • 
Syntaxis of many put together. From this fallacy **?■• tht > 
arose that calamitous Error of the Jews, misappre- 
hending the Prophesies of their Mcssias, and expound- 
ing them al waves unto literal and temporal expectations. 
By this way many Errors crept in and perverted the 



X«'pos< 



142 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. Doctrine of Pythagoras, whilst men received his Precepts 
IV in a different sense from his intention ; converting 
Metaphors into proprieties, and receiving as literal ex- 
pressions, obscure and involved truths. Thus when he 
Pythagoras, enjoyned his Disciples, an abstinence from Beans, many 
h cli A pr!ce°pts conce i ve d they were with severity debarred the use of 
moraiiztd. that pulse ; which notwithstanding could not be his 
meaning ; for as Aristoxenus, who wrote his life 
averreth, he delighted much in that kind of food 
himself. But herein, as Plutarch observeth, he had 
no other intention than to dissuade men from Magis- 
tracy, or undertaking the publick offices of state; for 
by beans was the Magistrate elected in some parts of 
irSvj.iAoi Greece; and, after his daies, we read in Thucydides, of 
"<"x«^«- the Councel of the bean in Athens. The same word 
also in Greek doth signifie a Testicle, and hath been 
thought by some an injunction only of Continency, as 
Aid. Gellius hath expounded, and as Empedocles may 
also be interpreted: that is, Testiculis miseri dextras 
suhducite ; and might be the original intention of 
Pythagoras ; as having a notable hint hereof in Beans, 
from the natural signature of the venereal organs of 
both Sexes. Again, his injunction is, not to harbour 
Swallows in our Houses : Whose advice notwithstand- 
ing we do not contemn, who daily admit and cherish 
them : For herein a caution is only implied, not to 
entertain ungrateful and thankless persons, which like 
the Swallow are no way commodious unto us; but 
having made use of our habitations, and served their 
own turns, forsake us. So he commands to deface the 
Print of a Cauldron in the ashes, after it hath boiled. 
Which strictly to observe were condemnable supersti- 
tion : But hereby he covertly adviseth us not to 
persevere in anger; but after our choler hath boiled, 



THE FIRST BOOK 143 

to retain no impression thereof. In the like sense are CHAP, 
to be received, when he adviseth his Disciples to give IV 
the right hand but to few, to put no viands in a 
Chamber-pot, not to pass over a Balance, not to rake 
up tire with a Sword, or piss against the Sun. Which 
senigmatical deliveries comprehend useful verities, but 
being mistaken by literal Expositors at the first, they 
have been mis-understood by most since, and may be 
occasion of Error to Verbal capacities for ever. 

This fallacy in the first delusion Satan put upon 
Eve, and his whole tentation might be the same con- 
tinued; so when he said, Ye shall not die, that was, in 
his equivocation, ye shall not incurr a present death, 
or a destruction immediately ensuing your transgres- 
sion. Your eyes shall be opened ; that is, not to the 
enlargement of your knowledge, but discovery of your 
shame and proper confusion ; You shall know good 
and evil; that is, you shall have knowledge of good by 
its privation, but cognisance of evil by sense and visible 
experience. And the same fallacy or way of deceit, so 
well succeeding in Paradise, he continued in his Oracles 
through all the World. Which had not men more 
warilv understood, they might have performed many 
acts inconsistent with his intention. Brutus might 
have made haste with Tarquine to have kissed his 
own Mother. The Athenians might have built them 
wooden Walls, or doubled the Altar at Delphos. 

The circle of this fallacy is very large; and herein 
may be comprised all Ironical mistakes, for intended 
expressions receiving inverted significations; all de- 
ductions from Metaphors, Parables, Allegories, unto' 

real and rigid interpretations. Whereby have risen 

not only popular Errors in Philosophy, but vulgar and DthmnA 

senseless Heresies in Divinitv; as will be evident unto 



but. 



144 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, any that shall examine their foundations, as they stand 
IV related hy Epiphanius, Austin, or Prateolus. 

Other wayes there are of deceit ; which consist not 
in false apprehension of Words, that is, Verbal ex- 
pressions or sentential significations, but fraudulent 
deductions, or inconsequent illations, from a false con- 
ception of things. Of these extradictionary and real 
fallacies, Aristotle and Logicians make in number six, 
but we observe that men are most commonly deceived 
by four thereof: those are, Petitio principii, A dido 
secundum quid ad dictum simpliciter, A non causa pro 
causa ; And, fallacia consequents. 

The first is, Petitio principii. Which fallacy is com- 
mitted, when a question is made a medium, or we 
assume a medium as granted, whereof we remain as 
unsatisfied as of the question. Briefly, where that is 
assumed as a Principle to prove another thing, which 
is not conceded as true it self. By this fallacy was 
Eve deceived, when she took for granted, a false asser- 
tion of the Devil ; Ye shall not surely die ; for God doth 
know that in the day ye shall eat thereof, your eyes shall 
be opened, and you shall be as Gods. Which was but a 
bare affirmation of Satan, without proof or probable 
inducement, contrary unto the command of God, and 
former belief of her self. And this was the Logick of the 
Jeivs when they accused our Saviour unto Pilate ; who 
demanding a reasonable impeachment, or the allega- 
tion of some crime worthy of Condemnation ; they 
only replied, If he had not been xvorthy of Death, we 
•would not have brought Him before thee. Wherein 
there was neither accusation of the person, nor satis- 
faction of the Judge ; who well understood, a bare 
accusation was not presumption of guilt, and the 
clamours of the people no accusation at all. The same 



THE FIRST BOOK 145 

Fallacy is sometime used in the dispute, between Job CHAP, 
and his friends; they often taking that for granted IV 
which afterward he disprovcth. 

The second is, A dicto secundum quid ad dictum 
sintpliciter, when from that which is but true in a 
qualified sense, an inconditional and absolute verity is 
inferred ; transferring the special consideration of things 
unto their general acceptions, or concluding from their 
strict acception, unto that without all limitation. This 
fallacy men commit when they argue from a particular 
to a general ; as when we conclude the vices or qualities 
of a few, upon a whole Nation. Or from a part unto 
the whole. Thus the Devil argues with our Saviour : 
and by this, he would perswade Him he might be 
secure, if he cast himself from the Pinnacle : For, said 
he, it is written, He shall give his Angels charge con- Psai. 91. 
ccrning thee, and in their hatuls they shall bear thee up, 
lest at any time thou dash thy Joot against a stone. 
But this illation was fallacious, leaving one part of the 
Text, He shall keep thee in all thy icayes ; that is, in 
the wayes of righteousness, and not of rash attempts : 
so he urged a part for the whole, and inferred more 
in the conclusion, than was contained in the premises. 
By the same fallacy we proceed, when we conclude 
from the sign unto the thing signified. By this in- 
croachment, Idolatry first crept in, men converting the 
symbolical use of Idols into their proper Worship, and 
receiving the representation of things as the substance 
and thing it self. So the Statue of Belus at first 
erected in his memory, was in after-times adored as 
a Divinity. And so also in the Sacrament of the TheOri e inai 
Eucharist, the Bread and Wine which were but the ■"*■■** 
signals or visible signs, were made the things signified, 
and worshipped as the Body of Christ. And hereby 

K 



146 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, generally men are deceived that take things spoken in 
IV some Latitude without any at all. Hereby the Jews 
were deceived concerning the commandment of the 
Sabbath, accusing our Saviour for healing the sick, and 
his Disciplesybr plucking the ears of Corn upon that day. 
And by this deplorable mistake they were deceived 
unto destruction, upon the assault of Pompcy the great, 
made upon that day ; by whose superstitious observa- 
tion they could not defend themselves, or perform any 
labour whatever. 
The Alcoran The third is, A non causa pro causa, when that is 
'neither pretended for a cause which is not, or not in that sense 
wine nor which is inferred. Upon this consequence the law of 
*' Mahomet forbids the use of Wine ; and his Successors 
abolished Universities. By this also many Christians 
have condemned literature, misunderstanding the 
counsel of Saint Paul, who adviseth no further than 
to beware of Philosophy. On this Foundation were 
built the conclusions of Southsayers in their Augurial, 
and Tripudiary divinations ; collecting presages from 
voice or food of Birds, and conjoyning Events unto 
causes of no connection. Hereupon also are grounded 
the gross mistakes, in the cure of many diseases : not 
only from the last medicine, and sympathetical Re- 
ceipts, but Amulets, Charms, and all incantatory 
applications ; deriving effects not only from incon- 
curring causes, but things devoid of all efficiency 
whatever. 

The fourth is, the Fallacy of the Consequent; which 
if strictly taken, may be a fallacious illation in refer- 
ence unto antecedency, or consequency ; as to conclude 
from the position of the antecedent to the position of 
the consequent, or from the remotion of the consequent 
to the remotion of the antecedent. This is usually 



THE FIRST BOOK 147 

committed, when in connexed Propositions the Terms CHAP, 
adhere contingently. This is frequent in Oratory IV 
illations; and thus the Pharisees, because He con- 
versed with Publicans and Sinners, accused the holiness 
of Christ. Hut if this Fallacy be largely taken, it is 
committed in any vicious illation, offending the rules 
of good consequence; and so it may be very large, and 
comprehend all false illations against the settled Laws 
of Logick : Hut the most usual inconsequences are 
from particulars, from negatives, and from affirmative 
conclusions in the second figure, wherein indeed 
offences are most frequent, and their discoveries not 
difficult. 



CHAPTER V 
Of Credulity and Supinity. 

'HI HI) cause of common Errors is the Credu- 
lit \ of men, that is, an easie assent to what 



A 



is obtruded, or a believing at first ear, what 

is delivered by others. This Is" a weakness" in The 

understanding, without examination assenting unto 
things, which from their Natures and Causes do carry 
no perswasion ; whereby men often swallow falsities for 
truths, dubiosities for certainties, feasibilities for pos- 
sibilities, and things impossible as possibilities them- 
selves. Which, though the weakness of the Intellect, 
and most discoverable in vulgar heads; yet hath it 
sometime fallen upon wiser brains, and greater ad- 
vancers of Truth. Thus many wise Athenians BO far 
forgot their Philosophy, and the nature of humane 
production, that they descended unto belief, that the 
original of their Nation was from the Earth, and had 



148 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, no other beginning than the s emin ality and womb of 
V their great Mothei. Thus is it not without wonder, 
how those learned Arabicks so tamely delivered up their 
belief unto the absurdities of the Alcoran. How the 
noble Geber, Avicenna, and Almanzor y should rest satis- 
fled in the nature and causes of Earthquakes, delivered 
from the doctrine of their Prophet ; that is, from the 
motion of a great Bull, upon whose horns all the earth 
is poised. How their faiths could decline so low, as 
to concede their generations in Heaven, to be made 
by the smell of a Citron, or that the felicity of their 
Paradise should consist in a Jubile of copulation, that 
is, a coition of one act prolonged unto fifty years. Thus 
is it almost beyond wonder, how the belief of reason- 
— able creatures, should ever submit unto Idolatry : and 
the credulity of those men scarce credible (without pre- 
sumption of a second Fall) who could believe a Deity 
in the work of their own hands. For although in that 
ancient and diffused adoration of Idols, unto the Priests 
and subtiler heads, the worship perhaps might be sym- 
bolical, and as those Images some way related unto their 
Deities; yet was the Idolatry direct and down-right in 
the People; whose credulity is illimitable, who may be 
made believe that any thing is God ; and may be made 
believe there is no God at all. 
obstinate And as Credulity is the cause of Error, so Incredulity 

"tionafscet- oftentimes of not enjoying truth ; and that not only an 
tkism, justly obstinate incredulity, whereby we will not acknowledge" 
assent unto what is reasonably inferred, but any Acade- 
mical reservation in matters of easie truth, or rather 
sceptical infidelity against the evidence of reason and 
sense. For these are conceptions befalling wise men, as 
absurd as the apprehensions of fools, and the credulity 
of the people which promiscuously swallow any thing. 



THE FIRST BOOK 149 

For this is not only derogatory unto the wisdom of God, CHAP. 
who hath proposed the World unto our knowledge, and V 
thereby the notion of Himself; but also d etracto ry 
unto the intellect, and sense of man expressly disposed 
for that inquisition. And therefore, hoc tan turn scio, 
quod nihil .sc'w, is not to be received in an absolute sense, 
but is comparatively expressed unto the number of 
things whereof our knowledge is ignorant. Nor will it 
acquit the insatisfaction of those which quarrel with all 
things, or dispute of matters, concerning whose verities 
we have conviction from reason, or decision from the 
inerrable and requisite conditions of sense. And there- 
fore if any affirm, the earth doth move, and will not 
believe with us, it standeth still ; because he hath 
probable reasons for it, and I no infallible sense, 
nor reason against it, I will not quarrel with his 
assertion. But if, like Zeno, he shall walk about, 
and yet deny there is any motion in Nature, surely 
that man was constituted for Jnticcra, and were a fit 
companion for those, who having a conceit they are 
dead, cannot be convicted into the society of the 
living. 

The fourth is a Supinity, or_neglect of P^nquiry, even 
of matters whereof we doiiot; rather~belleving, than 
going to see; or doubting with ease and gratis, than 
believing with difficulty or purchase. Whereby, either 
from a temperamental inactivity, we are unready to put 
in execution the suggestions or dictates of reason ; or by 
a content and acquiescence in every species of truth, we 
embrace the shadow thereof, or so much as may palliate 
its just and substantial acquirements. Had our fore- 
Fathers sat down in these resolutions, or had their 
curiosities been sedentary, who pursued the knowledge 
of things through all the corners of nature, the face of 



\ 



i. 



150 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, truth had been obscure unto us, whose lustre in some 
V part their industries have revealed. 

Certainly the sweat of their labours was not salt unto 
them, and they took delight in the dust of their 
endeavours. For questionless, in Knowledge there is no 
slender difficulty ; and Truth, which wise men say doth 
lye in a Well, is not recoverable by exantlation. It 
were some extenuation of the Curse, if in sudore vulius 
tul were confinable unto corporal exercitations, and 
there still remained a Paradise, or unthorny place of 
knowledge. But now our understandings being eclipsed, 
as well as our tempers infirmed, we must betake our 
selves to wayes of reparation, and depend upon the 
illumination of our endeavours. For, thus we may in 
some measure repair our primary mines, and build our 
selves Men again. And though the attempts of some 
have been precipitous, and their Enquiries so audacious, 
as to come within command of the flaming swords, and 
lost themselves in attempts above humanity; yet have 
the Enquiries of most defected by the way, and tired 
within the sober circumference of Knowledge. 

And this is the reason, why some have transcribed 
any thing; and although they cannot but doubt thereof, 
yet neither make Experiment by sense, or Enquiry by 
reason ; but live in doubts of things, whose satisfaction 
is in their own power ; which is indeed the inexcusable 
part of our ignorance, and may perhaps fill up the 
charge of the last day. For, not obeying the dictates 
ofULeagon, and neglecting the cries of Truth, we fail 
not only in the trust of our undertakings, but in the 
intention of man it serfV? Which although more venial 
in ordinary constitutions, and such as are not framed 
beyond the capacity of beaten notions, yet will inexcus- 
ably condemn some men, who having received excellent 




THE FIRST BOOK 151 

endowments, have yet sate down by the way, and frus- CHAT, 
trated the intention of their liabilities. For certainly, V 
as some men have sinned in the pri nciples of humanity, 
and must answer, for not being men, so others oflfend, 
if they be not more. Magi* extra vitiu, quam cum vir- 
tutibus, would commend those : These are not excus- 
able without an Excellency. For, great constitutions, 
and such as are constellated unto knowledge, do nothing 
till they out-do all ; they come short of themselves, if 
they go not beyond others ; and must not sit down under 
the degree of Worthies. God expects no lustre from 
the minor Stars; but if the Sun should not illuminate 
all, it were a sin in Nature. Ultimas bonorwn, will not 
excuse every man, nor is it sufficient for all to hold the 
common level : Mens names should not only distinguish 
them : A man should be something, that men are not, 
and individual in somewhat beside his proper Name,.. - 
Thus while it exceeds not the bounds of reason and 
modestv, we cannot condemn singularity. Nos numcrus 
xinnu.s', is the Motto of the multitude, and for that 
reason arc they Fools. For things as they recede from 
unity, the more they approach to imperfection, and 
Deformity; for they hold their perfection in their 
Simplicities, and as they nearest approach unto God. 

Now as there are many great Wits to be condemned, 
who have neglected the i ncrem ent of Arts, and the 
sedulous pursuit of knowledge ; so are there not a few 
very much to be pitied, whose industry being not 
attended with natural parts, they have sweat to little 
purpose, and rolled the stone in vain. Which chiefly 
proccedeth from natural incapaeitv, and genial indis- Unhtrritiet 

I'll i Vtkf many 

position, . it least, to those particulars wnereunto they ,/,„,,/„//„/ 
apnlv their endeavours. And this is one reason why, Seh ?*™\ 

rl .' - and empty 

though Universities be full of men, they are oftentimes „/ Learning. 



Session. 



152 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, empty of learning: Why, as there are some men do 

V much without learning, so others but little with it, and 

few that attain to any measure of it. For many heads 

that undertake it, were never squared, nor timber'd 

for it. There are not only particular men, but whole 

Nations indisposed for learning ; whereunto is required, 

not only education, Hut a pregnant Minerva^ and 

The natural teeming Constitution. For the Wisdom of God hath 

genius or divided the Genius of men according to the different 

inclination, 1 1 ■ 

howmuchto affairs of the World: and varied their inclination 
b / n r Z a chofce according to the variety of Actions to be performed 
of a Pro- therein. Which they who consider not, rudely rushing 
upon professions and ways of life, unequal to their 
natures; dishonour, not only themselves and their 
Functions, but pervert the harmony of the whole 
World. For, if the World went on as God hath 
ordained it, and were every one imployed in points 
concordant to their Natures, Professions; Arts and 
Commonwealths would rise up of themselves; nor 
needed we a Lanthorn to find a man in Athens. 



CHAPTER VI 

Of adherence unto Antiquity. 

immoderate "T^^vTJT the mortallest enemy unto Knowledge, and 
Iniquity! |\ that wfficTT'Kafrr--de«e-4&e greatest execution 
*e entr *i \ } upon truth, hath been a peremptory adhesion 

cause of r ... 

Error. unto Authority, and more especially, the establishing 

"T* — , i) of our belief upon the dictates of Antiquity. For (as 

•^ every capacity may observe) most men of Ages present, 

^;A so superstitiously do look on Ages past, that the 

* r v Authorities of the one, exceed the reasons of the 

Ov* r other: Whose persons indeed being far removed from 



THE FIRST BOOK 153 

our times, their works, which seldom with us pass un- CHAP, 
controuled, either by contemporaries, or immediate VI 
successors, are now become out of the distance of 
Envies : and the farther removed from present times, 
are conceived to approach the nearer unto truth it self. 
Now hereby methinks we manifestly delude our selves, 
and widely walk out of the track of Truth. 

For first, Men hereby impose a Thraldom on their 
Times, which the ingenuity of no Age should endure, 
or indeed, the presumption of any did ever yet enjoyn. 
Thus Hippocrates about 2000 years ago, conceived it 
no injustice, either to examine or refute the Doctrines 
of his Predecessors: Galai the like, and Aristotle the 
most of any. Yet did not any of these conceive them- 
selves infallible, or set down their dictates as verities 
irrefragable, but when thev deliver their own Inven- 
tions, or reject other mens Opinions, they proceed with 
J-udgm ent and Ingenuity.; establishing their assertion, 
not only with great solidity, but submitting them also j 
unto the correction of future discovery. 

Secondly, Men that adore times past, consider not 
that those times were once present ; that is, as our own 
are at this instant, and we our selves unto those to 
come, as they unto us at present, as we relye on them, 
even so will those on us, and magnifie us hereafter, who 
at present condemn our selves. Which very absurdity 
is daily committed amongst us, even in the esteem and 
censure of our own times. And to speak impartially, 
old Men, from whom we should expect the greatest 
example of Wisdom, do most exceed in this point of 
folly; commending the days of their vouth, which 
thev scarce remember, at least well understood not ; ex- 
tolling those times their younger years have heard their 
Fathers condemn, and condemning those times the 



154 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, gray heads of their posterity shall commend. And 
VI thus is it the humour of many heads, to extol the days 
of their Fore-fathers, and declaim against the wicked- 
ness of times present. Which notwithstanding they 
cannot handsomly do, without the borrowed help and 
Satyrs of times past ; condemning the vices of their own 
times, by the expressions of vices in times which they 
commend ; which cannot but argue the community of 
vice in both. Horace therefore, Juvenal, and Perslus 
^were no Prophets, although their lines did seem to in- 
digitate and point at our times. There is a certain 
list of vices committed in all Ages, and declaimed 
against by all Authors, which will last as long as 
humane nature ; which digested into common places, 
may serve for any Theme, and never be out of date 
until Dooms-day. 

Thirdly, The Testimonies of Antiquity and such as 
pass oraculously amongst us, were not, if we consider 
them, always so exact, as to examine the doctrine they 
delivered. For some, and those the acutest of them, 
have left unto us many things of falsity ; controlable, 
not only by critical and collective reason, but common 
and Country observation. 

Hereof there want not many examples in Aristotle, 
through all his Book of Animals; we shall instance 
onely in three of his Problems, and all contained under 
one Section. The first enquireth, why a Man doth 
cough, but not an Oxe or Cow; whereas, notwith- 
standing the contrary is often observed by Husband- 
men, and stands confirmed by those who have expressly 
treated De Re Rustica, and have also delivered divers 
remedies for it. Why Juments, as Horses, Oxen, and 
Asses, have no eructation or belching, whereas indeed 
the contrary is often observed, and also delivered by 



THE FIRST BOOK 155 

Columella. And thirdly, Why Man alone hath gray CHAP. 
hairs? whereas it cannot escape the eyes, and ordinary VI 
observation of all men, as Horses, Dogs, and Foxes, 
wax gray with age in our Countries ; and in the colder 
Regions, many other Animals without it. And though 
favourable constructions may somewhat extenuate the 
rigour of these concessions, yet will scarce any palliate 
that in the fourth of his Meteors, that Salt is easiest 
dissolvable in cold water: Nor that of Diasioridcs, that 
Quicksilver is best preserved in Vessels of Tin and 
Lead. 

Other Authors write often dubiously even in matters 
wherein is expected a strict and definite truth ; ex- 
tenuating their affirmations, with uiunt,ferunt,fortasse'. 
as Diascorides, Galen, Aristotle, and many more. Others 
by hear-say ; taking upon trust most they have de- 
livered, whose Volumes are meer Collections, drawn 
from the mouths or leaves of other Authors ; as may 
be observed in Plinie, Elian, Athenarus, and many more. 
Not a few transcriptively, subscribing their Names 
unto other mens endeavours, and meerly transcribing 
almost all thev have written. The Latines transcribing 
the Greeks, the Greeks and Latmes, each other. 

Thus hath Justine borrowed all from Tragus Pompeius, 
and Julius Solinus, in a manner transcribed Plinie. ThtAutu 
Thus have Lueian and Apulcius served I.ueius Prate nsis: i ult y> and 

1 iome notable 

men both living in the same time, and both transcrib- imtUmeu^f 
ing the same Author, in those famous Hooks, entituled M °J^"'' 
Lucius by the one, and Aureus Asians by the other. In *rm*criUng 
the same measure hath S'nuoi rates in his Tract DeNUo, Authert 
dealt with Diodorus Sieulus, as may be observed in 
that work annexed unto Herodotus, and translated by 
Jungemuinnus. Thus Eratosthenes wholly translated 
Timotheus de Insults, not reserving the very Preface. 



156 



PSEUDODOXIA 



chap. 

VI 



His Meta- 
morphosis. 



In his 

Politicks. 



The same doth Strabo report of Eiulorus, and Ariston, 
in a Treatise entituled De Nilo. Clemens Alexandrinus 
hath observed many examples hereof among the Greeks; 
and Pliny speaketh very plainly in his Preface, that 
conferring his Authors, and comparing their works 
together, he generally found those that went before 
verbatim transcribed, by those that followed aj"ter, and 
their Originals never so much as mentioned. To omit 
how much the wittiest piece of Ovid is beholden unto 
Parthenius Chius; even the magnified Virgil hath 
borrowed, almost in all his Works ; his Eclogues from 
Theocritus, his Georgicks from Hesiod and Aratus, his 
JEneads from Homer, the second Book whereof con- 
taining the exploit of Sinon and the Trojan Horse (as 
Macrobius observeth) he hath verbatim derived from 
Pisaixder. Our own Profession is not excusable herein. 
Thus Oribaskis, /Etius, and JEgineta, have in a manner 
transcribed Galen. But Marcellus Empericus, who hath 
left a famous Work De Mcdiramcntis, hath word for word 
transcribed all Scribonius Largus, De Conipositione Medi- 
camentorum, and not left out his very Peroration. Thus 
may we perceive the Ancients were but men, even like 
our selves. The practice of transcription in our days, 
was no Monster in theirs: Plagiarie had not its Nativity 
with Printing, but began in times when thefts were 
difficult, and the paucity of Books scarce wanted that 
Invention. 

Nor did they only make large use of other Authors, 
but often without mention of their names. Aristotle, 
who seems to have borrowed many things from Hippo- 
crates, in the most favourable construction, makes 
mention but once of him, and that by the by, and 
without reference unto his present Doctrine. Virgil, so 
much beholding unto Homer, hath not his name in all 



THE FIRST BOOK 157 

his Works : and Ptime, who seems to borrow many CHAP. 
Authors out of Dioscorides, hath taken no notice of VI 
him. I wish men were not still content to plume them- 
selves with others Feathers. Fear of discovery, not 
single ingenuity affords (Quotations rather than Tran- 
scriptions ; wherein notwithstanding the Plagiarisme 
of many makes little consideration, whereof though 
great Authors may complain, small ones cannot but 
take notice. 

Fourthly. While we so eagerlv adhere unto Antiquity, 
and the accounts of elder times, we are to consider the 
fabulous condition thereof. And that we shall not deny, An andtnt 
if we call to mind the Mendacity of Greece, from whom we Autho ^ h,> 
have received most relations, and that a considerable part Wfriw, sive 
of ancient Times, was by the Greeks themselves termed ^1* ' 
fivdtKov, that is, made up or stuffed out with Fables. *&**&*** 
And surelv the fabulous inclination of those days, was txlaHt . 
greater then any since; which swarmed so with Fables, 
and from such slender grounds, took hints for fictions, 
povsoning the World ever after; wherein how far they 
exceeded, may be exemplified from Pahpliatus, in his 
Book of Fabulous Narrations. That Fable of Orpheus TkeFmN* 
who by the melody of his Musick, made Woods ami ^y^' U! 
Trees to follow him, was raised upon a slender founda- rtcwktmu 
tion ; for there were a crew of mad women, retired 
unto a Mountain from whence being pacified by his 
Musick, they descended with boughs in their hands, 
which unto the fabulosity of those times proved a 
sufficient ground to celebrate unto all posterity the 
Magick of Orpheus Harp, and its power to attract the 
senseless Trees about it. That Medea the famous 
Sorceress could renew youth, and make old men young 
again, was nothing else, but that from the knowledge 
of Simples she had a Receit to make white hair black, 



158 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, and reduce old heads, into the tincture of youth again. 
VI The Fable of Gerion and Cerberus with three heads, 
was this : Gerion was of the City Tricarinia, that is, of 
three heads, and Cerberus of the same place was one of 
his Dogs, which running into a Cave upon pursuit of 
his Masters Oxen, Hercules perforce drew him out of 
that place, from whence the conceits of those days 
affirmed no less, then that Hercules descended into 
Hell, and brought up Cerberus into the habitation of 
the living. Upon the like grounds was raised the 
figment of Briareus, who dwelling in a City called 
Hecatonchiria, the fansies of those times assigned him 
an hundred hands. Twas ground enough to fansie 
wings unto Dadalns, in that he stole out of a Window 
from Mmos, and sailed away with his son Icarus : who 
steering his course wisely, escaped ; but his son carrying 
too high a sail was drowned. That Niobe weeping 
over her children, was turned into a Stone, was nothing 
else, but that during her life she erected over their 
Sepultures a Marble Tomb of her own. When Acteon 
had undone himself with Dogs, and the prodigal 
attendants of hunting, they made a solemn story how 
he was devoured by his Hounds. And upon the like 
Eati,,g of grounds was raised the Anthropophagie of Diomedes his 
horses. Upon as slender foundation was built the 
Fable of the Mhiotaure ; for one Taurus a servant of 
Minos gat his Mistris Pasiphae with child, from whence 
the Infant was named Minotawus. Now this unto the 
fabulosity of those times was thought sufficient to 
accuse PasipJiae of Beastiality, or admitting conjunc- 
tion with a Bull ; and in succeeding ages gave a hint of 
depravity unto Domitian to act the Fable into reality. 
In like manner, as Diodorus plainly delivereth, the 
famous Fable of Charon had its Nativity ; who being 



THE FIRST BOOK 159 

no other but the common Ferry-man of Egypt, that CHAP. 
wafted over the dead bodies from Memphis, was made VI 
by the Greeks to be the Ferry-man of Hell, and solemn 
stories raised after of him. Lastly, we shall not need 
to enlarge, if that be true which grounded the genera- 
tion of Castor and Helen out of an Egg, because they 
were born and brought up in an upper room, according 
unto the Word wor, which with the Lucadcmon'tans 
had also that signification. 

Fifthly, We applaud many things delivered by 
the Ancients, which are in themselves but ordinary,, 
and come short of our own Conceptions. Thus we 
usually extol, and our Orations cannot escape the sayings 
of the wise men of Greece. Nosce teipsum, of TTudee: 
Nosce tempus, of Pittacw. Nihil mmis, of Cleobubus', 
which notwithstanding to speak indifferently, are but 
vulgar precepts in Morality, carrying with them 
nothing above the line, or beyond the extemporary 
sententiositv of common conceits with us. Thus we 
magnifie the Apothegms or reputed replies of Wisdom, 
whereof many are to be seen in LaerOus, more in 
Lycosthenes, not a few in the second Book of Macrobius, 
in the salts of Cicero, Augustus, and the ( 'omical wits of 
those times : in most w hereof there is not much to 
admire, and are methinks exceeded, not only in the 
replies of wise men, but the passages of society, and 
urbanities of our times. And thus we extol their 
Adages, or Proverbs; and Erasmus hath taken great 
pains to make collections of them, whereof notwith- 
standing, the greater part w ill, I believe, unto indifferent 
Judges be esteemd no extraordinaries : and may be 
parallel'd, if not exceeded, by those of more unlearned 
Nations, and manv of our own. 

Sixthly, We urge Authorities in points that need 



160 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP. 
VI 



L-— 



A pedanti. 
cal vanity 
to quote 
Authors in 
matters of 
common 
sense or of 
familiar ac 
knowledge- 
ment. 



not, and introduce the testimony of ancient Writers, 
to confirm things evidently believed, and whereto no 
reasonable hearer but would assent without them; such 
as are, Nemo rnortalium omnibus hor'ts sapit. Virtute nil 
prcestantius, nilpiUchrius. Omnia vineit amor. Pra'clarum 
quiddam Veritas. All which, although things known 
and vulgar, are frequently urged by many men, and 
though trivial verities in our mouths, yet, noted from 
Plato, Ovid, or Cicero, they become reputed elegancies. 
For many hundred to instance but in one we meet with 
while we are writing. Antonius Guevara that elegant 
Spaniard, in his Book entituled, The Dial of Princes, 
beginneth his Epistle thus. Apolonius Thyaneus, dis- 
puting with the Scholars of Hiarehas, said, that among 
all the affections of nature, nothing was more natural, 
then the desire all have to preserve life. Which being 
a confessed Truth, and a verity acknowledged by all, 
it was a superfluous affectation to derive its Authority 
from Apolonius, or seek a confirmation thereof as far as 
India, and the learned Scholars of Hiarehas. Which 
whether it be not all one to strengthen common 
Dignities and Principles known by themselves, with the 
Authority of Mathematicians; or think a man should 
believe, the whole is greater then its parts, rather upon 
the Authority of Euclide, then if it were propounded 
alone ; I leave unto the second and wiser cogitations of 
all men. "Tis sure a Practice that savours much of 
Pedantry ; a reserve of Puerility we have not shaken off 
from School ; where being seasoned with -Minor sen- 
tences, by a neglect of higher Enquiries, they prescribe 
upon our riper ears, and are never worn out but with 
our Memories. 

Lastly, While we so devoutly adhere unto Antiquity 
in some things, we do not consider we have deserted 



THE FIRST BOOK 1G1 

them in several others. For they indeed have not onely CHAP, 
been imperfect, in the conceit of some tilings, but either VI 
ignorant or erroneous in many more. They understood Scmtrt- 
not the motion of the eighth sphear from West to "?£* 

o r mistakes 

East, and so conceived the longitude of the Stars in- among- tA* 
variable. They conceived the torrid Zone unhabitable, 
and so made frustrate the goodliest part of the Earth. 
But we now know 'tis verv well empeopled, and the 
habitation thereof esteemed so happv, that some have 
made it the proper seat of Paradise ; and been so far 
from judging it unhabitable, that they have made it the 
first habitation of all. Many of the Ancients denied 
the Antipodes, and some unto the penalty of contrarv 
affirmations ; but the experience of our enlarged naviga- 
tions, can now assert them beyond all dubitation. 
Having thus totally relinquisht them in some things, 
it may not be presumptuous, to examine them in others ; 
but surely most unreasonable to adhere to them in all, as 
though they were infallible, or could not err in any way. 



CHAPTER VII 
Of Authority. 

NOR is onely a resolved prostration unto Antiquity 
a powerful enemy unto knowledge, but any 
confident adherence unto Authority, or rcsig * - — 
nation of our judgements upon the testimony of Age 
or Author whatsoever. 

For first, to speak generally an argument from Authority 
Authority to wiser examinations, is but a weaker kind of ^7«mL« 
proof; it being but a topical probation, and as we term * * gm m tm i 
it, an inartificial argument, depending upon a naked u 
asseveration : wherein neither declaring the causes, 

L 



162 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP 
VII 



In the 

Mnthe- 
maticks. 



affections or adjuncts of what we believe, it carrieth 
not with it the reasonable inducements of knowledge. 
And therefore, Contra negantem principia, Ipse dixit, 
or Oportet discentem credere, although Postulates very 
accommodable unto Junior indoctrinations ; yet are 
their Authorities but temporary, and not to be imbraced 
beyond the minority of our intellectuals. For our ad- 
vanced beliefs are not to be built upon dictates, but 
having received the probable inducements of truth, we 
become emancipated from testimonial engagements, and 
are to erect upon the surer base of reason. 

Secondly, Unto reasonable perpensions it hath no 
place in some Sciences, small in others, and suffereth 
many restrictions, even where it is most admitted. It 
is of no validity in the Mathematicks, especially the 
mother part thereof, Arithmetick and Geometry. For 
these Sciences concluding from dignities and principles 
known by themselves : receive not satisfaction from 
probable reasons, much less from bare and peremptory 
asseverations. And therefore if all Athens should 
decree, that in every Triangle, two sides, which soever 
be taken, are greater then the side remaining, or that 
in rectangle triangles the square which is made of the 
side that subtendeth the right angle, is equal to the 
squares which are made of the sides containing the 
right angle : although there be a certain truth therein, 
Geometricians notwithstanding would not receive satis- 
faction without demonstration thereof. 1f Tis true, by 
the vulgarity of Philosophers, there are many points 
believed without probation; nor if a man affirm from 
Ptolomy, that the Sun is bigger then the Earth, shall 
he probably meet with any contradiction : whereunto 
notwithstanding Astronomers will not assent without 
some convincing argument or demonstrative proof 



THE FIRST BOOK 163 

thereof. And therefore certainly of all men a Philoso- CHAT, 
pher should he no swearer ; for an oath which is the VII 
end of controversies in Law, cannot determine any 
here ; nor are the deepest Sacraments or desperate im- 
precations of any force to perswade, where reason only, 
and necessary mediums must induce. 

In Natural Philosophy more generally pursued 
Amongst us, it carrieth but slender consideration; for And Phy 
that also proceeding from setled Principles, therein is " ck 
expected a satisfaction from scientifical progressions, 
and such as beget a sure rational belief. For if Autho- 
rity might have made out the assertions of Philosophy, 
wu might have held that Snow was blaek, that the Sea 
was but the sweat of the Earth, and many of the like 
absurdities. Then was Aristotle injurious to fall upon 
MeKsnU, to reject the assertions of Anajcagoras, Anaxi- 
mander, and Empedocles; then were we also ungrateful 
unto himself; from whom our Junior endeavours em- 
bracing many things on his authority, our mature and 
secondary enquiries, are forced to quit those receptions, 
and to adhere unto the nearer account of Reason. And 
although it be not unusual, even in Philosophical Trac- 
tates to make enumeration of Authors, yet are there 
reasons usually introduced, and to ingenious Headers 
do carry the stroke in the perswasion. And surely if 
we account it reasonable among our selves, and not 
injurious unto rational Authors, no farther to abet 
their Opinions then as they are supported by solid 
Reasons : certainly with more excusable reservation 
mav we shrink at their bare testimonies; whose argu- 
ment is but precarious, and subsists upon the charity 
of our assentments. 

In Morality, Rhetorick, Law and History, there is I 
confess a frequent and allowable use of testimony; and 



164 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, yet herein I perceive, it is not unlimitable, but admit- 
VII teth many restrictions. Thus in Law both Civil and 
Divine : that is onely esteemed a legal testimony, which 
receives comprobation from the mouths of at least two 
witnesses ; and that not only for prevention of calumny, 
but assurance against mistake ; whereas notwithstanding 
the solid reason of one man, is as sufficient as the 
clamor of a whole Nation; and with imprejudicate 
apprehensions begets as firm a belief as the authority 
or aggregated testimony of many hundreds. For reason 
being the very root of our natures, and the principles 
thereof common unto all, what is against the Laws of 
true reason, or the unerring understanding of any one, 
if rightly apprehended ; must be disclaimed by all 
Nations, and rejected even by mankind. 

Again, A testimony is of small validity if deduced 
from men out of their own profession ; so if Lactanthis 
affirm the Figure of the Earth is plain, or Austin deny 
there are Antipodes ; though venerable Fathers of the 
Church, and ever to be honoured, yet will not their 
Authorities prove sufficient to ground a belief thereon. 
Whereas notwithstanding the solid reason or confirmed 
experience of any man, is very approvable in what 
profession soever. So Raymund Sebund a Physitian of 
Tholouze, besides his learned Dialogues De Natnra 
Humana, hath written a natural Theologie; demonstrat- 
ing therein the Attributes of God, and attempting the 
like in most points of Religion. So Hugo Grotius a 
Civilian, did write an excellent Tract of the verity of 
Christian Religion. Wherein most rationally deliver- 
ing themselves, their works will be embraced by most 
that understand them, and their reasons enforce belief 
even from prejudicate Readers. Neither indeed have 
the Authorities of men been ever so awful ; but that by 



THE FIRST BOOK 165 

some thev have been rejected, even in their own pro- CHAP. 
fessions. Thus Aristotle affirming the birth of the VII 
Infant or time of its gestation, extendeth sometimes 
unto the eleventh Month, but Hippocrates, averring 
that it exceedeth not the tenth : Adrian the Emperour 
in a solemn process, determined for Aristotle; but 
Ju.st'nuan manv years after, took in with Hippocrates 
and reversed the Decree of the other. Thus have 
Councils, not only condemned private men, but the 
Decrees and Acts of one another. So Galen after all 
his veneration of Hippocrates, in some things hath 
fallen from him. Avian in many from Galen; and 
others succeeding from him. And although the singu- 
larity of Paracelsus be intolerable, who sparing onely 
Hippocrates, hath reviled not onely the Authors, but 
almost all the learning that went before him ; yet is it 
not much less injurious unto knowledge obstinately 
and inconvincibly to side with any one. Which humour 
unhappily possessing many, they have by prejudice 
withdrawn themselves into parties, and contemning the 
soveraignty of truth, seditiously abetted the private 
divisions of error. 

Moreover a testimony in points Historical, and where 
it is of unavoidable use, is of no illation in the negative, 
nor is it of consequence that Herodotus writing nothing 
of Home, there was therefore no such City in his time ; 
or because Dioscoridcs hath made no mention of Uni- 
corns horn, there is therefore no such thing in Nature. 
Indeed, intending an accurate enumeration of Medical 
materials, the omission hereof affords some probability, 
it was not used by the Ancients, but will not conclude 
the non-existence thereof. For so may we annihilate 
many Simples unknown to his enquiries, as Senna, 
Rhubarb, Bczoar, Ambrcgris, and divers others. Whereas 



166 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, indeed the reason of man hath not such restraint ; con- 
VII eluding not onely affirmatively but negatively ; not 
onely affirming there is no magnitude beyond the last 
heavens, but also denying there is any vacuity within 
them. Although it be confessed, the affirmative hath 
the prerogative illation, and Barbara engrosseth the 
powerful demonstration. 

Lastly, The strange relations made by Authors, may 
sufficiently discourage our adherence unto Authority; 
and which if we believe we must be apt to swallow 
any thing. Thus Basil will tell us, the Serpent went 
erect like Man, and that that Beast could speak 
before the Fall. Tostatus would make us believe that 
Nilus encreaseth every new Moon. Leonardo Fioravanti 
an Italian Physitian, beside many other secrets, as- 
sumeth unto himself the discovery of one concerning 
Pellitory of the Wall ; that is, that it never groweth 
in the sight of the North star. Doue si possa vedere 
la stella Tramontana, wherein how wide he is from truth, 
is easily discoverable unto every one, who hath but 
Astronomy enough to know that Star. Franciscus Sanc- 
tiu8 in a laudable Comment upon Alciats Emblems, 
affirmeth, and that from experience, a Nightingale 
hath no tongue. Avem Philomel-am lingua carere pro 
cerio qflirmare possum, nisi me oculi fallunt. Which if 
any man for a while shall believe upon his experience, 
he may at his leisure refute it by his own. What fool 
almost would believe, at least, what wise man would 
relie upon that Antidote delivered by Pierius in his 
Hieroglyphicks against the sting of a Scorpion? that 
is, to sit upon an Ass with ones face toward his tail; 
for so the pain leaveth the Man, and passeth into the 
Beast. It were methinks but an uncomfortable receit 
for a Quartane Ague (and yet as good perhaps as many 



THE FIRST HOOK 1G7 

others used) to have recourse unto the Recipe of Sam- CHAP. 
Wtomeus; that is, to lay the fourth Hook of Homers VII 
Iliads under ones head, according to the precept of 
that Phvsitian and Poet, Mironhv IUndos quartum gup- 
pone treiiunti. There are surely few that have belief ***** 
to swallow, or hope enough to experiment the Colly- " 
rium of AJbertus; which promiseth a strange effect, 
and such as Thieves would count inestimable, that is, 
to make one see in the dark : yet thus much, according 
unto his receit, will the right eye of an Hedge-hog boiled 
in ovl, and preserved in a brazen vessel effect. As 
strange it is, and unto vicious inclinations were worth 
a nights Lodging with Lais, what is delivered in Air- Tin 

, iii/. . „. , , . thousand 

amides \ that the left stone of a Weesel, wrapt up in drachms . 
the skin of a she Mule, is able to secure incontinency 
from conception. 

These with swarms of others have men delivered in 
their Writings, whose verities are onely supported by 
their authorities: But being neither consonant unto 
reason, nor correspondent unto experiment, their affir- 
mations are unto us no axioms : We esteem thereof as 
thinjrs unsaid, and account them but in the list of 
nothing. I wish herein the Chymists had been more 
sparing: who over-magnifying their preparations, in- 
veigle the curiosity of many, and delude the security 
of most. For if experiments would answer their en- 
comiums, the Stone and Quartane Agues were not 
opprobrious unto Physitians : wc might contemn that 
first and most uncomfortable Aphorism of Hippocrates, AnUmgm 
for surely that Art were soon attained, that hath so Vlta hr "" s ' 
general remedies; and life could not be short, were 
there such to prolong it. 



168 PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP. 
VIII 



N 



CHAPTER VIII 
A brief enumeration of Authors. 

OW for as much as we have discoursed of 
Authority, and there is scarce any tradition 
or popular error but stands also delivered by 
some good Author ; we shall endeavour a short dis. 
co very of such, as for the major part have given 
authority hereto : who though excellent and useful 
Authors, yet being either transcriptive, or following 
common relations, their accounts are not to be swal- 
lowed at large, or entertained without all circumspec- 
tion. In whom the ipse dixit, although it be no 
powerful argument in any, is yet less authentick then 
in many other, because they deliver not their own 
experiences, but others affirmations, and write from 
others, as later pens from them. 
The Authors 1. The first in order, as also in time shall be Hero- 
judgement, ( ] i m f Halica/rnassus, an excellent and very elegant 

or a char- i t 1 1 

acter given Historian ; whose Books of History were so well 
o/ some received in his own days, and at their rehearsal in the 

eminent J ' 

Authors. Olympick games, they obtained the names of the nine 
Muses; and continued in such esteem unto descending 
Ages, that Cicero termed him, Historiarum parens. 
And Dionysius his Countryman, in an Epistle to 
Pompey, after an express comparison, affords him the 
better of Thucydides ; all which notwithstanding, he 
hath received from some, the stile of Mendacionnn 
pato: His Authority was much infringed by Plutarch, 
who being offended with him, as Polybius had been 
with Philareus for speaking too coldly of his Country- 
men, hath left a particular Tract, De malignitate 



THE FIRST BOOK 109 

Herodoti. But in this latter Century, Camerarius and CHAP. 
Stephanns have stepped in, and by their witty Apolo- VIII 
gies, effectually endeavoured to frustrate the Arguments 
of Plutarch, or anv other. Now in this Author, as mav 
be observed in our ensuing discourse, and is better 
discernable in the perusal of himself, there are many 
things fabulously delivered, and not to be accepted as 
truths : whereby nevertheless if any man be deceived, 
the Author is not so culpable as the Believer. For he 
indeed imitating the Father Poet, whose life he hath 
also written, and as Thucydides observeth, as well in- 
tending the delight as benefit of his Reader, hath 
besprinkled his work with many fabulosities; whereby 
if any man be led into error, he mistaketh the intention 
of the Author, who plainly confesseth he writeth many 
things by hear-say, and forgetteth a very considerable 
caution of his ; that is, Ego quwfando cognovi, exponere 
narrationc mea debeo omnia : credere autern esse vera 
omnia, non debeo. 

2. In the second place is Ctesias the Cnidian, Phvsi- 
tian unto Artaxerxes King of Persia, his Books are 
often recited by ancient Writers, and by the industry 
of Stephamu and Rhodomanus, there are extant some 
fragments thereof in our days ; he wrote the History 
of Persia, and many narrations of India. In the first, 
a^ having a fair opportunity to know the truth, and as 
Diodoriui athrmeth the perusal of Persian Records, his 
testimony is acceptable. In his Indian Relations, 
wherein are contained strange and incredible accounts, 
he U surely to be read with suspension. These were 
thev which weakned his authoritv with former ages; 
for as we may observe, he is seldom mentioned, without 
a derojjatorv Parenthesis in anv Author. Aristotle 
besides the frequent undervaluing of his authority, in 



170 PSEl T DODOXIA 

CHAP, his Books of Animals gives him the lie no less then 
VIII twice, concerning the seed of Elephants. Strabo in his 
eleventh Book, hath left a harder censure of him. 
Equidem facilhis Hesiodo § Homero, aliguis fidem ad- 
hibuerit, itemque Tragicis Poetis, quam Ctesice, Herodoto, 
Hellanico # eorum similibus. But Lucian hath spoken 
more plainer then any. Scripsit Ctesias de Indorurn 
regione, deque lis quae a/pud illos sunt, ea quae nee 
ipse vidit, neque ex ullius sermone audivit. Yet were 
his relations taken up by some succeeding Writers, 
and many thereof revived by our Countryman, Sir 
John Mandevil, Knight, and Doctor in Physick ; who 
after thirty years peregrination died at Liege, and was 
there honourably interred. He left a Book of his 
Travels, which hath been honoured with the transla- 
tion of many Languages, and now continued above 
three hundred years; herein he often attesteth the 
fabulous relations of Ctesias, and seems to confirm the 
refuted accounts of Antiquity. All which may still 
be received in some acceptions of morality, and to a 
pregnant invention, may afford commendable mytho- 
logie; but in a natural and proper exposition, it 
containeth impossibilities, and things inconsistent with 
truth. 

3. There is a Book De mirandis auditionibus, ascribed 
unto Aristotle ; another De mirab'dibus narration ibnj, 
written long after by Anti<ronus, another also of the 
same title by Plegon TraUianus, translated by Xilander, 
and with the Annotations of Meursius, all whereof 
make good the promise of their titles, and may be read 
with caution. Which if any man shall likewise observe 
in the Lecture of Philostratus, concerning the life of 
Apolhnius, and even in some passages of the sober and 
learned Plutarchus ; or not only in ancient Writers, 



THE FIRST BOOK 171 

but shall carry a warv eye on Paulm Vendue, Joviux. CHAP. 
Olau.v Magnus, Nierembergius, and many other : I think VIII 
his circumspection is laudable, and he may thereby 
decline occasion of Error. 

4. Dioecoridee Anazarbeus, he wrote many Books in 
Physick, but six thereof De Materia Medico, have 
found the greatest esteem : he is an Author of good 
antiquity and use, preferred by Galen before Cratevae, 
Pamphihu, and all that attempted the like description 
before him ; yet all he delivereth therein is not to be 
conceived Oraculous. For beside that, following the 
wars under Anthony, the course of his life would not 
permit a punctual Examen in all ; there are many 
things concerning the nature of Simples, traditionally 
delivered, and to which I believe he gave no assent 
himself. It had been an excellent Receit, and in his 
time when Saddles were scarce in fashion of very great 
use, if that were true which he delivers, that YHex, or 
Agnus Cashu held onlv in the hand, preserveth the 
rider from galling. It were a strange effect, and a uk e 
Whores would forsake the experiment of Savine, \f*"" on 

l * t nt re is now 

that were a truth which he delivereth of Brake or of Eider. 
female Fearn, that onelv treading over it, it causeth 
a sudden abortion. It were to be wished true, and 
women would idolize him, could that be made out 
which he recordeth of Pfit/Ihn, Mercury, and other 
vegetables, that the juice of the male Plant drunk, or 
the leaves but applied unto the genitals, determines 
their conceptions unto males. In these relations 
although he be more sparing, his predecessors were 
verv numerous ; and Galen hereof most sharplv accuseth 
Pamphilu.s. Manv of the like nature we meet sometimes 
in Oribasins, JEthiS, Trallianns, Scrnp'ion, Evux, and 
Marcclhi.s, whereof some containing no colour of vcritv, 



172 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP. 
VIII 



P Units 

Natural 

History 

collected 

out oj '2000 

several 

A uthors. 



we may at first sight reject them; others which seem 
to carry some face of truth, we may reduce unto 
experiment. And herein we shall rather perform good 
offices unto truth, then any disservice unto their re- 
lators, who have well deserved of succeeding Ages ; 
from whom having received the conceptions of former 
Times, we have the readier hint of their conformity 
with ours, and may accordingly explore and sift their 
verities. 

5. Plinlus Secimdus of Verona ; a man of great 
Eloquence, and industry indefatigable, as may appear 
by his writings, especially those now extant, and which 
are never like to perish, but even with learning it self; 
that is, his Natural History. He was the greatest 
Collector or Rhapsodist of the Latines, and as Sue- 
tonius observeth, he collected this piece out of two 
thousand Latine and Greek Authors. Now what is 
very strange, there is scarce a popular error passant in 
our days, which is not either directly expressed, or 
diductively contained in this Work ; which being in 
the hands of most men, hath proved a powerful occasion 
of their propagation. Wherein notwithstanding the 
credulity of the Reader, is more condemnable than the 
curiosity of the Author : for commonly he nameth 
the Authors from whom he received those accounts, 
and writes but as he reads, as in his Preface to Ves- 
pasian he acknowledged. 

6. Claudius /EUanus, who flourished not long after 
in the reign of Trajan, unto whom he dedicated his 
Tacticks ; an elegant and miscellaneous Author, he 
hath left two Books which are in the hands of every 
one, his History of Animals, and his Varia Historia. 
Wherein are contained many things suspicious, not a 
few false, some impossible; he is much beholding unto 



THE FIRST BOOK 173 

Ctemai, and in many uncertainties writes more con- CHAP. 
fidently then Pliny. VI II 

7. Julius Sol'inus, who lived also about his time : 
He left a Work entituled Pulyhhtor, containing great 
variety of matter, and is with most in good request at 
this day. But to speak freely what cannot be con- 
cealed, it is but Pliny varied, or a transcription of his 
Natural History : nor is it without all wonder it hath 
continued so long, but is now likely, and deserves 
indeed to live for ever ; not onely for the elegancy 
of the Text, but the excellency of the Comment, 
lately performed by Soknasiiu, under the name of 
PUn'ian Exercitations. 

8. Athena us, a delectable Author, very various, and 
justly stiled bv Cu.saubon, Grircorum Plinhus. There is 
extant of his. a famous Piece, under the name of 
Dcipnosnphi.stu, or Ccena Sapkntum, containing the 
Discourse of many learned men, at a Feast provided 
by Lmircnt'ius. It is a laborious Collection out of many 
Authors, and some whereof are mentioned no where 
else. It containeth strange and singular relations, not 
without some spice or sprinkling of all Learning. The 
Author was probably a better Grammarian then Philo- 
sopher, dealing but hardlv with Aristotle and Plato, and 
betravtth himself much in his Chapter De Curiositate 
Jristotelis. In brief, he is an Author of excellent use, 
and mav with discretion be read unto great advantage : 
and hath therefore well deserved the Comments of 
Casaubon and Dalceampius. But being miscellaneous 
in many things, he is to be received with suspition ; 
for such as amass all relations, must erre in some, and 
may without offence be unbelieved in many. 

9. We will not omit the works of Xicander, a Poet 
of good antiquity : that is, his Theriaea, and Alex'i- 



174 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, pharmaca, Translated and Commented by Gorrceus : for 
VIII therein are contained several Traditions, and popular 
Conceits of venemous Beasts; which only deducted, 
the Work is to be embraced, as containing the first 
description of poysons and their antidotes, whereof 
Dioscorides, Pliny, and Galen, have made especial use 
in elder times ; and Ardoynus, Grevinus, and others, in 
times more near our own. We might perhaps let pass 
Oppianus, that famous Cilician Poet. There are extant 
of his in Greek, four Books of Cynegeticks or Venation, 
five of Halieuticks or Piscation, commented and pub- 
lished by Ritterhusius ; wherein describing Beasts of 
venery and Fishes, he hath indeed but sparingly inserted 
the vulgar conceptions thereof. So that abating the 
annual mutation of Sexes in the Hyaena, the single Sex 
of the Rhinoceros, the Antipathy between two Drums, 
of a Lamb and a Wolfes skin, the informity of Cubs, 
the venation of Centaures, the copulation of the Murena 
and the Viper, with some few others, he may be read 
with great delight and profit. It is not without some 
wonder his Elegant Lines are so neglected. Surely 
Tkat write herebv we reject one of the best Epick Poets, and much 
Hexameters, con( J einn the Judgement of Antoninus, whose apprehen- 
vtmt. sions so honoured his Poems, that as some report, for 

every verse, he assigned him a Stater of Gold. 

10. More warily are we to receive the relations of 
Philcs, who in Greek IambicJcs delivered the proprieties 
of Animals, for herein he hath amassed the vulgar 
accounts recorded by the Ancients, and hath therein 
especially followed /Elian. And likewise Johannes 
Tzetzes, a Grammarian, who besides a Comment 
upon Hesiod and Homer, hath left us Chiliads de 
Varia Historia ; wherein delivering the accounts of 
Ctesias, Herodotus, and most of the Ancients, he 



THE FIRST BOOK 175 

is to be embraced with caution, and as a transcriptive CHAP. 
Relator. VIII 

11. We cannot without partiality omit all caution 
even of holv Writers, and such whose names are vener- 
able unto all posterity : not to meddle at all with 
miraculous Authors, or any Legendary relators, we 
are not without circumspection to receive some Books 
even of authentick and renowned Fathers. So are we 
to read the leaves of Basil and Ambrose, in their Books 
entituled Hcxameron, or The Description of the Creation ; 
Wherein delivering particular accounts of all the 
Creatures, they have left us relations sutable to those 
of jElian, Plinie, and other Natural Writers ; whose 
authorities herein they followed, and from whom most 
probablv they desumed their Narrations. And the 
like hath been committed by Epiphanius, in his Physi- 
ologic; that is, a Book he hath left concerning the 
Nature of Animals. With no less caution must we 
look on Isidor Bishop of Sevil; who having left in 
twenty Books, an accurate work De Originibus, hath 
to the Etymologie of Words, super-added their re- 
ceived Natures; wherein most generally he consents 
with common Opinions and Authors which have 
delivered them. 

12. Albciius Bishop of Ratisbone, for his great 
Learning and latitude of Knowledge, sirnamed Mag- 
nus. Besides Divinity, he hath written many Tracts 
in Philosophy ; what we are chiefly to receive with 
caution, are his Natural Tractates, more especially 
those of Minerals, Vegetables, and Animals, which are 
indeed chietlv Collections out of Aristotle, JElian, and 
Pliny, and respectively contain many of our popular 
Errors. A man who hath much advanced these 
Opinions by the authority of his Name, and delivered 



176 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, most Conceits, with strict Enquiry into few. In the 
VIII same Classis may well be placed Vincentius Belluacensis, 
or rather he from whom he collected his Speculum 
naturale, that is, Guilielmus de Conchis ; and also 
Hortus Sanitatis, and Barthohmeus Glanvil, sirnamed 
Anglicus, who writ De proprietatlbus Rerurn. Hither 
also may be referred Kiranides, which is a Collection" 1 
out of Harpocration the Greek, and sundry Arabick 
Writers ; delivering not onely the Natural but Magical 
propriety of things ; a Work as full of Vanity as 
Variety ; containing many relations, whose Invention 
is as difficult as their Beliefs, and their Experiments 
sometime as hard as either. 

13. We had almost forgot Jcronimiis Cardanus that 
famous Physician of Milan, a great Enquirer of Truth, 
but too greedy a Receiver of it. He hath left many 
excellent Discourses, Medical, Natural, and Astrolo- 
gical ; the most suspicious are those two he wrote by 
admonition in a dream, that is De SubtUitate fy Varietate 
Rerum. Assuredly this learned man hath taken many 
things upon trust, and although examined some, 
hath let slip many others. He is of singular use unto 
a prudent Reader; but unto him that onely desireth 
Hoties, or to replenish his head with varieties ; like many 
others before related, either in the Original or confir- 
mation, he may become no small occasion of Error. 

14. Lastly, Authors are also suspicious, not greedily 
to be swallowed, who pretend to write of Secrets, to 
deliver Antipathies, Sympathies, and the occult abstru- 
sities of things ; in the list whereof may be accounted, 
Alexis Pedimontanus, Antonius Mizaldus, Tritium Magi- 
cum, and many others. Not omitting that famous 
Philosopher of Naples, Baptista Porta; in whose Works, 
although there be contained many excellent things, 



THE FIRST BOOK 177 

and verified upon his own Experience; yet are there CHAP. 
many also receptarv, and such as will not endure the VIII 
test. Who although he hath delivered many strange 
Relations in his Phvtognomia, and his Villa; vet hath 
he more remarkably expressed himself in his Natural 
Magick, and the miraculous effects of Nature. Which 
containing various and delectable subjects, withall pro- 
mising wondrous and easie effects, they are entertained 
by Readers at all hands ; whereof the major part sit 
down in his authority, and thereby omit not onely the 
certaintv of Truth, but the pleasure of its Experiment. 

Thus have we made a brief enumeration of these 
Learned Men ; not willing any to decline their Works 
(without which it is not easie to attain any measure 
of general Knowledge,) but to apply themselves with 
caution thereunto. And seeing the lapses of these 
worthv Pens, to cast a wary eye on those diminutive, 
and pamphlet Treaties daily published amongst us. 
Pieces maintaining rather Typography than Verity, 
Authors presumably writing by Common Places, where- 
in for many years promiscuously amassing all that 
makes for their subject, they break forth at last in 
trite and fruitless Rhapsodies ; doing thereby not only 
open injury unto Learning, but committing a secret 
treachery upon truth. For their relations falling upon 
credulous Headers, they meet with prepared beliefs; 
whose supinities had rather assent unto all, then adven- 
ture the trial of anv. 

Thus, I say, must these Authors be read, and thus 
must we be read our selves ; for discoursing of matters 
dubious, and many convertible truths ; we cannot with- 
out arrogancy entreat a credulity, or implore any 
farther assent, then the probability of our Reasons, 
and verity of experiments induce. 

II 



CHAP. 
IX 



178 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAPTER IX 

Of the Same. 

THERE are beside these Authors and such as 
have positively promoted errors, divers other 
which are in some way accessory ; whose 
verities although they do not directly assert, yet do 
they obliquely concur unto their beliefs. In which 
account are many holy Writers, Preachers, Moralists, 
Rhetoricians, Orators and Poets ; for they depending 
upon Invention, deduce their mediums from all things 
whatsoever; and playing much upon the simile, or 
illustrative argumentation : to induce their Enthy- 
memes unto the people, they took up popular conceits, 
and from traditions unjustifiable or really false, illus- 
trate matters of undeniable truth. Wherein although 
their intention be sincere, and that course not much 
condemnable ; yet doth it notoriously strengthen 
common Errors, and authorise Opinions injurious unto 
truth. 

Thus have some Divines drawn into argument the 
Fable of the Phoenix, made use of that of the Sala- 
mander, Pelican, Basilisk, and divers relations of Plinie ; 
deducing from thence most worthy morals, and even 
upon our Saviour. Now although this be not pre- 
judicial unto wiser Judgments, who are but weakly 
moved with such arguments, yet it is oft times occasion 
of Error unto vulgar heads, who expect in the Fable 
as equal a truth as in the Moral, and conceive that 
infallible Philosophy, which is in any sense delivered 
by Divinity. But wiser discerners do well understand, 
that every Art hath its own circle ; that the effects of 



THE FIRST BOOK 179 

things are best examined, bv sciences wherein are CHAT, 
delivered their causes ; that strict and definitive IX 
expressions, are alway required in Philosophy, but & £. T />restiens 
loose and popular delivery will serve oftentimes in c / ho! y Scr jt- 
Divinity. As may be observed even in holy Scripture, manytimts 
which often omitteth the exact account of things ; ^tuiarmmd 
describing them rather to our apprehensions, then """""^ 
.leaving doubts in vulgar minds, upon their unknown //,,„ u the 
and Philosophical descriptions. Thus it termeth the exac '^' tlturt 
Sun and the Moon the two great lights of Heaven. 
Now if any shall from hence conclude, the Moon is 
second in magnitude unto the Sun, he must excuse mv 
belief; and it cannot be strange, if herein I rather 
adhere unto the demonstration of Ptolemy, then the 
popular description of Motet. Thus is it said, Otron. 
2. 4. That Salomon made a molten Sea of ten Cubits 
from brim to brim round in compass, and live Cubits 
the height thereof, and a line of thirty Cubits did 
compass it round about. Now in this description, the 
circumference is made just treble unto the Diameter: 
that is, as 10. to 30. or 7. to 21. But Archimedes f****Cyci+ 
demonstrates, that the proportion of the Diameter 
unto the circumference, is as 7. unto almost 22. which 
will occasion a sensible difference, that is almost a 
Cubit. Now if herein I adhere unto Archimedes who 
speaketh exactly, rather then the sacred Text which 
speaketh largely ; I hope I shall not offend Divinity: 
I am sure I shall have reason and experience of every 
circle to support me. 

Thus Moral Writers, Rhetoricians and Orators make 
use of several relations which will not consist with 
verity. Aristotle in his Ethicks takes up the conceit 
of the Bevcr, and the divulsion of his Testicles. The 
tradition of the Bear, the Viper, and divers others are 



180 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, frequent amongst Orators. All which although unto 
IX the illiterate and undiscerning hearers may seem a con- 
firmation of their realities ; yet is this no reasonable 
establishment unto others, who will not depend hereon 
otherwise then common Apologues : which being of 
impossible falsities, do notwithstanding include whol- 
some moralities, and such as expiate the trespass of 
their absurdities. 

The Hieroglyphical doctrine of the ^Egyptians 
(which in their four hundred years cohabitation 
some conjecture they learned from the Hebrews) hath 
much advanced many popular conceits. For using an 
Alphabet of things, and not of words, through the 
image and pictures thereof, they endeavoured to speak 
their hidden conceits in the letters and language of 
Nature. In pursuit whereof, although in many things, 
they exceeded not their true and real apprehensions; 
yet in some other they either framing the story, or 
taking up the tradition, conducible unto their inten- 
tions, obliquely confirmed many falsities; which as 
authentick and conceded truths did after pass unto the 
Greeks, from them unto other Nations, and are still 
retained by symbolical Writers, Emblematists, Heralds, 
and others. Whereof some are strictly maintained for 
truths, as naturally making good their artificial repre- 
sentations ; others symbolically intended, are literally 
received, and swallowed in the first sense, without all 
gust of the second. Whereby we pervert the profound 
and mysterious knowledge of ^Egypt ; containing the 
Arcana's of Greek Antiquities, the Key of many ob- 
scurities and ancient learning extant. Famous herein 
in former Ages were Heraiscm, Cherernon, Epius, 
especially Orus Apollo Niliacus : who lived in the reign 
of Theodosius, and in ^Egyptian language left two 



S 



THE FIRST BOOK 181 

Rooks of Hieroglvphicks, translated into Greek by CHAP. 
Ph'il'ippus, and a large collection of all made after by IX 
Piei'iiu. But no man is likely to profound the Ocean 
of that Doctrine, beyond that eminent example of 
industrious Learning, Khrlnrus. 

Painters who are the visible representers of things, 
and such as by the learned sense of the eye endeavour 
to inform the understanding, are not inculpable herein, 
who either describing Naturals as they are, or actions 
as they have been, have oftentimes erred in their 
delineations. Which being the Books that all can 
read, are fruitful advancers of these conceptions, especi- 
ally in common and popular apprehensions : who being 
unable for farther enquiry, must rest in the draught 
and letter of their descriptions. 

Lastlv, Poets and Poetical Writers have in this 
point exceeded others, trimly advancing the ^Egyptian 
notions of Harpies, P/keh'u; Gryphvns, and many more. 
Now however to make use of Fictions, Apologues, and 
Fables, be not unwarrantable, and the intent of these 
inventions might point at laudable ends; yet do they 
afford our junior capacities a frequent occasion of 
error, setling impressions in our tender memories, 
which our advanced judgments generally neglect to 
expunge. This way the vain and idle fictions of the 
Gentiles did first insinuate into the heads of Christians ; 
and thus are they continued even unto our days. Our 
first and literary apprehensions being commonly in- 
structed in Authors which handle nothing else; where- 
with our memories being stuffed, our inventions become 
pedantick, and cannot avoid their allusions; driving at 
these as at the highest elegancies, which are but the 
frigidities of wit, and become not the genius of manlv 
ingenuities. It were therefore no loss like that of 



182 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP. Galens Library, if these had found the same fate ; and 
IX would in some way requite the neglect of solid Authors, 
if they were less pursued. For were a pregnant wit 
educated in ignorance hereof, receiving only impres- 
sions from realities; upon such solid foundations, it 
must surely raise more substantial superstructions, and 
fall upon very many excellent strains, which have been 
jusled off by their intrusions. 



The Devils 
method of 
propagating 
Error in 
the World. 



CHAPTER X 

Of the last and common Promoter of false 
Opinions, the endeavours of Satan. 

BUT beside the infirmities of humane Nature, the 
seed of Error within our selves, and the 
several ways of delusion from each other, 
there is an invisible Agent, and secret promoter 
without us, whose activity is undiscerned, and plays 
in the dark upon us ; and that is the first contriver 
of Error, and professed opposer of Truth, the Devil. 
For though permitted unto his proper principles, 
Adam perhaps would have sinned without the sugges- 
tion of Satan : and from the transgressive infirmities 
of himself might have erred alone, as well as the 
Angels before him : And although also there were no 
Devil at all, yet there is now in our Natures a confessed 
sufficiency unto corruption, and the frailty of our own 
Oeconomie, were able to betray us out of Truth, yet 
wants there not another Agent, who taking advantage 
hereof proceedeth to obscure the diviner part, and 
efface all tract of its traduction. To attempt a par- 
ticular of all his wiles, is too bold an Arithmetick for 



THE FIRST BOOK 183 

man: what most considerably concerneth his popular CHAP. 
ami practised ways of delusion, he first deceiveth X 
mankind in five main points concerning God and 
himself. 

And first his endeavours have ever been, and they 
cease not yet to instill a belief in the mind of Man, 
there is no God at all. And this he principally 
endeavours to establish in a direct and literal appre- 
hension ; that is, that there is no such reality existent, 
that the necessity of his entity dependeth upon ours, 
and is but a Political Chymera ; that the natural 
truth of God is an artificial erection of Man, and the 
Creator himself but a subtile invention of the Creature. 
Where he succeeds not thus high, he labours to intro- 
duce a secondary and deductive Atheism; that although 
men concede there is a God, yet should they deny his 
providence. And therefore assertions have flown about, 
that heintendeth onlv the care of the species or common 
natures, but letteth loose the guard of individuals, and 
single existencies therein : that he looks not below the 
Moon, but hath designed the regiment of sublunary 
affairs unto inferiour deputations. To promote which 
apprehensions, or empuz/.el their due conceptions, he 
casteth in the notions of fate, destiny, fortune, chance, 
and necessity; terms commonly misconceived by vulgar 
heads, and their propriety sometime perverted by the 
wisest. Whereby extinguishing in minds the compen- 
sation of vertue and vice, the hope and fear of Heaven 
or Hell; they comply in their actions unto the drift 
of his delusions, and live like creatures without the 
capacity of either. 

Now hereby he not onely undermineth the Base of 
Religion, and destroyeth the principle preambulous 
unto all belief; but puts upon us the remotest Error 



184 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, from Truth. For Atheism is the greatest falsity, and 
X to affirm there is no God, the highest lie in Nature. And 
therefore strictly taken, some men will say his labour 
is in vain ; For many there are, who cannot conceive 
there was ever any absolute Atheist ; or such as could 
determine there was no God, without all check from 
himself, or contradiction from his other opinions. 
And therefore those few so called by elder times, 
might be the best of Pagans; suffering that name 
rather in relation to the gods of the Gentiles, then the 
true Creator of all. A conceit that cannot befal his 
greatest enemy, or him that would induce the same in 
us ; who hath a sensible apprehension hereof, for he 
believeth with trembling. To speak yet more strictly 
and conformably unto some Opinions, no creature can 
wish thus much ; nor can the Will which hath a power 
to run into velleities, and wishes of impossibilities, 
have any utinam of this. For to desire there were no 
God, were plainly to unwish their own being ; which 
must needs be annihilated in the substraction of that 
essence which substantially supporteth them, and 
restrains them from regression into nothing. And if 
as some contend, no creature can desire his own annihi- 
lation, that Nothing is not appetible, and not to be at 
all, is worse then to be in the miserablest condition of 
something; the Devil himself could not embrace that 
motion, nor would the enemy of God be freed by such 
a Redemption. 

But coldly thriving in this design, as being repulsed 
by the principles of humanity, and the dictates of that 
production, which cannot deny its original, he fetcheth 
a wider circle ; and when he cannot make men conceive 
there is no God at all, he endeavours to make them 
believe there is not one, but many : wherein he hath 



THE FIRST BOOK 185 

been so successful with common heads, that he hath CHAP. 
led their belief thorow all the Works of Nature. X 

Now in this latter attempt, the subtiltv of his cir- 
cumvention, hath indirectly obtained the former. For 
although to opinion there be many gods, may seem an 
excess in Religion, and such as cannot at all consist 
with Atheism, yet doth it deductively and upon infer- 
ence include the same, for Unity is the inseparable and 
essential attribute of Deity ; and if there be more then 
one God, it is no Atheism to say there is no God at 
all. And herein though Socrates only suffered, yet 
were Plato and Aristotle guilty of the same Truth; 
who demonstratively understanding the simplicity of 
perfection, and the indivisible condition of the first 
causator, it was not in the power of Earth, or Areo- Areopagus 
pagy of Hell to work them from it. For holding an cL'rZ/ 
1 Apodictica] knowledge, and assured science of its verity, Athens. 
to perswade their apprehensions unto a plurality of*^™"' 
gods in the world, were to make Euclide believe there 
were more than one Center in a Circle, or one right 
Angle in a Triangle; which were indeed a fruitless 
attempt, and inferreth absurdities beyond the evasion 
of Hell. For though Mechanick and vulgar heads 
ascend not unto such comprehensions, who live not 
commonly unto half the advantage of their principles ; 
yet did they not escape the eye of wiser Minerva's, and 
such as made good the genealogie of Jupitcrs brains ; 
who although they had divers stiles for God, vet under 
many appellations acknowledged one divinity: rather 
conceiving thereby the evidence or acts of his power 
in several ways and places, then a multiplication of 
Essence, or real distraction of unity in any one. 

Again, To render our errors more monstrous (and 
what unto miracle sets forth the patience of God,) he 



186 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, hath endeavoured to make the world believe, that he 
X was God himself; and failing of his first attempt to be 
but like the highest in Heaven, he hath obtained with 
men to be the same on Earth. And hath accordingly 
assumed the annexes of Divinity, and the prerogatives 
of the Creator, drawing into practice the operation of 
miracles, and the prescience of things to come. Thus 
hath he in a specious way wrought cures upon the sick : 
played over the wondrous acts of Prophets, and counter- 
feited many miracles of Christ and his Apostles. Thus 
hath he openly contended with God, and to this effect 
his insolency was not ashamed to play a solemn prize 
with Moses; wherein although his performance were 
very specious, and beyond the common apprehension 
of any power below a Deity ; yet was it not such as 
could make good his Omnipotency. For he was wholly 
confounded in the conversion of dust into lice. An 
act Philosophy can scarce deny to be above the power 
of Nature, nor upon a requisite predisposition beyond 
the efficacy of the Sun. Wherein notwithstanding 
the head of the old Serpent was confessedly too weak 
for Moses hand, and the arm of his Magicians too 
short for the finger of God. 

Thus hath he also made men believe that he can 
raise the dead, that he hath the key of life and death, 
and a prerogative above that principle which makes no 
regression from privations. The Stoicks that opinioned 
the souls of wise men dwelt about the Moon, and those 
of fools wandered about the Earth, advantaged the 
conceit of this effect ; wherein the Epicureans, who 
held that death was nothing, nor nothing after death, 
must contradict their principles to be deceived. Nor 
could the Pythagoreans or such as maintained the 
transmigration of souls give easie admittance hereto : 



THE FIRST BOOK 187 

for holding that separated souls successively supplied CHAT, 
other bodies, they could hardly allow the raising of X 
souls from other worlds, which at the same time, they 
conceived conjovned unto bodies in this. More incon- ThaAn&tn 
sistent with these Opinions, is the Error of Christians, °fj" c '^ g 
who holding the dead do rest in the Lord, do yet N nm m m m rj 
believe they are at the lure of the Devil; that he who «'<,**<>/ the 
is in bonds himself coramandeth the fetters of the dead, 2****f"" 

atpartta. 

and dwelling in the bottomless lake, the blessed from 
Abrahams bosome, that can believe the real resurrec- 
tion of Samuel : or that there is any thing but delusion 
in the practice of l Necromancy and popular raising ofiDMmmtbm 
Ghosts. 

He hath moreover endeavoured the opinion of Deity, 
by the delusion of Dreams, and the discovery of things 
to come in sleep, above the prescience of our waked 
senses. In this expectation he perswaded the credulity 
of elder times to take up their lodging before his 
temple, in skins of their own sacrifices : till his reser- 
vedness had contrived answers, whose accomplishments 
were in his power, or not beyond his presagement. 
Which way, although it had pleased Almighty God, 
sometimes to reveal himself, yet was the proceeding 
verv different. For the revelations of Heaven are Htm the 
conveyed by new impressions, and the immediate illu- hU p nUmit ^ 
mination of the soul, whereas the deceiving spirit, meimtiam 
by concitation of humours, produceth his conceited tie 
phantasms, or by compounding the species already 
residing, doth make up words which mentally speak his 
intention-. 

But above all he mo>t advanced his Deity in the 
solemn practice of Oracles, wherein in several parts of 
the World, he publikelv professed his Divinity; but 
how short they flew of that spirit, whose omniscience, 



icm. 



188 



PSEIjDODOXIA 



Demos- 
thenes, 



CHAP, they would resemble, their weakness sufficiently declared. 
What jugling there was therein, the Orator plainly 
confessed, who being good at the same game himself, 
could say that Pythia Philippised. Who can but 
laugh at the carriage of Ammon unto Alexander, who 
addressing unto him as a god, was made to believe, he 
was a god himself? How openly did he betray his 
Indivinity unto Croesus, who being ruined by his Am- 
phibology, and expostulating with him for so ungrateful 
a deceit, received no higher answer then the excuse of 
his impotency upon the contradiction of fate, and the 
setled law of powers beyond his power to controle ! 
What more then sublunary directions, or such as might 
proceed from the Oracle of humane Reason, was in his 
advice unto the Spartans in the time of a great Plague ; 
when for the cessation thereof, he wisht them to have 
recourse unto a Fawn, that is in open terms, unto one 
Nebrus, a good Physitian of those days? From no 
diviner a spirit came his reply unto Caracalla, who 
requiring a remedy for his Gout, received no other 
counsel then to refrain cold drink ; which was but a 
dietetical caution, and such as without a journey 
unto JEsculapius, culinary prescription and kitchin 
Aphorisms might have afforded at home. Nor surely 
if any truth there were therein, of more then natural 
activity was his counsel unto Democritus; when for 
the Falling sickness he commended the Maggot in 
a Goats head. For many tilings secret are true ; 
sympathies and antipathies are safely authentick unto 
us, who ignorant of their causes may yet acknowledge 
their effects. Beside, being a natural Magician he 
may perform many acts in ways above our knowledge, 
though not transcending our natural power, when our 
knowledge shall direct it. Part hereof hath been dis^ 



Nebros, in 
Greek, a 
Fawn. 



THE FIRST BOOK 189 

covered by himself, and some by humane indagation : CHAP. 
which though magnified as fresh inventions unto us, X 
are stale unto his cognition. I hardly believe he hath 
from elder times unknown the verticity of the Load- 
stone ; surely his perspicacity discerned it to respect 
the North, when ours beheld it indeterminately. Many 
secrets there are in Nature of difficult discovery unto 
man, of easie knowledge unto Satan ; whereof some 
his vain glory cannot conceal, others his envy will not 
discover. 

Again, Such is the mysterie of his delusion, that 
although he labour to make us believe that he is 
God, and supremest nature whatsoever, yet would he 
also perswade our beliefs, that he is less then Angels 
or men ; and his condition not onely subjected unto 
rational powers, but the actions of things which have 
no efficacy on our selves. Thus hath he inveigled no 
small part of the world into a credulity of artificial 
Magick : That there is an Art, which without compact 
commandeth the powers of Hell; whence some have 
delivered the polity of spirits, and left an account even 
to their Provincial Dominions : that they stand in awe 
of Charms, Spels, and Conjurations; that he is afraid 
of letters and characters, of notes and dashes, which 
set together do signifie nothing, not only in the dic- 
tionary of man, but the subtiler vocabulary of Satan. 
That there is any power in Bitumen, Pitch, or Brim- St Johns 
stone, to purine the air from his uncleanness; that any rmf/t jZ, 
vertue there is in Hipericon to make good the name of *««*•» 
Jvga Dir mollis, anv such Magick as is ascribed unto 
the Root Baarat by Joscphus, or Cynotpcutus by JEli- 
amt.s, it is not easie to believe; nor is it naturally 
made out what is delivered of Tobias, that by the fume 
of a Fishes liver, he put to flight Atmodeus. That 



190 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP. 
X 

3 triangles 
intersected 
and made 
of five lines. 

Implying 
Jehovah, 
it i /rich in 
Hebrew con 
siitetk of 
four letters. 



they are afraid of the pentangle of Solomon, though 
so set forth with the body of man, as to touch, and 
point out the five places wherein our Saviour 'was 
wounded, I know not how to assent. If perhaps he 
hath fled from holy Water, if he cares not to hear the 
sound of Tetragrammaton, if his eye delight not in the 
sign of the Cross ; and that sometimes he will seem to 
be charmed with words of holy Scripture, and to flie 
from the letter and dead verbality, who must onely 
start at the life and animated interiors thereof: It 
may be feared they are but Parthian flights, Ambuscado 
retreats, and elusory tergiversations : Whereby to con- 
firm our credulities, he will comply with the opinion 
of such powers, which in themselves have no activities. 
Whereof having once begot in our minds an assured 
dependence, he makes us relie on powers which he but 
precariously obeys ; and to desert those true and only 
charms which Hell cannot withstand. 

Lastly, To lead us farther into darkness, and quite 
to lose us in this maze of Error, he would make men 
believe there is no such creature as himself: and that 
he is not onely subject unto inferiour creatures, but in 
the rank of nothing. Insinuating into mens minds 
there is no Devil at all, and contriveth accordingly, 
many ways to conceal or indubitate his existency. 
Wherein beside that he annihilates the blessed Angels 
and Spirits in the rank of his Creation ; he begets a 
security of himself, and a careless eye unto the last 
remunerations. And therefore hereto he inveigleth, 
not only Sadduces and such as retain unto the Church 
of God : but is also content that Epicurus, Democritus, 
or any Heathen should hold the same. And to this 
effect he maketh men believe that apparitions, and 
such as confirm his existence are either deceptions of 



THE FIRST BOOK 101 

sight, or melancholly depravenients of phansie. Thus CHAP, 
when he had not onely appeared but spake unto Brutus; X 
Counts the Epicurian was ready at hand to perswade 
him, it was but a mistake in his weary imagination, 
and that indeed there were no such realities in nature. 
Thus he endeavours to propagate the unbelief of 
Witches, whose concession infers his co-existency ; by 
this means also he advanceth the opinion of total 
death, and staggereth the immortality of the soul ; 
for, such as deny there are spirits subsistent without 
bodies, will with more difficult v affirm the separated 
existence of their own. 

Now to induce and bring about these falsities, he 
hath laboured to destroy the evidence of Truth, that 
is the revealed verity and written Word of God. To 
which intent he hath obtained with some to repudiate 
the Books of Mote*, others those of the Prophets, and 
some both : to deny the Gospel and authentic!; His- 
tories of Christ ; to reject that of Jo/in, and to receive 
that of Judas ; to disallow all, and erect another of 
Thomas. And when neither their corruption by Yukn- 
tinms and Arrius, their mutilation by Marcion, Mums, 
and Ebion could satisfie his design, he attempted the 
ruine and total destruction thereof; as he sedulously 
endeavoured, by the power and subtiltv of Julian, 
Mu riniiniis, and Diocletian. 

Uut the longevity of that piece, which hath so long 
escaped the common fate, and the providence of that 
Spirit which ever waketh over it, may at last discourage 
such attempts ; and if not make doubtful its Mortality, 
at least indubitably declare; this is a stone too bijz 
for Saturns mouth, and a bit indeed Oblivion cannot 
swallow. 

And thus how strangely he possesseth us with Errors 



/ 



192 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, may clearly be observed, deluding us into contradictory 

X and inconsistent falsities ; whilest he would make us 

believe, That there is no God. That there are many. 

That he himself is God. That he is less then Angels 

or Men. That he is nothing at all. 

Nor hath he onely by these wiles depraved the con- 
ception of the Creator, but with such Riddles hath 
also entangled the Nature of our Redeemer. Some 
denying his Humanity, and that he was one of the 
Angels, as Ebion; that the Father and Son were but 
one person, as Sabellius. That his body was phantas- 
tical, as Manes, Basilides, PrisciUlan, Jovinianus ; that 
he only passed through Mary, as Utyches and Valen- 
tinus. Some denying his Divinity; that he was be- 
gotten of humane principles, and the seminal Son of 
Joseph; as Carpocras, Symmachus, Phot'mus: that he 
was Seth the Son of Adam, as the Sethians: that he 
was less then Angels, as Cherinthus : that he was 
inferiour unto Melchisedec, as Theodotus : that he was 
not God, but God dwelt in him, as Nicholaus : and 
some embroyled them both. So did they which con- 
verted the Trinity into a Quaternity, and affirmed two 
persons in Christ, as Paidus Samosatenus : that held 
he was Man without a Soul, and that the Word 
performed that office in him, as Apollinaris: that he 
was both Son and Father, as Montanus : that Jesus 
suffered, but Christ remained impatible, as Cherinthus. 
Thus he endeavours to entangle Truths : And when he 
cannot possibly destroy its substance, he cunningly 
confounds its apprehensions; that from the incon- 
sistent and contrary determinations thereof, consectary 
impieties, and hopeful conclusions may arise, there's 
no such thing at all. 



THE FIRST BOOK 193 

CHAPTKli XI 
A further Illustration. 

NOW although these ways of delusions most 
Christians have escaped, yet are there many 
other whereunto we are daily betrayed, and 
these we meet with in obvious occurrents of the world, 
wherein he induceth us, to ascribe effects unto causes 
of no cognation ; and distorting the order and theory 
of causes perpendicular to their effects, he draws them 
aside unto things whereto they run parallel, and in 
their proper motions would never meet together. 

Thus doth he sometime delude us in the conceits of 
Stars and Meteors, beside their allowable actions ascrib- 
ing effects thereunto of independent causations. Thus 
hath he also made the ignorant sort believe that natural 
effects immediately and commonly proceed from super- 
natural powers : and these he usually drives from 
Heaven, his own principality the Air, and Meteors 
therein ; which being of themselves the effects of natural 
and created causes, and such as upon a due conjunction 
of actives and passives, without a miracle must arise 
unto what they appear; are always looked on bv 
ignorant spectators as supernatural spectacles, and 
made the causes or signs of most succeeding continuen- 
cies. To behold a Rainbow in the night, is no prodigy 
unto a Philosopher. Then Eclipses of Sun or Moon, 
nothing is more natural. Vet with what superstition 
they have been beheld since the Tragedy of Ninas 
and his Annv, many examples declare. 

True it is, and we will not deny, that although these 
being natural productions from second and setled causes, 

N 



CHAP. 
XI 



/ 



194 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, we need not alway look upon them as the immediate 
XI hand of God, or of his ministring Spirits ; yet do they 
sometimes admit a respect therein ; and even in their 
naturals, the indifferency of their existencies contem- 
porised unto our actions, admits a further consideration. 

That two or three Suns or Moons appear in any 
mans life or reign, it is not worth the wonder. But 
that the same should fall out at a remarkable time, or 
point of some decisive action ; that the contingency 
of the appearance should be confirmed unto that time ; 
that those two should make but one line in the Book 
of Fate, and stand together in the great Ephemerides 
of God ; beside the Philosophical assignment of the 
cause, it may admit a Christian apprehension in the 
signality. 

But above all he deceiveth us, when we ascribe the 
effects of things unto evident and seeming causalities, 
which arise from the secret and undiscerned action of 
himself. Thus hath he deluded many Nations in his 
Augurial and Extispicious inventions, from casual and 
uncontrived contingencies divining events succeeding. 
Which Tuscan superstition seizing upon Rome, hath 
since possessed all Europe. When Augustus found 
two galls in his sacrifice, the credulity of the City 
concluded a hope of peace with Anthony ; and the 
conjunction of persons in choler with each other. 
Because Brutus and Cassius met a Black more, and 
Pompey had on a dark or sad coloured garment at 
Pharsalia; these were presages of their overthrow. 
Which notwithstanding are scarce Rhetorical sequels ; 
concluding Metaphors from realities, and from concep- 
tions metaphorical inferring realities again. 

Now these divinations concerning events, being in 
his power to force, contrive, prevent, or further, they 



THE FIRST BOOK 19 



o 



must generally fall out conformably unto his predic- CHAP. 
tions. When Gracotu was slain, the same day the XI 
Chickens refused to come out of the Coop : and Claudius 
Pulcher underwent the like success, when he contemned 
the Tripudiary Augurations : They died not because 
the Pullets would not feed: but because the Devil 
foresaw tlu-ir death, he contrived that abstinence in 
them. So was there no natural dependence of the 
event. An unexpected way of delusion, and whereby 
he more easily led away the incircumspection of their 
belief. Which fallacy In- might excellently have acted 
before the death of Saul; for that being within his 
power to foretell, was not beyond his ability to fore- 
shew : and might have contrived signs thereof through 
all the creatures, which visibly confirmed by the event, 
had proved authentick unto those times, and advanced 
the Art ever after. 

He deludeth us also by Philters, Ligatures, Charms, Thtd.i« gt r 
ungrounded Amulets, Characters, and many superstitious •****-&* 

, . .. r that is in 

ways in the cure of common diseases : seconding herein cure, b y 
the expectation of men with events of his own contriv- CAa ""^ 

' _ Amulets, 

ing. Which while some unwilling to fall directly upon Ligmtttm, 
Magick, impute unto the power of imagination, or the^*"****' 
efficacy of hidden causes, he obtains a bloody advan- 
tage: for thereby he begets not only a false opinion, 
but such as leadeth the open way of destruction. In 
maladies admitting natural reliefs, making men rely 
on remedies, neither of real operation in themselves, 
nor more then seeming efficacy in his concurrence. 
Which whensoever he pleaseth to withdraw, they stand 
naked unto the mischief of their diseases : and revenge 
the contempt of the medicines of the Earth which 
God hath created for them. And therefore when 
neither miracle is expected, nor connection of cause 



196 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, unto effect from natural grounds concluded ; however 
XI it be sometime successful, it cannot be safe to rely on 
such practises, and desert the known and authentick 
provisions of God. In which rank of remedies, if 
nothing in our knowledge or their proper power be 
able to relieve us, we must with patience submit unto 
that restraint, and expect the will of the Restrainer. 

Now in these effects although he seems oft-times to 
imitate, yet doth he concur unto their productions in 
a different way from, that spirit which sometime in 
natural means produceth effects above Nature. For 
whether he worketh by causes which have relation or 
none unto the effect, he maketh it out by secret and 
undiscerned ways of Nature. So when Caius the blind, 
in the reign of Antoninus, was commanded to pass from 
the right side of the Altar unto the left, to lay five 
fingers of one hand thereon, and five of the other upon 
his eys ; although the cure succeeded and all the people 
wondered, there was not any thing in the action which 
did produce it, nor any thing in his power that could 
enable it thereunto. So for the same infirmity, when 
♦ Aper was counselled by him to make a Collyrium or 

ocular medicine with the blood of a white Cock and 
Honey, and apply it to his eyes for three days : When 
Julian for his spitting of blood, was cured by Honey 
and Pine nuts taken from his Altar : When Lucius for 
the pain in his side, applied thereto the ashes from his 
Altar with wine ; although the remedies were somewhat 
rational, and not without a natural vertue unto such 
intentions, yet need we not believe that by their proper 
faculties they produced these effects. 

But the effects of powers Divine flow from another 
operation ; who either proceeding by visible means or 
not, unto visible effects, is able to conjoin them by his 



THE FIRST HOOK 107 

oo-operatio n. And therefore those sensible wav> w hich CHAP 
seem of indifferent natures, are not idle ceremonies, but -XI 
may be causes by his command, and arise unto produc- 
tions beyond their regular activities. If Xuhaman the 
Syrian had washed in Jordan without the command of 
the Prophet, I believe he had been cleansed by them 
no mere then by the waters of Damascus. I doubt if 
any beside Elisha had cast in Salt, the waters of Jericho 
had not been made wholsome. I know that a decoc- 
tion of wild gourd or Colocynthis (though somewhat 
qualified) will not from every hand be dulcified unto 
aliment by an addition of flower or meal. There was 
some natural vertue in the Plaister of figs applied unto 
Ezechias\ we find that gall is very mundificativc, and 
was ■ proper medicine to clear the eyes of Tobit : which 
carrying in themselves some action of their own, they 
w< re additionally promoted by that power, which can 
extend their natures unto the production of effects 
beyond their created efficiencies. And thus may he 
rate also from causes of no power unto their visible 
effects ; for he that hath determined their actions unto 
certain effects, hath not so emptied hi> own. but that 
he can make them effectual unto anv other. 

.\_ r ain, Although his delusions run highest in points 
of practice, whose errors draw on offensive or penal 
enormities, yet doth he also deal in points of specula- 
tion, and things whose knowledge terminates in them- 
selves. Whose cognition although it seems indifferent, 
and therefore its aberration directly to condemn no 
man ; yet doth he hereby preparativelv dispose us 
unto errors, and deductively deject us into destructive 
conclusions. 

That the Sun, Moon, and Stars are living creatures, 
endued with soul and life, seems an innocent Error, 



198 PSEUDODOX1A 

CHAP, and an harmless digression from truth; yet hereby he 
XI confirmed their Idolatry, and made it more plausibly 
embraced. For wisely mistrusting that reasonable 
spirits would never firmly be lost in the adorement of 
things inanimate, and in the lowest form of Nature ; 
he begat an opinion that they were living creatures, 
and could not decay for ever. 

That spirits are corporeal, seems at first view a 
conceit derogative unto himself, and such as he should 
rather labour to overthrow ; yet hereby he establisheth 
the Doctrine of Lustrations, Amulets and Charms, as 
we have declared before. 

That there are two principles of all things, one good, 
and another evil ; from the one proceeding vertue, love, 
light, and unity; from the other, division, discord, 
darkness, and deformity, was the speculation of Pytha- 
goras, Empcdocles, and many ancient Philosophers, and 
was no more then Oromasdes and Arimaniu.s of '/joroadcr. 
Yet hereby he obtained the advantage of Adoration, 
and as the terrible principle became more dreadful 
then his Maker ; and therefore not willing to let it 
fall, he furthered the conceit in succeeding Ages, and 
raised the faction of Manes to maintain it. 

That the feminine sex have no generative emission, 
affording no seminal Principles of conception ; was 
Aristotles Opinion of old, maintained still by some, and 
will be countenanced by him forever. For hereby he 
disparageth the fruit of the Virgin, frustrateth the 
fundamental Prophesie, nor can the seed of the Woman 
then break the head of the Serpent. 

Nor doth he only sport in speculative Errors, which 
are of consequent impieties ; but the unquietness of 
his malice hunts after simple lapses, and such whose 
falsities do only condemn our understandings. Thus 



THE FIRST BOOK 199 

if Xenophancs will say there is another world in the CHAP. 
Moon; If Heraclitus with his adherents will hold the XI 
Sun is no bigger then it appeareth ; If Anaaagvras 
affirm that Snow is black ; If any other opinion there 
are no Antipodes, or that Stars do fall, he shall not 
want herein the applause or advocacy of Satan. For 
maligning the tranquility of truth, he delighteth to 
trouble its streams ; and being a professed enemy unto 
God (who is truth it self) he promoteth any Error 
as derogatory to his nature; and revengeth himself in 
every deformity from truth. If therefore at any time 
he speak or practise truth, it is upon design, and a 
subtile inversion of the precept of God, to do good 
that evil may come of it. And therefore sometime we 
meet with wholsome doctrines from Hell; Nosce teipsmm, 
the Motto of Dclplios, was a good precept in morality : 
That a just man is beloved of the gods, an uncontrol- 
able verity. Twas a good deed, though not well done, 
which he wrought by Vespasian, when by the touch of 
his foot he restored a lame man, and by the stroak of 
his hand another that was blind, but the intention 
hereof drived at his own advantage; for hereby he not 
only confirmed the opinion of his power with the 
people, but his integrity with Princes ; in whose power 
be knew it lav to overthrow his Oracles, and silence the 
practice of his delusions. 

Hut of such a diffused nature, and so large is the 
Umpire of Truth, that it hath place within the walls 
of Hell, and the Devils themselves are daily forced to 
practise it; not onely as bring true themselves in a 
Metaphysical verity, that is, as having their essence 
conformable unto the Intellect of their Maker, but 
making use of Moral and Logical verities; that is, 
whether in the conformity of words unto things, or 



200 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, things unto their own conceptions, they practise truth 

XI in common among themselves. For although without 

iiow spirits speech they intuitively conceive each other, yet do 

"neZnotker. their apprehensions proceed through realities; and 

they conceive each other by species, which carry the 

true and proper notions of things conceived. And so 

also in Moral verities, although they deceive us, they 

lie unto each other ; as well understanding that all 

community is continued by Truth, and that of Hell 

cannot consist without it. 

To come yet nearer the point, and draw into a 
sharper angle ; They do not only speak and practise 
truth, but may be said well-wishers hereunto, and in 
some sense do really desire its enlargement. For many 
things which in themselves are false, they do desire 
were true; He cannot but wish he were as he pro- 
fesseth, that he had the knowledge of future events ; 
were it in his power, the Jews should be in the right, 
and the Messias yet to come. Could his desires effect 
it, the opinion of Aristotle should be true, the world 
should have no end, but be as immortal as himself. 
For thereby he might evade the accomplishment of 
those afflictions, he now but gradually endureth ; for 
comparatively unto those flames, he is but yet in Balneo, 
then begins his Ignis Rotcr, and terrible fire, which will 
determine his disputed subtilty, and even hazard his 
immortality. 

But to speak strictly, he is in these wishes no pro- 
moter of verity, but if considered some ways injurious 
unto truth ; for (besides that if things were true, which 
now are false, it were but an exchange of their natures, 
and things must then be false, which now are true) the 
setled and determined order of the world would be 
perverted, and that course of things disturbed, which 



THE FIRST BOOK 201 

seemed best unto the immutable contriver. For whilest (HAP. 
they murmur against the present disposure of things, XI 
regulating determined realities unto their private opta- 
tions, they rest not in their established natures; but 
unwiahing their unalterable verities, do tacitely desire 
in them a deformity from the primitive Rule, and the 
Idea of that mind that formed all things best. And Hemtkt 
thus he offended truth even in his first attempt ; For 
not content with his created nature, and thinking it 
too low, to be the highest creature of God, he offended 
the Ordainer, not only in the attempt, but in the wish 
and simple volition thereof. 



202 PSEUDODOXIA 



THE SECOND BOOK 

Of sundry popular Tenets concerning 

Mineral, and vegetable bodies, generally 

held for truth ; which examined, prove 

either false, or dubious. 

CHAPTER I 
Of Crystal. 

HEREOF the common Opinion hath been, and 
still remaineth amongst us, that Crystal is 
nothing else but Ice or Snow concreted, and 
by duration of time, congealed beyond liquation. Of 
which assertion, if prescription of time, and numerosity 
of Assertors, were a sufficient demonstration, we might 
sit down herein, as an unquestionable truth ; nor should 
there need ulterior disquisition. For few Opinions 
there are which have found so many friends, or been 
so popularly received, through all Professions and 
Ages. Pliny is positive in this Opinion : Cn/stallus 
sit gelu vchementius concreto : the same is followed by 
Seneca, elegantly described by Claudian, not denied 
by ScaUger, some way affirmed by Jlbertus, Brasavolns, 
and directly by many others. The venerable Fathers 
of the Church have also assented hereto ; As Basil in 
his Hexameron, Isidore in his Etvmologies, and not 



THE SECOND BOOK 203 

onlv AuHin a Latine Father, but Gregory the Great, (HAT. 
and Jerome upon occasion of that term expressed in I 
the first of Ezekiel. 

All which notwithstanding, upon a strict enquiry, That 
we find the matter controvertible, and with much more ££ Iet £. 
reason denied then is as vet affirmed. For though Smew con- 
manv have passed it over with easie affirmatives, yet arc 
there also manv Authors that deny it, and the exactest 
.Mineralogists have rejected it. Diodorus in his eleventh 
Book denieth it, (if Crystal be there taken in its proper 
acception, as Rhodiginus hath used it, and not for a 
Diamond, as Sahna&bu* hath expounded it) for in that 
place he aflirmeth; Crystallum esse lapi/lcrn ex aqua 
pura corn return, non tamen frigore sed divini caloris vi. 
SoSmut who transcribed Pliny, and therefore in almost 
all subscribed unto him, hath in this point dissented 
from him. Putant quidam glaeiem coin; et in Crystal- 
him rnrporari, sed friuttra. Mathiolus in his Comment 
upon Uioseorides, hath with confidence rejected it. 
The same hath been performed by Agricola de natura 
fossilium ; by Cardan, Batius de Hoot, Camus Bernardns, 
Sc/nierti/s. and many more. 

Now besides Authority against it, there may be many 
reasons deduced from their several differences which 
seem to overthrow it. And first, a difference is prob- 
able in their concretion. For if Crystal be a stone (as 
in the number thereof it is confessedly received,) it is 
not immediately concreted by the efficacy of cold, but 
rather by a Mineral spirit, and lapidifical principles of 
Un own, and therefore while it lay in solutis pr'nicipiis, 
and remained in a fluid Body, it was a subject very 
unapt for proper conglaciation ; for Mineral spirits do 
generally resist and scarce submit thereto. So we 
observe that many waters and springs will never freeze, 



204 PSEUDODOX1A 

CHAP, and many parts in Rivers and Lakes, where there are 
I Mineral eruptions, will still persist without congela- 
tions, as we also observe in Aqua fortis, or any Mineral 
solution, either of Vitriol, Alum, Salt-petre, Ammoniac, 
or Tartar, which although to some degree exhaled, and 
placed in cold Conservatories, will Crystallize and shoot 
into white and glacious bodies ; yet is not this a con- 
gelation primarily effected by cold, but an intrinsecal 
induration from themselves; and a retreat into their 
proper solidities, which were absorbed by the liquor, 
and lost in a full imbibition thereof before. And so 
also when wood and many other bodies do putrifie, 
either by the Sea, other waters, or earths abounding 
in such spirits ; we do not usually ascribe their indura- 
tion to cold, but rather unto salinous spirits, concretive 
juices, and causes circumjacent, which do assimilate all 
bodies not indisposed for their impressions. 

But Ice is water congealed by the frigidity of the 
air, whereby it acquireth no new form, but rather a 
consistence or determination of its difHuency, and amit- 
teth not its essence, but condition of fluidity. Neither 
doth there any thing properly conglaciate but water, 
or watery humidity ; for the determination of quick- 
silver is properly fixation, that of milk coagulation, 
and that of oyl and unctious bodies, only incrassation ; 
And therefore Aristotle makes a trial of the fertility of 
humane seed, from the experiment of congelation ; for 
that (saith he) which is not watery and improlifical 
will not conglaciate ; which perhaps must not be taken 
strictly, but in the germ and spirited particles : For 
Eggsl observe will freeze, in the albuginous part thereof. 
And upon this ground Paracelsus in his Archidoxis, 
extracteth the magistery of wine ; after four moneths 
digestion in horse-dung, exposing it unto the extremity 



THE SECOND BOOK 20/5 

of cold; whereby the aqueous parts will freeze, but the CHAP. 
Spirit retire and be found congealed in the Center. I 

But whether this congelation be simply made b) 
cold, or also by co-operation of any nitrous c oagujuin , 
or spirit of Salt the principle of concretion ; whereby 
we observe that ice may be made with Salt and Snow 
by the fire side; as is also observable from Ice made by Ht/mto 
Saltpetre and water, duly mixed and strongly agitated Zy'timecf 
at any time of the year, were a very considerable «*»*•»•« 
enquiry. Pot thereby we might clear the generation 
of Snow, Hail, and hoary Frosts, the piercing qualities 
of some winds, the coldness of Caverns, and some Cells, 
We might more sensibly conceive how Salt-petre fixeth 
the flving spirits of Minerals in Chvmical Preparations, 
and how by this congealing quality it becomes an 
useful medicine in Fevers. 

Again, The difference of their concretion is collect- 
ible from their dissolution ; which being many ways 
performable in Ice, is few ways effected in Crystal. 
Now the causes of liquation are contrary to those of 
concretion; and as the Atoms and indivisible parcels 
are united, so are they in an opposite way disjoyned. 
That which is concreted by exsiccation or expression of 
humidity, will be resolved bv humectation, as Earth, 
Dirt, and (lav; that which is coagulated by a fiery 
siccitv, will suffer colliquation from an aqueous humi- 
ditv, as Salt and Sugar, which are easily dissoluble 
in water, but not without difficulty in oyl, and well 
rectified spirits of Wine. That which is concreted by 
cold, will dissolve by a moist heat, if it consist of 
watery parts, as Gums, Arabick, Tragacanth, Am- 
moniac and others ; in an airy heat or oyl, as all 
resinous bodies, Turpentine, Pitch, and Frankincense; 
in both, as gummy resinous bodies, Mastick, Camphire 



206 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, and Storax ; in neither, as neutrals and bodies anoma- 

I lous hereto, as Bdellium, Myrrhe, and others. Some 

by a violent dry heat, as Metals ; which although cor- 

rodible by waters, yet will they not suffer a liquation 

from the powerfullest heat, communicable unto that 

element. Some will dissolve by this heat although 

their ingredients be earthy, as Glass, whose materials 

The ordinal are fine Sand, and the ashes of Chali or Fearn; and so 

incrcdunu ^ g lt run ith fi a i t h 0U g n i t be concreted bv 

of Glass. » O J 

heat. And this way may be effected a liquation in 
Crystal, but not without some difficulty ; that is, cal- 
cination or reducing it by Art into a subtle powder; 
by which way and a vitreous commixture, Glasses are 
sometime made hereof, and it becomes the chiefest ground 
for artificial and factitious gemms. But the same way 
of solution is common also unto many Stones ; and not 
onely Beryls and Cornelians, but Flints and Pebbles, 
are subject unto fusion, and will run like Glass in fire. 

But Ice will dissolve in any way of heat, for it will 
dissolve with fire, it will colliquate in water, or warm 
oyl ; nor doth it only submit unto an actual heat, but 
not endure the potential calidity of many waters. For 
it will presently dissolve in cold Aqua fortis, sp. of 
Vitriol, Salt, or Tartar, nor will it long continue its 
fixation in spirits of Wine, as may be observed in Ice 
injected therein. 

Again, The concretion of Ice will not endure a dry 
attrition without liquation ; for if it be rubbed long 
with a cloth, it melteth. But Crystal will calefie unto 
electricity, that is, a power to attract straws or light 
bodies, and convert the needle freely placed. Which 
is a declarement of very different parts, wherein we 
shall not inlarge, as having discoursed concerning such 
bodies in the Chap, of Filectricks. 



THE SECOND ROOK 207 

They are differenced by supernatation or floating CHAT, 
upon water; for Crystal will sink in water, as carrying I 
in its own bulk a greater ponderosity then the space in 
any water it doth occupy ; and will therefore only swim 
in molten Metal and Quicksilver. But Ice will swim in 
water of what thinness soever; and though it sink in 
oyl, will float in spirits of Wine or Aqua vita. And 
therefore it may swim in water, not only as being 
water it self, and in its proper place, but perhaps as 
weighing somewhat less then the water it possesseth. 
And therefore as it will not sink unto the bottom, so 
will it neither float above like lighter bodies, but being 
near in weight, lie superficially or almost horizontally 
unto it. And therefore also an Ice or congelation of 
Salt or Sugar, although it descend not unto the bottom, 
vet will it abate, and decline below the surface in thin 
water, but very sensibly in spirits of Wine. For Ice 
although it seemeth as transparent and compact as 
Crystal, vet is it short in either; for its atoms are not 
concreted into continuity, which doth diminish its 
translucency ; it is also full of spumes and bubbles, 
which may abate its gravity. And therefore waters 
frozen in Pans, and open Glasses, after their dissolu- 
tion do commonlv leave a froth and spume upon them, 
which are caused bv the airy parts diffused in the con- 
gealable mixture which uniting themselves and finding 
no passage at the surface, do elevate the mass, and 
make the liquor take up a greater place then before : 
as may be observed in Glasses filled with water, which 
being frozen, will seem to swell above the brim. So 
that if in this condensation any one affirmeth there is 
also some rarefaction, experience may assert it. 

They are distinguished in substance of parts and the 
accidents thereof, that is, in colour and figure; for Ice 



208 



PSEUDODOXTA 



CHAP. 
I 



<le Prjepara- 
tionibus. 



is a similary body, and homogeneous concretion, whose 
material is properly water, and but accidentally exceed- 
ing the simplicity of that element. But the body of 
Crystal is mixed ; its ingredients many, and sensibly 
containeth those principles into which mixt bodies are 
reduced. For beside the spirit and mercurial principle 
it containeth a sulphur or inflamable part, and that in 
no small quantity ; for besides its Electrick attraction, 
which is made by a sulphureous effluvium, it will strike 
fire upon percussion like many other stones, and upon 
collision with Steel actively send forth its sparks, not 
much inferiourly unto a flint. Now such bodies as 
strike fire have sulphureous or ignitible parts within 
them, and those strike best, which abound most in 
them. For these scintillations are not the accension 
of the air, upon the collision of two hard bodies, but 
rather the inflamable effluencies or vitrified sparks dis- 
charged from the bodies collided. For Diamonds, 
Marbles, Heliotropes and Agaths, though hard bodies, 
will not readily strike fire with a steel, much less with 
one another : Nor a Flint so readily with a Steel, if 
they both be very wet, for then the sparks are some- 
times quenched in their eruption. 

It containeth also a salt, and that in some plenty, 
which may occasion its fragility, as is also observable 
in Coral. This by the Art of Chymistry is separable, 
unto the operations whereof it is liable, with other 
concretions, as calcination, reverberation, sublimation, 
distillation : And in the preparation of Crystal, Para- 
celsus hath made a rule for that of Gemms. Briefly, 
it consisteth of parts so far from an Icie dissolution, 
that powerful menstruums are made for its emollition; 
whereby it may receive the tincture of Minerals, and 
so resemble Gemms, as Boetrus hath declared in the 



tic. 



THE SECOND HOOK 209 

distillation of Urine ; spirits of Wine and Turpentine; CHAP. 
and is not only triturable, and reducible into powder, I 
by contrition, but will subsist in a violent fire, and 
endure a vitrification. Wherebv are testified its earthly 
and fixed parts. For vitrification is the last work of 
fire, and a fusion of the Salt and Earth, which are the 
fixed elements of the composition, wherein the fusible 
Salt draws the Earth and infusible part into one con- 
tinuum, and therefore ashes will not run from whence 
the Salt is drawn, as bone ashes prepared for the Test 
of Metals. Common fusion in Metals is also made by tju Ph y - 
a violent heat, acting upon the volatile and fixed, the"^""/" 

, , . of liquation 

dry and humid parts of those bodies; which notwith- ormtiting 
standing are so united, that upon attenuation from ° f 
heat, the humid parts will not fly away, but draw the 
fixed ones into fluor with them. Ordinary liquation in 
wax and oily bodies is made by a gentler heat, where 
the oyl and salt, the fixed and fluid principles will not 
easily separate. All which, whether by vitrification, 
fu.sion or liquation, being forced into fluent consist- 
encies, do naturally regress into their former solidities, 
W hereas the melting of Ice is a simple resolution, 
or return from solid to fluid parts, wherein it naturally 
restcth. 

Afl for colour, although Crystal in his pellucid body 
seems to have none at all, yet in its reduction into 
powder, it hath a vail and shadow of blew; and in its 
courser pieces. is of a sadder hue then the powder of 
\ nice glass ; and this complexion it will maintain 
although it long endure the fire. Which notwith- 
standing needs not move u> unto wonder; for vitrified 
and pellucid bodies, are of a clearer complexion in 
their continuities, then in their powders and Atomical 
division':. So Stibium or glass of Antimony, appear- 

o 



210 



PSZUDODOXIA 



CHAP. 
I 



In Stone- 
pits and 
Chalk- 
mines. 
Which 

seemeth to be 
Echinites 
decima 
A Idrovandi. 
Musaci 
Mctallici, 
lib. 4. 
Rather 
F.chino- 
metrites, as 
best resem- 
bling the 
Echino- 
metrafound 
commonly 
oh our 
Sea-shore- 



somewhat red in glass, but in its powder yellow ; so 
painted glass of a sanguine red will not ascend in 
powder above a murrey. 

As for the figure of Crystal (which is very strange, 
and forced Pliny to despair of resolution) it is for the 
most part hexagonal or six cornered ; being built upon 
a confused matter, from whence as it were from a root 
angular figures arise, even as in the Amethyst and 
Basaltes. Which regular figuration hath made some 
opinion, it hath not its determination from circum- 
scription, or as conforming unto contiguities, but 
rather from a seminal root, and formative principle 
of its own, even as we observe in several other con- 
cretions. So the stones which are sometime found in 
the gall of a man, are most triangular and pyramidal, 
although the figure of that part seems not to co-operate 
thereto. So the Asteria or lapis stcllaris, hath on it 
the figure of a Star, so Lapis Judaicus hath circular 
lines in length all down its body, and equidistant, as 
though they had been turned by Art. So that we call 
a Fayrie stone, and is often found in gravel pits amongst 
us, being of an hemispherical figure, hath five double 
lines arising from the center of its basis, which if no 
accretion distract them, do commonly concur, and 
meet in the pole thereof. The figures are regular in 
many other stones, as in the Belemnites, Lapis An- 
guinus, Cornu Ammonis, and many more ; as by those 
which have not the experience hereof may be observed 
in their figures expressed by Mineralogists. But Ice 
receiveth its figure according unto the surface wherein 
it concreteth, or the circumambiency which conformeth 
it. So it is plain upon the surface of water, but round 
in Hayl (which is also a glaciation,) and figured in its 
guttulous descent from the air, and so growing greater 



THE SECOND ROOK 211 

or Lesser according unto the accretion or pluvious CHAP, 
aggelation about the mother and fundamental Atonies I 
thereof; which seems to be some feathery particle of 
Snow ; although Snow it self be sexangular, or at least 
of a starry and many-pointed figure. 

They are also differenced in the places of their 
generation ; for though Crystal be found in cold 
countries, and where Ice remaineth long, and the 
air exceedeth in cold, yet is it also found in regions, 
where Ice is seldom seen or soon dissolved ; as Pliny 
and Agricola relate of Cyprus, ( 'aramania and an Island 
in the Red sea : It hath been also found in the veins 
of Minerals, sometimes agglutinated unto lead, some- 
times in Hocks, opacous stones, and the marble face otwhtnm 
Octavhu Duke of Parma. It hath also constant veins ;/<,„„</ a 
as beside others, that of mount Salvino about the P icceif ft»"- 

Crystal. 

Territory of Bergamo; from whence if part be taken, 
in no long tract of time out of the same place, as from 
its mineral matrix, others are observed to arise. Which 
made the learned Ccrantus to conclude, Yidcinit hi tin m„ . Cat 
sit glades, an vero corpus fassilc. It is also found in ctolar - 
the veins of Minerals, in rocks, and sometime in common 
earth. But as for Ice, it will not readily concrete but 
in the approach ment of the air, as we have made trial 
in glasses of water, covered an inch with oyl, which 
will not easily freeze in hard frosts of our climate. 
For water commonly concreteth first in its surface, and 
so conglaciates downward ; and so will it do although 
it be exposed in the coldest metal of lead, which well 
accordeth with that expression of Job, The waters arechap.-$. 
hid as with a stone, and the fair of the deep is frozen. 
But whether water which hath been boiled or heated, 
doth sooner receive this congelation, as commonly is 
delivered, we rest in the experiment of Caucus, who 



212 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, hath rejected the same in his excellent discourse of 
I Meteors. 

They have contrary qualities elemental, and uses 
medicinal ; for Ice is cold and moist, of the quality of 
water; but Crystal is cold and dry, according to the 
condition of earth. The use of Ice is condemned by 
most Physicians, that of Crystal commended by many. 
For although Dioscor'tdes and Galen have left no 
mention thereof, yet hath Mathiolus, Agricola, and 
many commended it in dysenteries and fluxes ; all for 
the increase of milk, most Chymists for the Stone, and 
some, as Bra»ssavolus and Boetius, as an antidote against 
poyson. Which occult and specifical operations are not 
expectable from Ice ; for being but water congealed, it 
can never make good such qualities ; nor will it reason- 
ably admit of secret proprieties, which are the affections 
of forms, and compositions at distance from their 
elements. 
what c>y Having thus declared what Crystal is not, it may 
afford some satisfaction to manifest what it is. To 
deliver therefore what with the judgement of approved 
Authors, and best reason consisteth, It is a Mineral 
body in the difference of stones, and reduced by some 
unto that subdivision, which comprehendeth gemms, 
transparent and resembling Glass or Ice, made of a 
lentous percolation of earth, drawn from the most pure 
and limpid juice thereof, owing unto the coldness of 
the earth some concurrence or coadjuvancy, but not 
immediate determination and efficiency, which are 
wrought by the hand of its concretive spirit, the seeds 
of petrification and Gorgon of it self. As sensible 
Philosophers conceive of the generation of Diamonds, 
Iris, Berils. Not making them of frozen icecles, or 
from meer aqueous and glaciable substances, condensing 



stal is. 



THE SFXOND BOOK 213 

them by frosts into solidities, vainly to be expected CHAT, 
even from Polarv congelations : but from thin and I 
finest earths, so well contempered and resolved, that 
tran spa renev is not hindred ; and containing lapi- 
difical Bpirits, able to make good their solidities against 
the opposition and activity of outward contraries, and 
so leave a sensible difference between the bonds of 
srlaciation. which in the mountains of Ice about the 
Northern Seas, are easily dissolved by ordinary heat of 
the Sun, and between the finer ligatures of petrifica- 
tion, whereby not onlv the harder concretions of 
Diamonds and Saphirs, but the softer veins of Crystal 
remain indissolvable in scorching Territories, and the 
Negro land of Congor. 

And therefore I fear we commonly consider subter- 
ranities, not in contemplations sufficiently respective 
unto the Creation. For though Moses have left no 
mention of Minerals, nor made any other description 
then sutes unto the apparent and visible Creation, 
yet is there unquestionably, a very large Classis of 
Creatures in the Earth, far above the condition of 
elementarity. And although not in a distinct and 
indisputable way of vivency, or answering in all points 
the properties or affections of Plants, yet in inferiour 
and descending constitutions, they do like these con- 
tain specifical distinctions, and are determined by 
seminalities, that is, created ami defined seeds com- 
mitted unto the Earth from the beginning. Wherein 
although they attain not the indubitable requisites 
of Animation, yet have they a near affinity thereto. 
And though we want a proper name and expressive 
appellation, yet are they not to be closed up in the 
general name of concretions; or lightly passed over as 
only Elementary and Subterraneous mixtions. 



214 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. The principle and most gemmary affection is its 
I Tralucencv : as for irradiancy or sparkling which is 
found in many gemms, it is not discoverable in this, 
for it cometh short of their compactness and durity : 
and therefore requireth not the Emery, as the Saphir, 
Granate, and Topaz, but will receive impression from 
Steel, in a manner like the Turchois. As for its 
diaphanity or perspicuity, it enjoyeth that most 

Exact con- eminently; and the reason thereof is its continuity; 

tiHuityof as having its earthy and salinous parts so exactlv 

parts a cause , , 

of trans- resolved, that its body is left imporous and not dis- 
parencytn cre |- et j_ by atomical terminations. For, that continuitv 

things, ana J 7 

™h y . of parts is the cause of perspicuity, it is made perspi- 

cuous by two ways of experiment. That is, either in 
effecting transparency in those bodies which were not 
so before, or at least far short of the additional 
degree : So Snow becomes transparent upon liquation, 
so Horns and Bodies resolvable into continued parts 
or gellv. The like is observable in oyled paper, 
wherein the interstitial divisions being continuated by 
the accession of oyl, it becometh more transparent, 
and admits the visible rayes with less umbrosity. Or 
else the same is effected by rendring those bodies 
opacous, which were before pellucid and perspicuous. 

So Glass which was before diaphanous, being by 
powder reduced into multiplicity of superficies, becomes 
an opacous body, and will not transmit the light. So 
it is in Crystal powdered, and so it is also before; for 
if it be made hot in a crucible, and presently projected 
upon water, it will grow dim, and abate its diaphanity; 
for the water entering; the bodv, begets a division of 
parts, and a termination of Atoms united before unto 
continuity. 

The ground of this Opinion might be, first the con- 



THE SECOND BOOK 215 

elusions of some men from experience ; for as much as CHAP. 
( rvstal is found sometimes in rocks, and in some places I 
not much unlike the stirious or stillicidious depend- 
encies of Ice. Which notwithstanding may happen 
either in places which have beeu forsaken or left bare 
bv the earth, or may be petrifications, or Mineral 
indurations, like other gemms, proceeding from per- 
colations of the earth disposed unto such concretions. 

The second and most common ground is from the 
name Crystallus, whereby in Greek both Ice and Crystal 
are expressed ; which many not duly considering, have 
from their community of name, conceived a com- 
munity of nature; and what was ascribed unto the 
one, not unfitly appliable unto the other. But this is 
a fallacv of .Equivocation, from a society in name 
inferring an Identity in nature. Bv this fallacv was 
he deceived that drank Aqua fort is for strong water. 
Bv this are they deluded, who conceive sperma Coeti 
which is found about the head, to be the spawn of the 
Whale: Or take sanguis draconis (which is the gumme 
of a tree.) to be the blood of a Dragon. By the same 
Logick we mav infer, the Crystalline humour of the eye, 
or rather the Crystalline heaven above, to be of the 
substance of Crystal here below ; Or that God sendeth 
down Crystal, because it is delivered in the vulgar 
translation, Psal. 47. Mitt it Crystallum swim sicut 
Bucccllas. Which translation although it literally 
express the Septuagint ; yet is there no more meant 
thereby, than what our translation in plain English ex- 
presseth ; that is, he casteth forth his Ice like morsels. 
or what Tremellius and Junius as clearly deliver, Agreiment 
Dejicit gelu suum sicut frusta, coram f rigor e ejus quis 
consist rt? which proper and latinc expressions, had they 
been observed in ancient translations, elder Expositors 



:n natnt. 



216 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, had not been misguided by the Synonomy ; nor had 

I they afforded occasion unto Austin, the Gloss, Lyranus, 

and many others, to have taken up the common 

conceit, and spoke of this Text conformably unto the 

opinion rejected. 



CHAPTER II 

Concerning the Loadstone. 

Of things particularly spoken thereof, evidently 
or probably true. Of things generally 
believed, or particularly delivered, mani- 
festly or probably false. In the first of 
the Magnetical vertue of the Earth, of the 
four motions of the stone, that is, its Verti- 
city or Direction, its Attraction or Coition, 
its Declination, its Variation, and also of 
its Antiquity. In the second a rejection 
of sundry opinions and relations thereof, 
Natural, Medical, Historical, Magical. 

How the A ND first we conceive the earth to be a Mag- 



tartk is a 
Magnetical 



K 



netical body. A Magnetical body, we term 
body. Ji \. not onely that which hath a power attractive, 

but that which seated in a convenient medium, 
naturally disposeth it self to one invariable and fixed 
situation. And such a Magnetical vertue we conceive 
to be in the Globe of the Earth, whereby as unto its 
natural points and proper terms, it disposeth it self 
unto the poles ; being so framed, constituted, and 
ordered unto these points, that those parts which are 
now at the poles, would not naturally abide under 



THE SECOND BOOK 217 

the .Equator, nor Greenland remain in the place of CHAP. 
Mageilamca. And if the whole earth were violently II 
removed, yet would it not foregoe its primitive points, 
nor pitch in the East or West, but return unto its 
polarv position again. For though by compactness or 
gravity it may acquire the lowest place, and become 
the center of the universe, yet that it makes good that 
point, not varying at all by the accession of bodies 
upon, or secession thereof from its surface, perturbing 
the equilibration of either Hemisphere (whereby the 
altitude of the stars might vary) or that it strictly 
maintains the North and Southern points ; that neither 
upon the motions of the heavens, air, and winds 
without, large eruptions and division of parts within, 
its polarv parts should never incline or veer unto the 
Equator (wherebv the latitude of places should also 
vary) it cannot so well be salved from gravity as a 
Magnetical verticity. This is probablv, that founda- Th*/*md*- 
Hon the wisdom of the Creator hath' laid unto the %££*' 
earth; in this sense we may more nearly apprehend, stability. 
and MMisiblv make out the expressions of holy Scripture, Psai. 93. 
as Firmavit orbem terra' qui non commozebitur, he hath 
made the round world so sure that it cannot be moved : 
as when it is said by Job. ExtendU Aquilonem super job 38. 
Mi ho, Ac He stretcheth forth the North upon the 
empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing. 
And this is the most probable answer unto that great 
question. Whereupon are the foundations of the 
Earth fastened, or who laid the corner stone thereof? 
Had they been acquainted with this principle, Anaxa- 
^vras, Socrates; and Dcmoi ritus, had better made out 
the ground of this stability ; Xenophanex had not been 
fain to say the Earth had no bottom ; and 'J 'hales 
Milexiux to make it swim in water. 



218 PSEUDODOXIA 

('HAP. Nor is the vigour of this great body included only in 

II its self, or circumferenced by its surface, but diffused at 

The ma S - indeterminate distances through the air, water, and all 

vertueof bodies circumjacent. Exciting and impregnating Mag- 

the Earth ne tical bodies within its surface or without it, and 

diffused . . _ , . 

extra se*w performing in a secret and invisible way what we 
communi. evidently behold effected bv the Loadstone. For these 

cated to •* •> 

bodies ad- effluxions penetrate all bodies, and like the species of 
jacem. visible objects are ever ready in the medium, and lay 
hold on all bodies proportionate or capable of their 
action, those bodies likewise being of a congenerous 
nature, do readily receive the impressions of their 
motor ; and if not fettered by their gravity, conform 
themselves to situations, wherein they best unite unto 
their Animator. And this will sufficiently appear 
from the observations that are to follow, which can no 
better way be made out then by this we speak of, the 
Magnetical vigour of the Earth. Now whether these 
effluviums do flye by striated Atoms and winding 
particles as Renatus des Cartes conceiveth ; or glide by 
streams attracted from either Pole and Hemisphere of 
the Earth unto the Equator, as Sir Kenelm Digby 
excellently declareth, it takes not away this vertue of 
the Earth, but more distinctly sets down the gests and 
progress thereof, and are conceits of eminent use to 
salve Magnetical Phenomena's. And as in Astronomy 
those hypotheses though never so strange are best 
Apparencies esteemed which best do salve apparencies ; so surely in 
observations. p n ji OSO ph.y those principles (thflugh seeming monstrous) I 

may with advantage be embraced, which best confirm 

The doctrine experiment, and afford the readiest reason of observa- 

"ac^v-' a " S ti° n - And truly the doctrine of effluxions, their pene- 

udgedby trating natures, their invisible paths, and insuspected 

effects, are very considerable ; for besides this Mag- 



THE SFXOND BOOK 219 

netkal one of the Earth, several effusions there may be CHAT, 
from divers other bodies, which invisibly act their parts II 
atanv time, and perhaps through any medium ; a part of 
Philosophy but yet in discovery, and will, I fear, prove 
the last leaf to be turned over in the Book of Nature. 

First, Therefore it is true, and confirmable by every 
experiment, that Steel and gJ«d Iron never excited by 
the Loadstone, discover in themselves a verticity ; that 
is, a directive or polarv faculty, whereby, conveniently 
placed, they do Septentnonate at one extream, and Pomtu 
Australize at another. This is manifestable in long Po ' ttt0 '" 
and thin plates of Steel perforated in the middle **» *"*■ 
and equilibrated; or by an easier way in long wires 
equiponderate with untwisted Silk and soft Wax; for 
in this manner pendulous, they will conform themselves 
Meridionallv, directing one extream unto the North, 
another to the South. The same is also manifest in 
Steel wires thrust through little sphears or globes of 
Cork and floated on the water, or in naked Needles 
gentlv let fall thereon ; for so disposed they will not 
rest, until they have found out the Meridian, and as 
near as thev can lye parallel unto the Axis of the 
Earth : Sometimes the eye, sometimes the point 
Northward in divers Needles, but the same point 
always in most : Conforming themselves unto the 
whole Earth, in the same manner as they do unto 
every Loadstone. For if a Needle untoucht be hanged 
above a Loadstone, it will convert into a parallel posi- 
tion thereto ; for in this situation it can best receive 
its verticitv and be excited proportionably at both 
extreams. Now this direction proceeds not primitively 
from themselves, but is derivative and contracted from 
the Magnetical effluxions of the Earth; which they 
have winded in their hammering and formation ; or 



220 PSEUDODOXTA 

CHAP, else by long continuance in one position, as we shall 
II declare hereafter. 

It is likewise true what is delivered of Irons heated 
in the fire, that they contract a verticity in their refri- 
geration ; for heated red hot and cooled in the Meridian 
from North to South, they presently contract a polary 
power, and being poised in air or water, convert that 
part unto the North which respected that point in its 
refrigeration, so that if they had no sensible verticity 
before, it may be acquired by this way ; or if they had 
any, it might be exchanged by contrary position in 
the cooling. For by the fire they omit not onely many 
drossie and scorious parts, but whatsoever they had 
received either from the Earth or Loadstone ; and so 
being naked and despoiled of all verticity, the Mag- 
netical Atonies invade their bodies with more effect 
and agility. 

Neither is it only true what Gilbertus first observed, 
that Irons refrigerated North and South acquire a 
Directive faculty; but if they be cooled upright and 
perpendicularly, they will also obtain the same. That 
part which is cooled toward the North on this side the 
Equator, converting it self unto the North, and attract- 
ing the South point of the Needle: the other and 
highest extream respecting the South, and attracting 
the Northern, according unto Laws Magnetical : For 
(what must be observed) contrary Poles or faces attract 
each other, as the North the South ; and the like 
decline each other, as the North the North. Now on 
this side of the Equator, that extream which is next 
the Earth is animated unto the North, and the contrary 
unto the South; so that in coition it applies it self 
quite oppositely, the coition or attraction being con- 
trary to the Verticity or Direction. Contrary, If we 



THE SECOND HOOK 221 

speak according unto common use, yet alike, if wc (.'HAP. 
conceive the vertue of the North Pole to diffuse it self II 
and open at the South, and the South at the North 
again. 

This polarity from refrigeration upon extremity and 
in defect of a Loadstone might serve to invigorate and 
touch a Needle any where ; and this, allowing variation, 
is also the readiest way at any season to discover the 
North or South ; and surely far more certain then what 
is affirmed of the grains and circles in trees, or the Some con- 
figure in the root of Fern. For if we erect a red hot cenethat 

" the figure 

wire until it cool, then hang it up with wax and "/the Tree 
untwisted Silk, where the lower end and that which ° e r as ; e ''" t he 
cooled next the earth doth rest, that is the Northern r <"'"/ 
point; and this we affirm will still be true whether it Fern standi 
be cooled in the air or extinguished in water, oyl of *"*? f*f 

. ■ . South, but 

Vitriol, Aqua forti.s, or Quicksilver. And this is also not truly. 
evidenced in culinary utensils and Irons that often feel 
the force of fire, as Tongs, Fire-shovels, Prongs, and 
Andirons; all which acquire a Magnetical and polary 
condition, and being suspended, convert their lower 
extreams unto the North ; with the same attracting 
the Southern point of the Needle. For easier experi- 
ment, if we place a Needle touched at the foot of 
Tongs or Andirons, it will obvert or turn aside its 
lillie or North point, and conform its cuspis or South 
extream unto the Andiron. The like verticity though 
more ohscurelv is also contracted by Bricks and Tiles, 
as we have made trial in some taken out of the backs 
of chimneys. Now to contract this Direction, there 
needs not a total ignition, nor is it necessary the 
Irons should be red hot ;dl over. For if a wire be 
heated only at one end, according as that end is cooled 
upward or downward, it respectively acquires a verti- 



222 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, city, as we have declared in wires totally candent. 
II Nor is it absolutely requisite they should be cooled 
perpendicularly, or strictly lie in the Meridian ; for 
whether they be refrigerated inclinatorily or somewhat 
JHquinoxially, that is toward the Eastern or Western 
points; though in a lesser degree, they discover some 
verticity. 

Nor is this onely true in Irons, but in the Loadstone 
it self. For if a Loadstone be made red hot, it loseth 
the magnetical vigour it had before in it self, and 
acquires another from the Earth in its refrigeration ; 
for that part which cooleth toward the Earth will 
acquire the respect of the North, and attract the 
Southern point or cuspis of the Needle. The experi- 
ment hereof we made in a Loadstone of a parallelogram 
or long square figure ; wherein onely inverting the 
cxtreams, as it came out of the fire, we altered the 
poles or faces thereof at pleasure. 

It is also true what is delivered of the Direction and 
coition of Irons, that they contract a verticity by long 
and continued position : that is, not onely being placed 
from North to South, and lying in the Meridian, but re- 
specting the Zenith and perpendicular unto the Center of 
the Earth ; as is manifest in bars of windows, casements, 
hinges and the like. For if we present the Needle 
unto their lower extreams, it wheels about and turns 
its Southern point unto them. The same condition in 
long time do Bricks contract which are placed in walls, 
and therefore it may be a fallible way to find out the 
Meridian by placing the Needle on a wall ; for some 
Bricks therein by a long and continued position, are 
often magnetically enabled to distract the polarity of 
the Needle. And therefore those Irons which are said 
to have been converted into Loadstones ; whether they 



THE SECOND BOOK 223 

were real conversions, or onely attractive augmenta- CHAT, 
tions, might he much promoted by this position: as II 
the Iron cross of an hundred weight upon the Church 
of St. John in Arhn'imim, or that Loadston'd Iron of 
CcEsar Moderatus, set down by Aldrovandus. Dmwur. 

Lastly, Irons do manifest a verticity not only upon 
refrigeration and constant situation, but (what is 
wonderful and advanceth the magnetical Hypothesis) 
they evidence the same by meer position according as 
they are inverted, and their extreams disposed respec- 
tively unto the Earth. For if an Iron or Steel not 
firmly excited, be held perpendicularly or inclinatorily 
unto the Needle, the lower end thereof will attract the 
cuspis or Southern point; but if the same extream be 
inverted and held under the Needle, it will then attract 
the lilly or Northern point ; for by inversion it changeth 
its direction acquired before, and receiveth a new and 
Southern polarity from the Earth, as being the upper 
extream. Now if an Iron be touched before, it varieth 
not in this manner ; for then it admits not this mag- 
netical impression, as being already informed by the 
Loadstone, and polarily determined by its preaction. 

And from these grounds may we best determine 
n In the Northern Pole of the Loadstone attracteth a 
greater weight than the Southern on this side the 
Equator; why the stone is best preserved in a natural 
and polary situation : and why as Gilhcrtus observeth, 
it respecteth that Pole ouUof the Earth, which it 
regarded in its Mineral bed and subterraneous position. 

It is likewise true and wonderful what is delivered 
of the Inclination or Declination of the Loadstone; 
that is, the descent of the Needle below the plain of 
the Horizon. For long Needles which stood before 
upon their axis, parallel unto the Horizon, being 



224 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, vigorously excited, incline and bend downward, de- 
ll pressing the North extream below the Horizon. That 
is the North on this, the South on the other side 
of the Equator ; and at the very Line or middle circle 
stand without deflexion. And this is evidenced not 
onely from observations of the Needle in several parts 
of the earth, but sundry experiments in any part 
thereof, as in a long Steel wire, equilibrated or evenly 
ballanced in the air ; for excited by a vigorous Load- 
stone it will somewhat depress its animated extream, 
and intersect the horizontal circumference. It is also 
manifest in a Needle pierced through a Globe of Cork 
so cut away and pared by degrees, that it will swim 
under water, yet sink not unto the bottom, which may 
be well effected ; for if the Cork be a thought too 
light to sink under the surface, the body of the water 
may be attenuated with spirits of wine; if too heavy, 
it may be incrassated with salt ; and if by chance too 
much be added, it may again be thinned by a propor- 
tionable addition of fresh water. If then the Needle 
be taken out, actively touched and put in again, it will 
depress and bow down its Northern head toward the 
bottom, and advance its Southern extremity toward 
the brim. This way invented by Gilbertus may seem 
of difficulty ; the same with less labour may be observed 
in a needled sphere of Cork equally contiguous unto 
the surface of the water; for if the Needle be not 
exactly equiponderant, that end which is a thought too 
light, if touched becometh even; that Needle also 
which will but just swim under the water, if forcibly 
touched will sink deeper, and sometime unto the 
bottom. If likewise that inclinatory vertue be de- 
stroyed by a touch from the contrary Pole, that end 
which before was elevated will then decline, and this 



THE SECOND PART 225 

perhaps might be observed in some scales exactly CHAP. 
ballanced, and in such Needles which for their bulk II 
can hardly be supported by the water. For if they be 
powerfully excited and equally let fall, they commonly 
sink down and break the water at that extream whereat 
they were septentrionallv excited: and by this way it 
is conceived there may be some fraud in the weighing 
of precious commodities, and such as carry a value in 
quarter-grains; by placing a powerful Loadstone above 
or below, according as we intend to depress or elevate 
one extream. 

Now if these Magnetical emissions be onely qualities, 
and the gravity of bodies incline them onelv unto the 
earth ; surely that which alone moveth other bodies to 
descent, carrieth not the stroak in this, but rather the 
Magnetical alliciency of the Earth ; unto which with 
alacrity it applieth it self, and in the very same way 
unto the whole Earth, as it doth unto a single Load- 
stone. For if an untouched Needle be at a distance 
suspended over a Loadstone, it will not hang parallel, 
but decline at the North extream, and at that part 
will first salute its Director. Again, what is also 
wonderful, this inclination is not invariable; for just 
under the line the Needle lieth parallel with the 
Horizon, but sailing North or South it beginneth to 
incline, and encreaseth according as it approacheth 
unto either Pole; and would at last endeavour to erect 
it self. And this is no more then what it doth upon 
the Loadstone, and that more plainly upon theTerrella 
or spherical magnet Cosmographically set out with 
circles of the Globe. For at the Equator thereof, the 
Needle will stand rectangularly; but approaching 
Northward toward the Tropick it will regard the stone 
obliquely, and when it attaineth the Pole, directly; 

p 



226 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, and if its bulk be no impediment, erect it self and 
" stand perpendicularly thereon. And therefore upon 
strict observation of this inclination in several lati- 
tudes and due records preserved, instruments are made 
whereby without the help of Sun or Star, the latitude 
of the place may be discovered ; and yet it appears the 
observations of men have not as yet been so j ust and 
equal as is desirable ; for of those Tables of declination 
which I have perused, there are not any two that punctu- 
ally agree ; though some have been thought exactly 
calculated, especially that which Ridley received from 
Mr. Brigs, in our time Geometry Professor in Oxford. 
It is also probable what is delivered concerning the 
variation of the Compass that is the cause and ground 
thereof, for the manner as being confirmed by observa- 
ivhatthe tion we shall not at all dispute. The variation of the 
ThcComfiass Compass is an Arch of the Horizon intercepted between 
"• the true and Magnetical Meridian ; or more plainly, 

a deflexion and siding East and West from the true 
Meridian. The true Meridian is a major Circle passing 
through the Poles of the World, and the Zenith or 
Vertex of any place, exactly dividing the East from the 
West. Now on this line the Needle exactly lieth not, 
but diverts and varieth its point, that is, the North 
point on this side the Equator, the South on the other; 
sometimes on the East, sometime toward the West, 
and in some few places varieth not at all. First, there- 
fore it is observed that betwixt the Shore of Ireland, 
France, Spain, Guiny, and the Azores, the North point 
varieth toward the East, and that in some variety ; at 
London it varieth eleven degrees, at Antwerp nine, at 
Rome but five : at some parts of the Azores it deflecteth 
not, but lieth in the true Meridian ; on the other side 
of the Azores, and this side of the Equator, the North 



THE SECOND BOOK 227 

point of the Needle wheeleth to the West; so that in CHAP. 

the latitude of 36 near the shore, the variation is about II 

eleven degrees ; but on the other side the Equator, it 

is quite otherwise : for about Capo Frio in Brasilia, 

the South point varieth twelve degrees unto the West, 

and about the mouth of the Straits of Magellan five or 

six; but elongating from the coast of Brasilia toward 

the shore of Africa it varieth Eastward, and arriving 

at Capo dc las Agitllas, it resteth in the Meridian, and 

looketh neither way. 

Now the cause of this variation was thought by The cause 
Gilbertus to be the inequality of the Earth, variously &*****?*• 
disposed, and indifferently intermixed with the Sea : Com/ass. 
withal the different disposure of its Magnetical vigor 
in the eminencies and stronger parts thereof. For the 
Needle naturally endeavours to conform unto the 
Meridian, but being distracted, driveth that way 
where the greater and powerfuller part of the Earth is 
placed. Which may be illustrated from what hath 
been delivered and may be conceived by any that 
understands the generalities of Geographv. For 
whereas on this side the Meridian, or the Isles of 
Azores, where the first Meridian is placed, the Needle 
varieth Eastward ; it may be occasioned by that vast 
Tract of Earth, that is, of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 
seated toward the East, and disposing the Needle that 
way. For arriving at some part of the Azores, or 
Islands of Saint Michael, which have a middle situation 
between these Continents, and that vast and almost 
answerable Tract of America, it seemeth equally dis- 
tracted by both ; and diverting unto neither, doth 
parallel and place it self upon the true Meridian. But 
sailing farther, it veers its Lilly to the West, and 
regardeth that quarter wherein the Land is nearer or 



228 PSEUDODOX1A 

CHAP, greater; and in the same latitude as it approacheth 
II the shore augmenteth its variation. And therefore as 
some observe, if Columbus or whosoever first discovered 
America, had apprehended the cause of this variation, 
having passed more then half the wav, he might have 
been confirmed in the discovery, and assuredly foretold 
there lay a vast and mighty continent toward the 
West. The reason I confess and inference is good, but 
the instance perhaps not so. For Columbus knew not 
the variation of the compass, whereof Sebastian Cabot 
first took notice, who after made discovery in the 
Northern part of that continent. And it happened 
indeed that part of America was first discovered, which 
was on this side farthest distant, that is, Jamaica, 
Cuba, and the Isles in the Bay of Mexico. And from 
this variation do some new discoverers deduce a proba- 
bility in the attempts of the Northern passage toward 
the Indies. 

Now because where the greater continents are joyned, 
the action and effluence is also greater ; therefore those 
Needles do suffer the greatest variation which are in 
Countries which most do feel that action. And there- 
fore hath Rome far less variation then London ; for on 
the West side of Rome are seated the great continents 
of France, Spain, Germany, which take off the exuper- 
ance, and in some way ballance the vigor of the Eastern 
parts. But unto England there is almost no Earth 
West, but the whole extent of Europe and Asia lieth 
Eastward ; and therefore at London it varieth eleven 
degrees, that is almost one Rhomb. Thus also by 
reason of the great continent of Brasilia, Peru, and 
Chili, the Needle deflecteth toward the Land twelve 
degrees; but at the straits of Magellan where the 
Land is narrowed, and the Sea on the other side, it 



THE SECOND BOOK 229 

varieth but five or six. And so likewise, because the CHAP. 
C'upe de las AguQat hath Sea on both sides near it, and II 
other Land remote, and as it were equidistant from it, 
therefore at that point the Needle conforms unto the 
true Meridian, and is not distracted by the vicinity of 
Adjacencies. This is the general and great cause of 
variation. But if in certain Creeks and Vallies the 
Needle prove irregular, and vary beyond expectation, 
it may be imputed unto some vigorous part of the 
Earth, or Magnetical eminence not far distant. And 
this was the invention of D. Gilbert, not many years 
past, a Physician in London. And therefore although 
some assume the invention of its direction, and other 
have had the glory of the Card ; yet in the experi- 
ments, grounds, and causes thereof, England produced 
the Father Philosopher, and discovered more in it then 
Columbus or Ameruus did ever by it. 

Unto this in great part true the reason of Kircherus 
may be added : That this variation proceedeth not 
onlv from terrestrious eminencies, and marjnetical veins 
of the Earth, laterally respecting the Needle, but the 
different coagmentation of the Earth disposed unto 
the Poles, lying under the Sea and Waters, which affect 
the Needle with great or lesser variation, according to 
the vigour or imbecility of these subterraneous lines, or 
the entire or broken compagination of the magnetical 
fabrick under it. As is observable from several Load- 
stones placed at the bottom of any water, for a Load- 
stone or Needle upon the surface, will variously conform 
it self, according to the vigour or faintness of the 
Loadstones under it. 

Thus also a reason may be alledged for the variation 
of the variation, and why, according to observation, 
the variation of the Needle hath after some years been 



230 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, found to vary in some places. For this may proceed 

II from mutations of the earth, by subterraneous fires, 

fumes, mineral spirits, or otherwise; which altering 

the constitution of the magnetical parts, in process 

of time, doth vary the variation over the place. 

It is also probable what is conceived of its Antiquity, 
that the knowledge of its polary power and direction 
unto the North was unknown unto the Ancients ; and 
though Levinus Lemnius, and Ccelms Colcagninus, are 
of another belief, is justly placed with new inventions 
by Pancirollus. For their Achilles and strongest argu- 
ment is an expression in Plautus, a very Ancient 
author, and contemporary unto Ennias. Hie ventus 
jam secundus est, cape viodo versoriam. Now this ver- 
soriam they construe to be the compass, which notwith- 
standing according unto Pineda, who hath discussed 
the point, Turnebus, Cabeus, and divers others, is 
better interpreted the rope that helps to turn the 
Ship, or as we say, doth make it tack about ; the Com- 
pass declaring rather the Ship is turned, then conferring 
unto its conversion. As for the long expeditions and 
sundry voyages of elder times, which might confirm the 
Antiquity of this invention, it is not improbable they 
were performed by the help of Stars ; and so might 
the Phoenicean navigators, and also Ulisses sail about 
the Mediterranean, by the flight of Birds, or keeping 
near the shore ; and so might Hanno coast about 
Africa ; or by the help of Oars, as is expressed in the 
voyage of Jonah. And whereas it is contended that 
this verticity was not unknown unto Solomon, in whom 
is presumed an universality of knowledge ; it will as 
forcibly follow, he knew the Art of Typography, 
Powder and Guns, or had the Philosophers Stone, yet 
sent unto Ophir for Gold. It is not to be denied, that 



THE SECOND BOOK 231 

beside his Political wisdom, his knowledge in Philosophy CHAT, 
was verv large; and perhaps from his works therein, II 
the ancient Philosophers, especially Aristotle, who had 
the assistance of Alexanders acquirements, collected 
great observables. Yet if he knew the use of the 
Compass, his Ships were surely very slow, that made a 
three years voyage from Eziongeber in the red Sea 
unto Ophir; which is supposed to be Taprolmna or 
Malaca in the Indies, not many moneths sail ; and 
since in the same or lesser time, Drake and Candisk 
performed their voyage about the Earth. 

And as the knowledge of its verticity is not so old 
as some conceive, so it is more ancient then most 
believe ; nor had its discovery with Guns, Printing, or 
as manv think, some years before the discovery of 
America. For it was not unknown unto Pctrus Pere- 
grinus a Frenchman, who two hundred years since left 
a Tract of the Magnet, and a perpetual motion to be 
made thereby, preserved by Gasserus. Paulus Venetus, 
and about five hundred years past Albertus Magnus 
make mention hereof, and quote for it a Book of 
Aristotle, De Lajride; which Book although we find in 
the Catalogue of Lacrtius, yet with Cabeus we may 
rather judge it to be the work of some Arabick Writer, 
not manv vears before the days of Albertus. 

Lastlv, It is likewise true what some have delivered 
of Crocus Mortis, that is, Steel corroded with Vinegar, 
Sulphur, or otherwise, and after reverberated by fire. 
For the Loadstone will not at all attract it, nor will it 
adhere, but lve therein like Sand. This to be under- 
stood of Crocus Mortis well reverberated, and into a 
violet colour : for common c/ialabs prcrparatus, or 
corroded and powdered Steel, the Loadstone attracts 
like ordinary filings of Iron; and many times most of 



232 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, that which passeth for Crocus Martis. So that this 
II way may serve as a test of its preparation ; after which 
it becometh a very good medicine in fluxes. The like 
may be affirmed of flakes of Iron that are rusty and 
begin to tend unto Earth; for their cognation then 
expireth, and the Loadstone will not regard them. 

And therefore this may serve as a trial of good Steel. 
The Loadstone taking up a greater mass of that which 
is most pure, it may also decide the conversion of Wood 
into Iron, as is pretended from some Waters : and the 
common conversion of Iron into Copper by the media- 
tion of blew Coperose, for the Loadstone will not 
attract it. Although it may be questioned, whether 
in this operation, the Iron or Coperose be transmuted, 
as may be doubted from the cognation of Coperose 
with Copper ; and the quantity of Iron remaining after 
the conversion. And the same may be useful to some 
discovery concerning Vitriol or Coperose of Mars, by 
some called Salt of Steel, made by the spirits of Vitriol 
or Sulphur. For the corroded powder of Steel will 
after ablution be actively attracted by the Loadstone, 
and also remaineth in little diminished quantity. And 
therefore whether those shooting Salts partake but 
little of Steel, and be not rather the vitriolous spirits 
fixed into Salt by the effluvium or odor of Steel, is not 
without good question. 



THE SECOND BOOK 233 

CHAP. 
CHAPTER III HI 

Concerning the Loadstone, therein of sundry 
common Opinions, and received several 
relations : Natural, Historical, Medical, 
Magical. 

A ND first not only a simple Heterodox, but a 
/ \ very hard Paradox, it will seem, and of great 
J. \. absurdity unto obstinate ears, if we say, 
attraction is unjustly appropriated unto the Load- 
stone, and that perhaps we speak not properly, when 
we say vulgarly and appropriately the Loadstone 
draweth Iron; and yet herein we should not want 
experiment and great authority. The words of Renatua 
des Cartes in his Principles of Philosophy are very 
plain. Proetcrea magpies trahet ferrum, sive potius 
magpies $■ ferrum ad invicem accedunt, neque cnim ulla 
ibi tractio est. The same is solemnly determined by 
Cabeus. Nee magpies trahit proprie Jerrum, nee ferrum 
ad se magnetem provocate sed ambo pari conatu ad 
inviiem confluunt. Concordant hereto is the assertion 
of Doctor Hidlaj, Physitian unto the Emperour of 
Russia, in his Tract of Magnctical Bodies, defining 
Magnetical attraction to be a natural incitation and 
disposition conforming unto contiguity, an union of 
one Magnetical Body with another, and no violent 
haling of the weak unto the stronger. And this is 
also the doctrine of Gilbcrtus, by whom this motion is 
termed Coition, and that not made by any faculty 
attractive of one, but a Syndrome and concourse of 
each; a Coition alway of their vigours, and also of 
their bodies, if bulk or impediment prevent not. And 



234 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, therefore those contrary actions which flow from oppo- 
III site Poles or Faces, are not so properly expulsion and 
attraction, as Sequela and Fuga, a mutual flight and 
following. Consonant whereto are also the deter- 
mination of Helnwntius, Kircherus, and Licetus. 

The same is also confirmed by experiment ; for if a 
Attraction piece of Iron be fastened in the side of a bowl or bason 

reciprocal „ _ . ... 

betwixt the «i water, a JLoadstone swimming freely in a Boot of 

Andiron. Cork ' wi ! l P resen % make unto it. So if a Steel or Knife 
untouched, be offered toward the Needle that is touched, 
the Needle nimbly moveth toward it, and conformeth 
unto union with the Steel that moveth not. Again, 
If a Loadstone be finely filed, the Atoms or dust 
thereof will adhere unto Iron that was never touched, 
even as the powder of Iron doth also unto the Load- 
stone. And lastly, if in two Skiffs of Cork, a Load- 
stone and Steel be placed within the Orb of their 
activities, the one doth not move the other standing 
still, but both hoise sail and steer unto each other. 
So that if the Loadstone attract, the Steel hath also 
its attraction; for in this action the Alliciency is 
reciprocal, which joyntly felt, they mutually approach 
and run into each others arms. 

And therefore surely more moderate expressions 
become this action, then what the Ancients have used, 
which some have delivered in the most violent terms of 
their language; so Austin calls it, Mirabilem ferri 
raptorem: Hippocrates \idos rbv aihripov ap-rrd^ei, Lapis 
qui ferrum rapit. Galen disputing against Epicurus 
useth the term ek/ceiv, but this also is too violent : 
among the Ancients Aristotle spake most warily, octtk; 
top alhripov /civet, Lapis qui ferrum movet : and in 
some tolerable acccption do run the expressions of 
Aquinas, Scaliger and Cusanus. 



THE SECOND HOOK 285 

Many relations are made, and great expectations are CHAP. 
raised from the Magnet Car nam, or a Loadstone, that HI 
hath a faculty to attract not only iron but tiesh ; but 
this upon enquiry, and as Cabcue also observed, is 
nothing else but a weak and inanimate kind of Load- 
stone, veined here and there with a few magnetical and 
ferreous lines ; but consisting of a bolary and clammy 
substance, wherebv it adheres like Haematites, or Terra 
Lemma, unto the Lips. And this is that stone which 
is to be understood, when Hivsitians joyn it with 
.Etites, or the Eagle stone, and promise therein a 
vertue against abortion. _ 

There is sometime a mistake concerning the variation 
of the Compass, and therein one point is taken for 
another. For beyond that Equator some men account 
its variation by the diversion of the Northern point, 
whereas bevond that Circle the Southern point is Sove- 
rai"-n, and the North submits his preheminencv. For 
in the Southern coast either of America or Africa, the 
Southern point deflects and varieth toward the Land, 
as being disposed and spirited that way by the Meri- 
dional and proper Hemi>phere. And therefore on that 
side of the Earth the varying point is best accounted 
bv the- South. And therefore also the writings of 
some, and Maps of others, are to be enquired, that 
make the Needle decline unto the East twelve degrees 
at Capo Frio, and six at the straits of Magellan ; 
accounting hereby one point for another, and preferring 
the North in the Liberties and Province of the South. _J 

But certainly false it is what is commonly affirmed That 



and believed, that Garlick doth hinder the attraction XSnmk 
of the Loadstone, which is notwithstanding delivered tktattra.- 
bv grave and worthy Writers, by Pl'trn/, Solinus, 'r,^^. 
Ptolomy, Plutarch, Albert us. Mathiolus. linen*. Langius, 



236 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, and many more. An effect as strange as that of 
III Homers Moly, and the Garlick that Mercury bestowed 
upon Ulysses. But that it is evidently false, many 
experiments declare. For an Iron wire heated red hot 
and quenched in the juice of Garlick, doth notwith- 
standing contract a verticity from the Earth, and 
attracteth the Southern point of the Needle. If also 
the tooth of a Loadstone be covered or stuck in 
Garlick, it will notwithstanding attract ; and Needles 
excited and fixed in Garlick until they begin to rust, 
do yet retain their attractive and polary respects. 
Nor yet the Of the same stamp is that which is obtruded upon 
v1amo,"<! " r us D y Authors ancient and modern, that an Adamant 
or Diamond prevents or suspends the attraction of the 
Loadstone : as is in open terms delivered by Pliny. 
Adamas dissidet cum Magnete lapide, ut juxta positus 
ferrum non patiatur abstrahi, aut si admotus magnes, 
apprehenderit, rapiat atque auferat. For if a Diamond 
be placed between a Needle and a Loadstone, there will 
nevertheless ensue a Coition even over the body of the 
Diamond. And an easie matter it is to touch or excite 
a Needle through a Diamond, by placing it at the 
tooth of a Loadstone; and therefore the relation is 
false, or our estimation of these gemms untrue; nor 
are they Diamonds which carry that name amongst us. 
n e genera- It is not suddenly to be received what Paracelsus 
tione rcrum. affirmeth) that jf a Loadstone be anointed with Mer- 
curial oyl, or onely put into Quicksilver, it omitteth its 
attraction for ever. For we have found that Load- 
stones and touched Needles which have laid long time 
in Quicksilver have not amitted their attraction. And 
we also find that red hot Needles or wires extinguished 
in Quicksilver, do yet acquire a verticity according to 
the Laws of position in extinction. Of greater repug- 



THE SECOND BOOK 237 

nancv unto reason is that which he delivers concerning CHAP, 
its graduation, that heated in fire and often extin- 111 
guished in ovl of Mars or Iron, it acquires an ability to 
extract or draw forth a nail fastened in a wall; for, as 
we have declared before, the vigor of the Loadstone is 
destroyed by fire, nor will it be re-impregnated by any 
other Magnete then the Earth. 

Nor is it to be made out what seemeth very plausible, 
and formerly hath deceived us, that a Loadstone will 
not attract an Iron or Steel red hot. The falsity hereof 
discovered first bv Kircherus, we can confirm by iterated 
experiment ; very sensibly in armed Loadstones, and 
obscurelv in any other. 

True it is, that besides fire some other waves there 
are of its destruction, as Age, Rust ; and what is least 
dreamt on, an unnatural or contrarv situation. For 
being impolarilv adjoyned unto a more vigorous Load- 
stone, it will in a short time enchange its Poles; or 
being kept in undue position, that is, not lying on the 
Meridian, or else with its poles inverted, it receives in 
longer time impair in activity, exchange of Faces; and 
is more powerfully preserved by position then by the 
dust of Steel. Hut the sudden and surest way is fire; 
that is, fire not onely actual but potential ; the one 
surelv and suddenly, the other slowly and imperfectly ; 
the one changing, the other destroying the figure. For 
if distilled Vinegar or Aqua forth be poured upon the 
powder of Loadstone, the subsiding powder dryed, 
retains some Magnetical vertue, and will be attracted 
by the Loadstone : but if the menstruum or dissolvent 
be evaporated to a consistence, and afterward doth 
shoot into Icycles or Crvstals, the Loadstone hath no 
power upon them ; and if in a full dissolution of Steel 
a separation of parts be made by precipitation or 



238 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, exhalation, the exsiccated powder hath lost its wings 

III and ascends not unto the Loadstone. And though a 

Loadstone fired doth presently omit its proper vertue, 

and according to the position in cooling contracts a 

new verticity from the Earth ; yet if the same be laid 

awhile in aquafortis or other corrosive water, and taken 

out before a considerable corrosion, it still reserves its 

attraction, and will convert the Needle according to 

former polarity. And that duly preserved from violent 

corrosion, or the natural disease of rust, it may long 

conserve its vertue, beside the Magnetical vertue of the 

Earth, which hath lasted since the Creation, a great 

example we have from the observation of our learned 

in his friend Mr. Graves, in an ^Egyptian Idol cut out of 

lea.™,* v L oaa | s tone, and found among the Mummies \ which 

graphia. still retains its attraction, though probably taken out 

of the Mine about two thousand years ago. 

It is improbable what Pliny affirmeth concerning 
the object of its attraction, that it attracts not only 
ferreous bodies, but also liquorem vitri ; for in the body 
of Glass there is no ferreous or magnetical nature which 
might occasion attraction. For of the Glass we use, 
the purest is made of the finest sand and the ashes of 
Chali or Glaswort, and the courser or green sort of the 
ashes of Brake or other plants. True it is that in the 
making of Glass, it hath been an ancient practice to 
cast in pieces of magnet, or perhaps manganes : con- 
ceiving it carried away all ferreous and earthy parts, 
from the pure and running portion of Glass, which the 
Loadstone would not respect; and therefore if that 
attraction were not rather Electrical then Magnetical, 
it was a wondrous effect what Hehnont delivereth con- 
cerning a Glass wherein the Magistery of Loadstone 
was prepared, which after retained an attractive quality. 



THE SECOND ROOK 239 

But whether the Magnet attracteth more then com- CHAP, 
mon Iron, may he tried in other bodies. It seems to III 
attract the Smvris or Emery in powder ; It draweth the 
shining or glassie powder brought from the Indies, and 
usually implied in writing-dust. There is also in 
Smiths Cinders by some adhesion of Iron whereby they 
appear as it were glazed, sometime to be found a mag- 
netical operation; for some thereof applied have power 
to move the Needle. But whether the ashes of vege- 
tables which grow over Iron Mines contract a magnetical 
qualitv, as containing some mineral particles, which by 
sublimation ascend unto their Roots, and are attracted 
together with their nourishment; according as some 
affirm from the like observations upon the Mines of 
Silver, Quick silver, and Gold, we must refer unto 
further experiment. —» 

It is also improbable and something singular what 
some conceive, and Eusebius Nierembergias, a learned 
Jesuit of Spain delivers, that the body of man is 
magnetical, and being placed in a Boat, the Vessel will 
never rest until] the head respecteth the North. If this 
be true, the bodies of Christians do lye unnaturally in 
their Graves. King Cheops in his Tomb, and the Jews 
in their beds have fallen upon the natural position : 
who reverentially declining the situation of their 
Temple, nor willing to lye as that stood, do place 
their Beds from North to South, and delight to sleep 
Meridionallv. This Opinion confirmed would much 
advance the Microcosmical conceit, and commend the 
Geography of Paracelsus, who according to the Cardinal 
points of the World divideth the body of man; and 
therefore working upon humane ordure, and by long 
preparation rendring it odoriferous, he terms it Zibet a 
Occidental!*, Western Civet; making the face the East, 



240 



PSEUDODOXIA 



mutically. 



CHAP, but the posteriours the America or Western part of his 

III. Microcosm. The verity hereof might easily be tried in 

Wales, where there are portable Boats, and made of 

Leather, which would convert upon the impulsion of 

any verticity ; and seem to be the same whereof in his 

description of Britain Caesar hath left some mention. 

Another kind of verticity, is that which Angehis 
Anagram- doce mihi jus, alias, Michael Sundevogis, in a Tract 
De Sulphure, discovereth in Vegetables, from sticks let 
fall or depressed under water ; which equally framed 
and permitted unto themselves, will ascend at the 
upper end. or that which was vertical in their vegeta- 
tion; wherein notwithstanding, as yet, we have not 
found satisfaction. Although perhaps too greedy of 
Magnalities, we are apt to make but favourable experi- 
ments concerning welcome Truths, and such desired 
verities. 

It is also wondrous strange what Lcelius Bisciola 
reporteth, that if unto ten ounces of Loadstone one of 
Iron be added, it encreaseth not unto eleven, but 
weighs ten ounces still. A relation inexcusable in a 
work of leisurable hours : the examination being as 
ready as the relation, and the falsity tried as easily as 
delivered. Nor is it to be omitted what is taken up 
by the Ciesius Bernardus a late Mineralogist, and 
originally confirmed by Porta, that Needles touched 
with a Diamond contract a verticity, even as they do 
with a Loadstone, which will not consist with experi- 
ment. And therefore, as Gilbertus observeth, he might 
be deceived, in touching such Needles with Diamonds, 
which had a verticity before, as we have declared most 
Needles to have ; and so had he touched them with 
Gold or Silver, he might have concluded a magnetical 
vertue therein. 



Horae subse 
civsc 



THE SECOND BOOK 241 

In the same form may we place Fracastorhis his CHAP, 
attraction of silver, PhUostratus his Pantarbes, Apollo- III 
dorus and Bala his relation of the Loadstone that 
attracted onely in the night. But most inexcusable 
is Franciscu.s Uncus, a man of our own profession ; who 
in his discourse of Gemms mentioned in the A pocali/ps, 
undertakes a Chapter of the Loadstone. Wherein 
substantially and upon experiment he scarce delivereth 
any thing : making long enumeration of its traditional 
qualities, whereof he seemeth to believe many, and 
some above convicted by experience, he is fain to salve 
as impostures of the Devil. But Bcetitu de Boot 
Physitian unto Rodulphns the second, hath recom- 
penced this defect ; and in his Tract De Lapidibus <Sr 
Gemmis, speaks very materially hereof; and his Dis- 
course is consonant unto Experience and Reason. 

As for Relations Historical, though many there be 
of less account, yet two alone deserve consideration : 
The first concerneth magnetical Rocks, and attractive 
Mountains in several parts of the Earth. The other 
the Tomb of Mahomet and bodies suspended in the air. 
Of Rocks magnetical there are likewise two relations; 
for some are delivered to be in the Indies, and some in 
the extremity of the North, and about the very Pole. 
The Northern account is commonly ascribed unto 
Olaus Magma Archbishop of Upside, who out of his 
Predecessor Joannes, .Sa.ro, and others, compiled a 
History of some Northern Nations ; but this assertion 
we have not discovered in that Work of his which 
commonly passeth amongst us, and should believe his 
Geography herein no more then that in the first 
line of his Book ; when he affirmeth that Biarmia 
(which is not seventy degrees in latitude) hath the 
Pole for its Zenith, and P.quinoctial for the Horizon. 

ft 



242 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. Now upon this foundation, how uncertain soever 
III men have erected mighty illations, ascribing thereto 
the cause of the Needles direction, and conceiving the 
effluctions from these Mountains and Rocks invite 
the Lilly toward the North. Which conceit though 
countenanced by learned men, is not made out either 
by experience or reason, for no man hath yet attained 
or given a sensible account of the Pole by some 
degrees. It is also observed the Needle doth very 
much vary as it approacheth the Pole ; whereas were 
there such direction from the Rocks, upon a nearer 
approachment it would more directly respect them. 
Beside, were there such magnetical Rocks under the 
Pole, yet being so far removed they would produce no 
such effect. For they that sail by the Isle of Ilua now 
called Elba in the Thuscan Sea which abounds in veins 
of Loadstone, observe no variation or inclination of*' 
the Needle ; much less may they expect a direction 
from Rocks at the end of the Earth. And lastly, men 
that ascribe thus much unto Rocks of the North, must 
presume or discover the like magneticals at the South : 
For in the Southern Seas and far beyond the Equator, 
variations are large, and declinations as constant as in 
the Northern Ocean. 

The other relation of Loadstone Mines and Rocks, 
in the shore of India is delivered of old by Pliny, 
wherein, saith he, they are so placed both in abundance 
and vigour, that it proves an adventure of hazard to 
pass those Coasts in a Ship with Iron nails. Serapion 
the Moor, an Author of good esteem and reasonable 
Antiquity, confirmeth the same, whose expression in 
the word magnes is this. The Mine of this Stone is in 
the Sea-coast of India, whereto when Ships approach, 
there is no Iron in them which flies not like a Bird 



THE SECOND BOOK 243 

unto those Mountains; and therefore their ships are CHAP. 
fastened not with Iron but Wood, for otherwise they 111 
would be torn to pieces. But this assertion, how 
positive soever, is contradicted by all Navigators that {Probably) 
pass that way ; which are now many, and of our own ^n!tkai 
Nation, and might surely have been controled by Rocks - 
Nearehus the Admiral of Alexander ; who not knowing 
the Compass, was fain to coast that shore. 

For the relation concerning Mahomet, it is generally 
believed his Tomb at Medina Talnabi, in Arabia, 
without any visible supporters hangeth in the air 
between two Loadstones artificially contrived both 
above and below ; which conceit is fabulous and 
evidently false from the testimony of Ocular Testators, 
who affirm his Tomb is made of Stone, and lyeth upon Mahomet's 
the ground; as beside others the learned Vossius [° t '"^ ea „^ 
observeth from Gabriel Sionita, and Joannes Hcsronita, bviit "/">" 
two Maronites in their relations hereof. Of such 
intentions and attempt by Mahometans we read in 
some Relators, and that might be the occasion of the 
Fable, which by tradition of time and distance of 
place enlarged into the Story of being accomplished. 
And this hath been promoted by attempts of the like 
nature ; for we read in Pliny that one Dinocrates began 
to Arch the Temple of Arsinoe in Alexandria with 
Loadstone, that so her Statue might be suspended in 
the air to the amazement of the beholders. And to 
lead on our crudelitv herein, confirmation may be 
drawn from History and Writers of good authority. 
So it is reported by RnJJinus, that in the Temple of 
Serapis there was an Iron Chariot suspended by Load- 
stones in the air; which stones removed, the Chariot 
fell and dashed into pieces. The like doth Beda 
report of Bellcrophons Horse, which framed of Iron, 



244 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, was placed between two Loadstones, with wings 
III expansed, pendulous in the air. 

The verity of these Stories we shall not further 
dispute, their possibility we may in some way deter- 
mine ; if we conceive what no man will deny, that 
bodies suspended in the air have this suspension from 
one or many Loadstones placed both above and below 
it ; or else by one or many placed only above it. 
Likewise the body to be suspended in respect of the 
Loadstone above, is either placed first at a pendulous 
distance in the medium, or else attracted unto that 
site by the vigor of the Loadstone. And so we first 
affirm, that possible it is, a body may be suspended 
between two Loadstones ; that is, it being so equally 
attracted unto both, that it determineth it self unto 
neither. But surely this position will be of no dura- 
tion ; for if the air be agitated or the body waved 
either way, it omits the equilibration, and disposeth 
it self unto the nearest attractor. Again, It is not 
impossible (though hardly feasible) by a single Load- 
stone to suspend an Iron in the air, the Iron being 
artificially placed and at a distance guided toward the 
stone, until it find the neutral point, wherein its 
gravity just equals the magnetical quality, the one 
exactly extolling as much as the other depresseth. 
And lastly, Impossible it is that if an Iron rest upon 
the ground, and a Loadstone be placed over it, it 
should ever so arise as to hang in the way or medium ; 
for that vigor which at a distance is able to overcome 
the resistance of its gravity and to lift it up from the 
Earth, will as it approacheth nearer be still more able 
to attract it; never remaining in the middle that 
could not abide in the extreams. Now the way of 
Baptista Porta that by a thred fastneth a Needle to a 



THE SECOND BOOK 245 

Table, and then so guides and orders the same, that CHAP, 
bv the attraction of the Loadstone it abideth in the III 
air, infringeth not this reason ; for this is a violent 
retention, and if the thred be loosened, the Needle 
ascends and adheres unto the Attractor. 

The third consideration concerneth Medical rela- 
tions; wherein what ever effects are delivered, they are 
either derived from its mineral and ferreous condition, 
or else magnetical operation. Unto the ferreous and 
mineral quality pertaineth what Dioscorides an ancient 
Writer and Souldier under Anthony and Cleopatra 
affirmeth, that half a dram of Loadstone given with 
Honev and Water, proves a purgative medicine, and 
evacuateth gross humours. But this is a quality of 
great incertaintv ; for omitting the vehicle of Water 
and Honev, which is of a laxative power it self, the 
powder of some Loadstones in this dose doth rather Powdtrof 
constipate and binde, then purge and loosen the belly. f^"f^""" 
And if sometimes it cause any laxity, it is probably in o/eration. 
the same way with Iron and Steel unprepared, which 
will disturb some bodies, and work by Purge and 
Vomit. x\nd therefore, whereas it is delivered in a 
Book ascribed unto Galen, that it is a good medicine 
in dropsies, and evacuates the waters of persons so 
affected : It may I confess by siccity and astriction 
afford a confirmation unto parts relaxed, and such as 
be hvdropically disposed; and by these qualities it 
may be useful in Hernias or Ruptures, and for these 
it is commended by JEtius, sEgineta, and Oribatius ; 
who onlv affirm that it contains the vertue of Hivma- 
tites, and being burnt was sometimes vended for it. 
Wherein notwithstanding there is an higher vertue; 
and in the same prepared, or in rich veins thereof, 
though crude, we have observed the effects of Chalybeat 



246 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP. 
Ill 



De morbis 

iuternis. 



Medicines ; and the benefits of Iron and Steel in strong 
obstructions. And therefore that was probably a 
different vein of Loadstone, or infected with other 
mineral mixture, which the Ancients commended for 
a purgative medicine, and ranked the same with the 
violentest kinds thereof: with Hippophae, Cneoro?i, 
and Thymelcea, as we find it in Hippocrates; and 
might be somewhat doubtful, whether by the magnesian 
stone, he understood the Loadstone ; did not Achilles 
Statins define the same, the Stone that loveth Iron. 

To this mineral condition belongeth what is delivered 
by some, that wounds which are made with weapons 
excited by the Loadstone, contract a malignity, and 
become of more difficult cure ; which nevertheless is 
not to be found in the incision of Chyrurgions with 
knives and lances touched ; which leave no such effect 
behind them. Hither we also refer that affirmative, 
which saves the Loadstone is poison ; and therefore in 
the lists of poisons we find it in many Authors. But 
this our experience cannot confirm, and the practice of 
the King of Zeilan clearly contradicteth ; who as 
Garcias ah Horto, Physitian unto the Spanish Viceroy 
delivereth, hath all his meat served up in dishes of 
Loadstone, and conceives thereby he preserveth the 
vigour of youth. 

But surely from a magnetical activity must be made 
out what is let fall by jEtius, that a Loadstone held 
in the hand of one that is podagrical, doth either cure 
or give great ease in the Gout. Or what Marcellus 
Empericus affirmeth, that as an amulet, it also cureth 
the headach ; which are but additions unto its proper 
nature, and hopeful enlargements of its allowed attrac- 
tion. For perceiving its secret power to draw mag- 
netical bodies, men have invented a new attraction, to 



THE SECOND BOOK 247 

draw out the dolour and pain of any part. And from CHAP, 
such grounds it surely became a philter, and was III 
conceived a medicine of some venereal attraction; and 
therefore upon this stone they graved the Image of 
Venus, according unto that of Claudian, Yenerem mag- 
ntiica gemma figur at. Hither must we also refer what 
is delivered concerning its power to draw out of the 
body bullets and heads of arrows, and for the like 
intention is mixed up in plaisters. Which course, 
although as vain and ineffectual it be rejected by many 
good Authors, yet is it not methinks so readily to be 
denied, nor the Practice of many Physicians which 
have thus compounded plaisters, thus suddenly to be 
condemned, as may be observed in the Ernplaxtrum 
divinum Xico/ai, the Emplastrum nigrum of Augspurg, 
the Opodcldoch and Attractivum of Paracelsus, with 
several more in the Dispensatory of Wecker, and 
practice of Senncrtus. The cure also of Hernias, or 
Ruptures in Parens: and the method also of curation »Decuitri- 
latelv delivered bv Daniel Bcckhcrus* and approved bv voroPr " s - 

» ' ' i i J siaco, 1630. 

the Professors of Leyden, that is, of a young man of tju am of 
Sprneeland that casually swallowed a knife about ten Kn iT^ 
inches long, which was cut out of his stomach, and the 
wound healed up. In which cure to attract the knife 
to a convenient situation, there was applied a plaister 
made up with the powder of Loadstone. Now this 
kind of practice Lihavius, Gilhertus, and lately Sickle- i*kuAn 
ardus condemn, as vain, and altogether unuscful ; * agn< 
because a Loadstone in powder hath no attractive 
power; for in that form it omits his polarlv re- 
spects, and loseth those parts which are the rule of 
attraction. 

Wherein to speak compendiously, if experiment hath 
not deceived us, we first affirm that a Loadstone in 



248 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, powder omits not all attraction. For if the powder 
III of a rich vein be in a reasonable quantity presented 
toward the Needle freely placed, it will not appear to 
be void of all activity, but will be able to stir it. Nor 
hath it only a power to move the Needle in powder 
and by it self, but this will it also do, if incorporated 
and mixed with plaisters ; as we have made trial in 
the Emplastrum de Minia, with half an ounce of the 
mass, mixing a dram of Loadstone. For applying the 
magdaleon or roal unto the Needle, it would both stir 
and attract it ; not equally in all parts, but more 
vigorously in some, according unto the Mine of the 
Stone, more plentifully dispersed in the mass. And 
lastly, In the Loadstone powdered, the polary respects 
are not wholly destroyed. For those diminutive par- 
ticles are not atomical or meerly indivisible, but consist 
of dimensions sufficient for their operations, though in 
obscurer effects. Thus if unto the powder of Loadstone 
or Iron we admove the North Pole of the Loadstone, 
the Powders or small divisions will erect and conform 
themselves thereto: but if the South Pole approach, 
they will subside, and inverting their bodies, respect 
the Loadstone with the other extream. And this will 
happen not only in a body of powder together, but in 
any particle or dust divided from it. 

Now though we disavow not these plaisters, yet shall 
we not omit two cautions in their use, that therein the 
Stone be not too subtilly powdered, for it will better 
manifest its attraction in a more sensible dimension. 
That where is desired a speedy effect, it may be con- 
sidered whether it were not better to relinquish the 
powdered plaisters, and to apply an entire Loadstone 
unto the part : And though the other be not wholly 
ineffectual, whether this way be not more powerful, 



THE SECOND BOOK 249 

and so might have been in the cure of the young man CHAP, 
delivered by Becke)~us. Ill 

The last consideration concerneth Magical relations; 
in which account we comprehend effects derived and 
fathered upon hidden qualities, specifical forms, Anti- 
pathies and Sympathies, whereof from received grounds 
of Art, no reasons are derived. Herein relations are 
strange and numerous; men being apt in all Ages to 
multiply wonders, and Philosophers dealing with ad- 
mirable bodies, as Historians have done with excellent 
men, upon the strength of their great atcheivements, 
ascribing acts unto them not only false but impossible ; 
and exceeding truth as much in their relations, as they 
have others in their actions. Hereof we shall briefly 
mention some delivered by Authors of good esteem : 
whereby we mav discover the fabulous inventions of 
some, the credulous supinity of others, and the great 
disservice unto truth by both : multiplying obscurities 
in Nature, and authorising hidden qualities that are 
false; whereas wise men are ashamed there are so 
many true. 

And first, Dioscorides puts a shrewd quality upon it, 
and such as men are apt enough to experiment, who 
therewith discovers the incontinency of a wife, by 
placing the Loadstone under her pillow, whereupon 
she will not be able to remain in bed with her husband. 
The same he also makes a help unto thievery. For 
Thieves saith he, having a design upon a house, do 
make a fire at the four corners thereof, and cast therein 
the fragments of Loadstone : whence ariseth a fume 
that so disturbeth the inhabitants, that they forsake 
the house and leave it to the spoil of the Robbers. 
This relation, how ridiculous soever, hath Albcrtu.i 
taken up above a thousand years after, and Marbodcus 



250 PSEUJDODOXIA 

CHAP, the Frenchman hath continued the same in Latine 
HI Verse, which with the Notes of Pictorius is currant 
unto our dayes. As strange must be the Lithomancy 
or divination from this Stone, whereby as Tzetzes 
delivers, Helenus the Prophet foretold the destruction 
of Troy, and the Magick thereof not safely to be 
believed, which was delivered by Orpheus, that sprinkled 
with water it will upon a question emit a voice not 
much unlike an Infant. But surely the Loadstone of 
Laurentius Guascus the Physitian, is never to be 
matched; wherewith, as Cardan delivereth, whatsoever 
Needles or Bodies were touched, the wounds and punc- 
tures made thereby, were never felt at all. And yet 
as strange is that which is delivered by some, that a 
Loadstone preserved in the salt of a Remora, acquires 
a power to attract gold out of the deepest Wells. 
Certainly a studied absurdity, not casually cast out, 
but plotted for perpetuity : for the strangeness of the 
effect ever to be admired, and the difficulty of the trial 
never to be convicted. 

These conceits are of that monstrosity that they 
refute themselves in their recitements. There is 
another of better notice, and whispered thorow the 
World with some attention; credulous and vulgar 
auditors readily believing it, and more judicious and 
distinctive heads, not altogether rejecting it. The 
conceit is excellent, and if the effect would follow, 
somewhat divine ; whereby we might communicate 
like spirits, and confer on earth with Menippus in the 
Moon. And this is pretended from the sympathy of 
two Needles touched with the same Loadstone, and 
placed in the center of two Abecedary circles or rings, 
with letters described round about them, one friend 
keeping one, and another the other, and agreeing upon 



THE SECOND BOOK 251 

an hour wherein thev will communicate. For then, CHAP, 
saith Tradition, at what distance of place soever, when III 
one Needle shall he removed unto any letter, the other 
by a wonderful sympathy will move unto the same. 
But herein I confess my experience can find no truth ; 
for having expressly framed two circles of Wood, and 
according to the number of the Latine letters divided 
each into twenty three parts, placing therein two stiles 
or Needles composed of the same steel, touched with 
the same Loadstone, and at the same point : of these 
two, whensoever I removed the one, although but at 
the distance of half a span, the other would stand like 
Hercules pillars, and if the Earth stand still, have 
surely no motion at all. Now as it is not possible that 
any body should have no boundaries, or Sphear of its 
activity, so it is improbable it should effect that at 
distance, which nearer hand it cannot at all perform. 

Again, The conceit is ill contrived, and one effect 
inferred, whereas the contrary will ensue. For if the 
removing of one of the Needles from A to B, should 
have any action or influence on the other, it would not 
intice it from A to B, but repell it from A to Z : for 
Needles excited by the same point of the stone, do not 
attract, but avoid each other, even as these also do, 
when their invigorated extreams approach unto one 
other. 

Lastly, Were this conceit assuredly true, yet were it 
not a conclusion at every distance to be tried by every 
head: it being DO ordinarv or Almanack business, but 
a Problem Mathematical, to finde out the difference 
of hours in different places ; nor do the wisest exactly 
satisfie themselves in all. For the hours of several 
places anticipate each other, according unto their 
Longitudes, which are not exactly discovered of every 



252 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, place ; and therefore the trial hereof at a considerable 
III interval, is best performed at the distance of the 
Antccci; that is, such habitations as have the same 
Meridian and equal parallel, on different sides of the 
JEquator; or more plainly the same Longitude and 
the same Latitude unto the South, which we have 
in the North. For unto such situations it is noon and 
midnight at the very same time. 

And therefore the Sympathy of these Needles is 
much of the same mould with that intelligence which 
is pretended from the flesh of one body transmuted by 
De curtorum incision into another. For if by the Art of Talia- 
yurg'a. co f ms ^ a permutation of flesh, or transmutation be 
made from one mans body into another, as if a piece of 
flesh be exchanged from the bicipital muscle of either 
parties arm, and about them both an Alphabet cir- 
cumscribed ; upon a time appointed as some conceptions 
affirm, they may communicate at what distance soever. 
For if the one shall prick himself in A, the other at the 
same time will have a sense thereof in the same part : 
and upon inspection of his arm perceive what letters 
the other points out in his. Which is a way of intel- 
ligence very strange: and would requite the lost Art 
of Pythagoras, who could read a reverse in the Moon. 

Now this magnetical conceit how strange soever, 
might have some original in Reason ; for men observing 
no solid body, whatsoever did interrupt its action, 
might be induced to believe no distance would termi- 
nate the same; and most conceiving it pointed unto 
the Pole of Heaven, might also opinion that nothing 
between could restrain it. Whosoever was the Author, 
the JEohis that blew it about was Famianus Strada, 
that Elegant Jesuit, in his Rhetorical prolusions, who 
chose out this subject to express the stile of Lucretius. 



THE SECOND BOOK 253 

But neither Baptista Porta, De Furtivu Literarum CHAP. 
notls\ Trithcmlus in his Steganography, Selenus in his HI 
Cryptography, or Xunc'ius inanimutux make any con- Nunc, 
sideration hereof, although they deliver many ways to £"^1*?,, 
communicate thoughts at distance. And this we will Bhk0 fj^ 
not deny may in some manner be effected by the Load- 
stone ; that is, from one room into another ; by placing 
a table in the wall common unto both, and writing 
thereon the same letters one against another : for upon 
the approach of a vigorous Loadstone unto a letter on 
this side, the Needle will move unto the same on the 
other. But this is a very different way from ours at 
present ; and hereof there are many ways delivered, 
and more may be discovered which contradict not the 
rule of its operations. 

\- for Unguentum Armarium, called also Magneticum, 
it belongs not to this discourse, it neither having the 
Loadstone for its ingredient, nor any one of its actions : 
but supposeth other principles, as common and universal 
spirits, which convey the action of the remedy unto the 
part, and conjoins the vertue of bodies far disjoyned. 
But perhaps the cures it doth, are not worth so mighty 
principles ; it commonly healing but simple wounds, 
and such as mundified and kept clean, do need no 
other hand then that of Nature, and the Balsam of the 
proper part. Unto which effect there being fields of 
Medicines, it may be a hazardous curiosity to rely on 
this; and because men say the effect doth generally 
follow, it might be worth the experiment to try, 
whether the same will not ensue, upon the same 
Method of cure, by ordinary Balsams, or common 
vulnerary plaistcrs. 

Many other Magnetisms may be pretended, and the 
like attractions through all the creatures of Nature. 



254 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. Whether the same be verified in the action of the 
III Sun upon inferiour bodies, whether there be JEolian 
Magnets, whether the flux and reflux of the Sea be 
caused by any Magnetism from the Moon ; whether 
the like be really made out, or rather Metaphorically 
verified in the sympathies of Plants and Animals, might 
afford a large dispute ; and Kircherus in his Catena 
Magnetica hath excellently discussed the same ; which 
work came late unto our hand, but might have much 
advantaged this Discourse. 

Other Discourses there might be made of the Load- 
stone : as Moral, Mystical, Theological ; and some 
have handsomely done them ; as Ambrose, Austine, 
Gulielmus Parisiensis, and many more, but these fall 
under no Rule, and are as boundless as mens inventions. 
And though honest minds do glorifie God hereby ; yet 
do they most powerfully magnifie him, and are to be 
looked on with another eye, who demonstratively set 
forth its Magnalities ; who not from postulated or 
precarious inferences, entreat a courteous assent ; but 
from experiments and undeniable effects, enforce the 
wonder of its Maker. 



A 



CHAPTER IV 
Of Bodies Electrical. 

HAVING thus spoken of the Loadstone and 
Bodies Magnetical, I shall in the next place 
deliver somewhat of Electrical, and such as 
may seem to have attraction like the other. Hereof 
we shall also deliver what particularly spoken or not 
generally known is manifestly or probably true, what 



THE SECOND BOOK 255 

generally believed is also false or dubious. Now by CHAP. 
Electrical bodies, I understand not such as are Metal- IV 
lical, mentioned by Pliny, and the Ancients ; for their Bodies 
Electrum was a mixture made of Gold, with the „,,£*/'" 
Addition of a fifth part of Silver; a substance now 
as unknown as true Aurichalcum, or Corinthian Brass, 
and set down among things lost by Paneirollus. Nor 
by Electrick Bodies do I conceive such only as take up 
shavings, straws, and light bodies, in which number 
the Ancients only placed Jet and Amber; but such as 
conveniently placed unto their objects attract all bodies 
palpable whatsoever. I say conveniently placed, that 
is, in regard of the object, that it be not too ponderous, 
or any way affixed ; in regard of the Agent, that it be 
not foul or sullied, but wiped, rubbed, and excitated ; 
in regard of both, that they be conveniently distant, 
and no impediment interposed. I say, all bodies pal- 
pable, thereby excluding fire, which indeed it will not 
attract, nor yet draw through it ; for fire consumes its 
effluxions by which it should attract. 

Now although in this rank but two were commonly 
mentioned by the Ancients, Gilbertus discovereth many 
more ; as Diamonds, Saphyrs, Carbuncles, Iris, Opalls^ 
Amethysts, Beril, Crystal, Bristol-stones, Sulphur, Mas- 
tick, hard Wax, hard Rosin, Arsenic, Sal-grmm, Roch- 
Allum, common Glass, Stibium, or Glass of Antimony. 
Unto these Cabeus addeth white Wax, Gum Elemi, 
Gum Guaici, Pix Hispanica, and G'tpsum. And unto 
these we. add Gum Amine, Benjamin, Talcum, China- 
dishes, Sandaraca, Turpentine, Styrax Liquxda, and 
Caranna dried into a hard consistence. And the same 
attraction we find, not onely in simple bodies, but 
such as are much compounded ; as in the Oxycroceum 
plaister, and obscurely that ad Herniam, and Gratia 



256 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. Dei ; all which smooth and rightly prepared, will 
IV discover a sufficient power to stir the Needle, setled 
freely upon a well-pointed pin ; and so as the Electrick 
may be applied unto it without all disadvantage. 

But the attraction of these Electricks we observe to 
be very different. Resinous or unctuous bodies, and 
such as will flame, attract most vigorously, and most 
thereof without frication; as Anime, Benjamin, and 
most powerfully good hard Wax, which will convert 
the Needle almost as actively as the Loadstone. And 
we believe that all or most of this substance if reduced 
to hardness, tralucency or clearness, would have some 
attractive quality. But juices concrete, or Gums easily 
dissolving in water, draw not at all : as Aloe, Opium, 
Sanguis Draconis, Lacca, Calbanum, Sagapenum. Many 
stones also both precious and vulgar, although terse and 
smooth, have not this power attractive : as Emeralds, 
Pearl, Jaspis, Corneleans, Agathe, Heliotropes, Marble, 
Alablaster, Touchstone, Flint, and Bezoar. Glass 
attracts but weakly, though clear; some slick stones 
and thick Glasses indifferently : Arsenic but weakly, 
so likewise Glass of Antimony, but Crocus Metallorum 
not at all. Salts generally but weakly, as Sal Gemma, 
Allum, and also Talke ; nor very discoverably by 
any frication, but if gently warmed at the fire, and 
wiped with a dry cloth, they will better discover their 
Electricities. 

No Metal attracts, nor Animal concretion we know, 
although polite and smooth ; as we have made trial in 
Elks Hoofs, Hawks-Talons, the Sword of a Sword-jish, 
Tortois-shells, Sea-horse, and Elephants Teeth, in Bones, 
in Harts-horn, and what is usually conceived Unicorns- 
horn. No Wood though never so hard and polished, 
although out of some thereof Electrick bodies proceed ; 



THE SECOND BOOK 257 

as Ebony, Bote, Lignum vita , Cedar, etc. And although CHAP. 
Jet and Amber be reckoned among Bitumens, yet neither IV 
do we find AsphaUus, that is, Bitumens of Judea, nor 
Sea-cole, nor Ccmiphtre, nor Jiummia to attract, although 
we have tried in large and polished pieces. Now this 
attraction have we tried in straws and paleous bodies, 
in Needles of Iron, equilibrated, Powders of Wood and 
Iron, in Gold and Silver foliate. And not only in 
solid but fluent and liquid bodies, as oyls made both 
by expression and distillation ; in Water, in spirits of 
Wine, Vitriol and Aquafortis. 

But how this attraction is made, is not so easily deter- 
mined ; that 'tis performed by effluviums is plain, and 
granted by most; for Electricks will not commonly 
attract, except they grou hot or become perspirable. 
For if they be foul and obnubilated, it hinders their 
effluxion ; nor if they be covered, though but with 
Linen or Sarsenet, or if a body be interposed, for that 
intercepts the effluvium. If also a powerful and broad 
Electrick of Wax or An'nuc be held over fine powder, 
the Atoms or small particles will ascend most numer- 
ously unto it ; and if the Electrick be held unto the 
light, it may be observed that many thereof will fly, 
and be as it were discharged from the Electrick to the 
distance sometime of two or three inches. Which 
motion is performed by the breath of the effluvium 
issuing with agility; for as the Electrick cooleth, the 
projection of the Atoms ceaseth. 

The manner hereof Cabeus wittily attempteth, affirm- CabtusA/* 
ing that this effluvium attenuateth and impclleth the '^{"aon 
neighbor ;tir, which returning home in a gyration, >'n bodies 

... . Electrick 

carrieth with it tin- obvious bodies unto the Electrick. 
And this he labours to confirm by experiments; for if 
the straws be raised by a vigorous Electrick. they do 

B 



258 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, appear to wave and turn in their ascents. If like- 
IV wise the Electrick be broad, and the straws light and 
chaffy, and held at a reasonable distance, they will not 
arise unto the middle, but rather adhere toward the 
Verge or Borders thereof. And lastly, if many straws 
be laid together, and a nimble Electrick approach, 
they will not all arise unto it, but some will commonly 
start aside, and be whirled a reasonable distance from 
it. Now that the air impelled returns unto its place 
in a gyration or whirling, is evident from the Atoms 
or Motes in the Sun. For when the Sun so enters a 
hole or window, that by its illumination the Atoms or 
Motes become perceptible, if then by our breath the 
air be gently impelled, it may be perceived, that they 
will circularly return and in a gyration unto their 
places again. 
The way o/ Another way of their attraction is also delivered; 
Di^b y ' ne '" that is, by a tenuous emanation or continued effluvium, 
which after some distance retracteth into it self; as is 
observable in drops of Syrups, Oyl, and seminal Vis- 
cosities, which spun at length, retire into their former 
dimensions. Now these effluviums advancing from the 
body of the Electrick, in their return do carry back the 
bodies whereon they have laid hold within the Sphere 
or Circle of their continuities ; and these they do not 
onely attract, but with their viscous arms hold fast a 
good while after. And if any shall wonder why these 
effluviums issuing forth impel and protrude not the 
straw before they can bring it back, it is because the 
effluvium passing out in a smaller thred and more 
enlengthened filament, it stirreth not the bodies inter- 
posed, but returning unto its original, falls into a 
closer substance, and carrieth them back unto it self. 
And this way of attraction is best received, embraced 



THE SECOND BOOK 259 

by Sir Kenekn Digby in his excellent Treaty of bodies, CHAT 
allowed by Des Caries in his principles of Philosophy, IV 
as far and concerneth fat and resinous bodies, and with 
exception of Glass, whose attraction he also deriveth 
from the recess of its erHuction. And this in sonic 
manner the words of Gilbertus will bear : Effluvia ilia 
ttnuiora concipiunt 8f amplcctuntur corpora, (juibus 
uitiuntio\ S,- electris tcmquam exiensis brachns, Sf ad Jim- 
tern prop'nupiitatc mvalescen&ibus effhuvns, deducumtttr. 
And if the ground were true, that the Earth were an 
Electrick body, ami the air but the effluvium thereof, 
we might have more reason to believe that from this 
attraction, and by this erHuction, bodies tended to the 
Earth, and could not remain above it. 

Our other discourse of Electricks concerneth a general 
opinion touching Jet and Amber, that they attract all 
light bodies, except Ucymum or Basil, and such as be 
dipped in oyl or oyled; and this is urged as high as 
Tkeopkrastus : but Scaliger acquitteth him; And had 
this been his assertion, Pliny would probably have taken 
it up, who herein stands out, and delivcreth no more but 
what is vulgarly known. But Plutarch speaks positively 
in his Symposiacles, thai Amber attracteth all bodies, 
excepting Basil and oyled substances. With Plutarch 
consent many Authors both Ancient anil Modern ; but 
the most inexcusable are Lemnius and Riteus, whereof 
the one delivering the nature of Minerals mentioned in 
Scripture, the infallible fountain of Truth, conh'rmeth 
their vertu'es with erroneous traditions ; the other 
undertaking the occult and hidden .Miracles of Nature, 
accepteth this for one ; and endeavoureth to alledge a 
reason of that which is more then occult, that is, not 
existent. 

Now herein, omitting the authority of others, as the 



260 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. Doctrine of experiment hath informed us, we first 
IV affirm, That Amber attracts not Basil, is wholly repug- 
nant unto truth. For if the leaves thereof or dried 
stalks be stripped into small straws, they arise unto 
Amber, Wax, and other Electries, no otherwise then 
those of Wheat and Rye : nor is there any peculiar 
fatness or singular viscosity in that plant that might 
cause adhesion, and so prevent its ascension. But 
that Jet and Amber attract not straws oyled, is in part 
true and false. For if the straws be much wet or 
drenched in oyl, true it is that Amber draweth them 
not ; for then the oyl makes the straws to adhere unto 
the part whereon they are placed, so that they cannot 
rise unto the Attractor ; and this is true, not onely if 
they be soaked in Oyl, but spirits of Wine or Water. 
But if we speak of Straws or festucous divisions lightly 
drawn over with oyl, and so that it causeth no ad- 
hesion ; or if we conceive an Antipathy between 
Oyl and Amber, the Doctrine is not true. For Amber 
will attract straws thus oyled, it will convert the 
Needles of Dials made either of Brass or Iron, although 
they be much oyled ; for in these Needles consisting 
free upon their Center, there can be no adhesion. It 
will likewise attract Oyl it self, and if it approacheth 
unto a drop thereof, it becometh conical, and ariseth 
up unto it, for Oyl taketh not away his attraction, 
although it be rubbed over it. For if you touch a 
piece of Wax already excitated with common Oyl, it 
will notwithstanding attract, though not so vigorously 
as before. But if you moisten the same with any 
Chymical Oyl, Water, or spirits of Wine, or only 
breath upon it, it quite omits its attraction, for either 
its influencies cannot get through, or will not mingle 
with those substances. 



THE SECOND HOOK 261 

It is likewise probable the Ancients were mistaken CHAP. 
concerning its substance and generation; they con- IV 
ceiving it a vegetable concretion made of the gums of 
Trees, especially Pine and Poplar falling into the water, 
and after indurated or hardened, whereunto accordeth 
the Fable of Phaetons sisters : but surely the concre- 
tion is Mineral, according as is delivered by Boetius. 
For either it is found in Mountains and mediterraneous 
parts; and so it is a fat and unctuous sublimation in 
the Earth, concreted and fixed by salt and nitrous 
spirits wherewith it meeteth. Or else, which is most 
usual, it is collected upon the Sea-shore; and so it is 
a tat and bituminous juice coagulated by the saltness 
of the Sea. Now that salt spirits have a power to 
congeal and coagulate unctuous bodies, is evident in 
Chymical operations; in the distillations of Arsenide, 
sublimate and Antimony ; in the mixture of oyl of 
Juniper, with the salt and acide spirit of Sulphur, for 
thereupon ensueth a concretion unto the consistence of 
Birdlime; as also in spirits of salt, or Aqua J'ortis 
poured upon oyl of Olive, or more plainly in the 
Manufacture of Soap. And many bodies will coagu- 
late upon commixture, whose separated natures promise 
no concretion. Thus upon a solution of Tin by Aqua 
forti.s, there will ensue a coagulation, like that of 
whites of Eggs. Tims the volatile salt of Urine will H the 
coagulate Aqua vita, or spirits of Wine; and thus s h jy ; ' H the 
perhaps (as Hdmont excellent lv declareth) the stones Kidmyor 
i»v calculous concretion^ in Kidney or Bladder may be 
produced : the spirits or volatile salt of Urine conjoyn- 
ing with the Aqua vita potentially lying therein; as 
he illustrateth from the distillation of fermented Urine. 
From whence ariseth an Aqua vita- or spirit, which 
the volatile salt of the same Urine will congeal; and 






Mart. /. 4. 



262 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, finding an earthy concurrence, strike into a lapideous 
IV substance. 

Lastly, We will not omit what Bellabonus upon his 

own experiment writ from Dantzich unto Mellichius, 

Of a Bee and as he hath left recorded in his Chapter, De succino, 

a v ' t ', er J . that the bodies of Flies, Pismires, and the like, which 

involved in ' 

Amber. are said oft-times to be included in Amber, are not 
real but representative, as he discovered in several 
pieces broke for that purpose. If so, the two famous 
Epigrams hereof in Martial are but Poetical, the 
Pismire of Brassavolus imaginary, and Cardans Mouso- 
lenm for a Flie, a meer phansie. But hereunto we 
know not how to assent, as having met with some 
whose reals made good their representments. 



CHAPTER V 

Compendiously of sundry other common 
Tenents, concerning Mineral and Terreous 
Bodies, which examined, prove either false 
or dubious. 

1. A ND first we hear it in every mouth, and in 
/ \ many good Authors read it, That a Dia- 
JL 1l mond, which is the hardest of stones, not 
yielding unto Steel, Emery, or any thing but its own 
powder, is yet made soft, or broke by the blood of a 
Goat. Thus much is affirmed by Pliny, Solinus, 
Albertus, Cyprian, Austin, Isidore, and many Christian 
Writers, alluding herein unto the heart of man and 
the precious bloud of our Saviour, who was typified 
by the Goat that was slain, and the scape-Goat in the 
Wilderness ; and at the effusion of whose bloud. not 



THE SECOND BOOK 263 

only the hard hearts of his enemies relented, but the CHAP. 
stony rocks and vail of the Temple were shattered. V 
But this I perceive is easier affirmed then proved. 
For Lapidaries, and such as profess the art of cutting 
this stone, do generally deny it; and they that seem 
to countenance it, have in their deliveries so qualified 
it, that little from thence of moment can be inferred 
for it. For first, the holy Fathers, without a further 
enquirv did take it for granted, and rested upon the 
authority of the first deliverers. As for Albertus, he 
promiseth this effect, but conditionally, not except the 
Goat drink wine, and be fed with Siler montamem, 
petrosdinum, and such herbs as are conceived of power 
to break the stone in the bladder. But the words of 
Plin//, from whom most likely the rest at first derived 
it, if strictly considered, do rather overthrow, then 
any way advantage this effect. His words are these : 
Hircino rumpitur sanguine, nee aliter quam reccnti, 
calidnqiic macerata, ey .vie quoque midtis ictibus, tunc 
etiam praeterquam cximias incudes malleosque ferreos 
frangens. That is, it is broken with Goats blood, but 
not except it be fresh and warm, and that not without 
many blows, and then also it will break the best Anvils 
and Hammers of Iron. And answerable hereto, is the 
assertion of Isidore and Sotimu. By which account, a 
Diamond steeped in Goats bloud, rather increaseth in 
hardness, then acquireth anv softness by the infusion; 
for the best we have are comminuible without it; and 
are so far from breaking hammers, that they submit 
unto pistillation, and resist not an ordinary pestle. 

Upon this conceit arose perhaps I he discovery of 
another; that the bloud of a Goat was soveraign for 
the Stone, as it stands commended by many good PuivU Lith- 
Writers, and brines up the composition in the powder on,r, P tlcuI - 



264 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, of Nkolaus, and the Electuary of the Queen of Colein, 
V Or rather because it was found an excellent medicine 
for the Stone, and its ability commended by some to 
dissolve the hardest thereof; it might be conceived 
by amplifying apprehensions, to be able to break a 
Diamond % and so it came to be ordered that the Goat 
should be fed with saxifragous herbs, and such as are 
conceived of power to break the stone. However it 
were, as the effect is false in the one, so is it surely 
very doubtful in the other. For although inwardly 
received it may be very diuretick, and expulse the 
stone in the Kidneys, yet how it should dissolve or 
break that in the bladder, will require a further dis- 
pute ; and perhaps would be more reasonably tried by 
a warm injection thereof, then as it is commonly used. 
Wherein notwithstanding, we should rather rely upon 
the urine in a castlings bladder, a resolution of Crabs 
eyes, or the second distillation of Urine, as Helmont 
hath commended ; or rather (if any such might be 
found) a Chylifactory menstruum or digestive prepara- 
tion drawn from species or individuals, whose stomacks 
peculiarly dissolve lapideous bodies. 

2. That Glass is poison, according unto common 

conceit, I know not how to grant. Not onely from 

the innocency of its ingredients, that is, line Sand, and 

the ashes of Glass-wort of Fearn, which in themselves 

are harmless and useful : or because I find it by many 

commended for the Stone, but also from experience, as 

having given unto Dogs above a dram thereof, subtilly 

powdered in Butter and Paste, without any visible 

disturbance. 

why Glass The conceit is surely grounded upon the visible 

ZZ'ZZT^ m i scn i e f °f Glass grosly or coursly powdered, for that 

poysonous. indeed is mortally noxious, and effectually used by 



THE SECOND BOOK 265 

some to destroy Mice ami Rats; for by reason of its CHAP. 

acuteness and angularity, it commonly excoriates the V 
parts through which it passeth, and solicits them unto a 
continual expulsion. Whereupon there ensues fearful 
symptomes, not much unlike those which attend the 
action of poison. From whence notwithstanding, we 
cannot with propriety impose upon it that name, either 
bv occult or elementary quality, which he that con- 
cedeth will much enlarge the Catalogue or Lists of 
Poisons. For many things, neither deleterious by 
substance or quality, are yet destructive by figure, or 
some occasional activity. So are Leeches destructive, 
and by some accounted poison ; not properly, that is 
by temperamental contrariety, occult form, or so much 
as elemental repugnancy; but because being inwardly 
taken they fasten upon the veins, and occasion an 
effusion of bloud, which cannot be easily stanched. So 
a Sponge is mischievous, not in it self, for in its powder 
it is harmless : but because being received into the 
stomach it swelleth, and occasioning a continual disten- 
sion, induceth a strangulation. So Pins, Needles, ears 
of Rye or Barley may be poison. So Daniel destroyed 
the Dragon by a composition of three things, whereof 
neither was poison alone, nor properly all together, that 
is, Pitch, Fat, and Hair, according as is expressed 
in the History. Then Daniel took Pitch, and Fat, and 
Hair, and did Beetfa them together, and made lumps 
thereof, these he put in the Dragons mouth, and so he 
burst asunder. That is, the Fat and Pitch bei no- 
cleaving bodies, and the Hair continually extimulating 
the parts: by the action of the one. Nature was pro- 
voked to expell, but by the tenacity of the other forced 
to retain : so that there being left no passage in or 
out, the Dragon brake in pieces. It must therefore 



266 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, be taken of grosly-powdered Glass, what is delivered 
V by Grevinus : and from the same must that mortal 
dysentery proceed which is related by Sanctorius. And 
in the same sense shall we only allow a Diamond to be 
poison ; and whereby as some relate Paracelsus himself 
was poisoned. So even the precious fragments and 
cordial gems which are of frequent use in Physick, and 
in themselves confessed of useful faculties, received 
in gross and angular Powders, may so offend the 
bowels, as to procure desperate languors, or cause most 
dangerous fluxes. 

That Glass may be rendred malleable and pliable 
unto the hammer, many conceive, and some make 
little doubt, when they read in Dio, Pliny, and Petro- 
nius, that one unhappily effected it for Tiberius. 
Which notwithstanding must needs seem strange unto 
such as consider, that bodies are ductile from a tena- 
cious humidity, which so holdeth the parts together; 
that though they dilate or extend, they part not from 
each others. That bodies run into Glass, when the 
volatile parts are exhaled, and the continuating humour 
separated: the Salt and Earth, that is, the fixed parts 
remaining. And therefore vitrification maketh bodies 
brittle, as destroying the viscous humours which hinder 
the disruption of parts. Which may be verified even 
in the bodies of Metals. For Glass of Lead or Tin is 
fragile, when that glutinous Sulphur hath been fired 
out, which made their bodies ductile. 

He that would most probably attempt it, must 
experiment upon Gold. Whose fixed and flying parts 
are so conjoined, whose Sulphur and continuating 
principle is so united unto the Salt, that some may be 
hoped to remain to hinder fragility after vitrification. 
But how to proceed, though after frequent corrosion, 



THE SECOND BOOK 267 

as that upon the agency of fire, it should not revive CHAP, 
into its proper body before it comes to vitrifie, will V 
prove no easie discovery. 

3. That Gold inwardly taken, either in substance, 
infusion, decoction or extinction, is a cordial of great 
efficacy, in sundry Medical uses, although a practice 
much used, is also much questioned, and by no man 
determined bevond dispute. There are hereof I 
perceive two extream opinions ; some excessively mag- 
nifying it, and probably beyond its deserts ; others 
extream lv vilifying it, and perhaps below its demerits. 
Some affirming it a powerful Medicine in many diseases, 
other> averring that so used, it is effectual in none : 
and in this number are very eminent Physicians, 
Krastus, Durctus, Rnndelctius, Rrassavolus and many 
other, who beside the strigments and sudorous adhe- 
sions from mens hands, acknowledge that nothing 
proceedeth from Gold in the usual decoction thereof. 
Now the capital reason that led men unto this opinion, 
was their observation of the inseparable nature of 
Gold ; it being excluded in the same quantity as it 
was received, without alteration of parts, or diminution 
of its gravity. 

\ v herein to deliver somewhat which in a middle 
wav may be entertained; we first affirm, that the 
substance of Gold is invincible by the powerfullest 
ion of natural heat; and that not only aliiuentally 
in a substantial mutation, but also medicamentally in 
any corporeal conversion. As is very evident, not 
only in the swallowing of golden bullets, but in the 
lesser and foliate divisions thereof: passing the stomach 
and guts even as it doth the throat, that is, without 
abatement of weight or consistence. So that it entereth 
not the veins with those electuaries, wherein it is 



268 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, mixed : but taketh leave of the permeant parts, at the 
V mouths of the Meseraiclcs, or Lacteal Vessels, and aecom- 
panieth the inconvertible portion unto the siege. Nor 
is its substantial conversion expectible in any composi- 
tion or aliment wherein it is taken. And therefore that 
was truly a starving absurdity, which befel the wishes 
of Midas. And little credit there is to be given to the 
golden Hen, related by Wendlerus. So in the extinc- 
tion of Gold, we must not conceive it parteth with any 
of its salt or dissoluble principle thereby, as we may 
affirm of Iron ; for the parts thereof are fixed beyond 
division, nor will they separate upon the strongest test 
of fire. This we affirm of pure Gold : for that which 
is currant and passeth in stamp amongst us, by reason 
of its allay, which is a proportion of Silver or Copper 
mixed therewith, is actually dequantitated by fire, and 
possibly by frequent extinction. 

Secondly, Although the substance of Gold be not 
i minuted or its gravity sensibly decreased, yet that 
from thence some vertue may proceed either in sub- 
stantial reception or infusion we cannot safely deny. 
For possible it is that bodies may emit vertue and 
operation without abatement of weight ; as is evident 
in the Loadstone, whose effluencies are continual, and 
communicable without a minoration of gravity. And 
the like is observable in Bodies electrical, whose 
emissions are less subtile. So will a Diamond or 
Saphire emit an effluvium sufficient to move the Needle 
or a Straw, without diminution of weight. Nor will 
polished Amber although it send forth a gross and 
corporal exhalement, be found a long time defective 
upon the exactest scales. Which is more easily con- 
ceivable in a continued and tenacious effluvium, 
whereof a great part retreats into its body. 



THE SECOND BOOK 269 

Thirdly, If amulets do work by emanations from CHAP. 
their bodies, upon those parts whereunto they are V 
appended, and are not yet observed to abate their 
weight ; if they product' visible and real effects by 
imponderous and invisible emissions, it may be unjust 
to deny the possible efficacy of Gold, in the non- 
omission of weight, or deperdition of any ponderous 
particles. 

Lastly, Since Stibium or Glass of Antimony, since 
also its Reguhi-s will manifestly communicate unto 
Water or Wine, a purging and vomitory operation; 
and yet the body it self, though after iterated infusions, 
cannot be found to ubute either vertue or weight: we 
shall not deny but Gold may do the like, that is, 
impart some effluences unto the infusion, which carry 
with them the separable subtilties thereof. 

That therefore this Metal thus received, hath any 
undeniable effect, we shall not imperiously determine, 
although beside the former experiments, many more 
may induce us to believe it. But since the point is 
dubious and not vet authentically decided, it will be 
no discretion to depend on disputable remedies; but 
rather in cases of known danger, to have recourse unto 
medicines of known and approved activity. For, 
beside the benefit accruing unto the sick, hereby may 
be avoided a gross and frequent errour, commonlv 
committed in the use of doubtful remedies, conjointly 
with those which are of approved vertues; that is to 
impute the cure unto the conceited remedy, or place it 
on that whereon they place their opinion. Whose 
operation although it be nothing, or its concurrence 
not considerable, yet doth it obtain the name of the 
whole cure: and enrrieth often the honour of the 
capital energie, which had no finger in it. 



270 PSEUDODOXTA 

CHAP Herein exact and critical trial should be made by 
V publick enjoinment, whereby determination might be 
setled beyond debate : for since thereby not only the 
bodies of men, but great Treasures might be preserved, 
it is not only an errour of Physick, but folly of State, 
to doubt thereof any longer. 

4. That a pot full of ashes, will still contain as much 
water as it would without them, although by Aristotle in 
his Problems taken for granted, and so received by most, 
is not effectable upon the strictest experiment I could 
ever make. For when the airy intersticies are filled, 
and as mucli of the salt of the ashes as the water will 
imbibe is dissolved, there remains a gross and terreous 
portion at the bottom, which will possess a space bv 
it self, according whereto there will remain a quantity 
of Water not receivable ; so will it come to pass in a 
pot of salt, although decrepitated ; and so also in a 
pot of Snow. For so much it will want in reception, 
as its solution taketh up, according unto the bulk 
whereof, there will remain a portion of Water not to 
be admitted. So a Glass stuffed with pieces of Sponge 
will want about a sixth part of what it would receive 
without it. So Sugar will not dissolve beyond the 
capacity of the Water, nor a Metal in aqua fortis be 
corroded beyond its reception. And so a pint of salt 
of Tartar exposed unto a moist air until it dissolve, 
will make far more liquor, or as some term it oyl, then 
the former measure will contain. 

Nor is it only the exclusion of air by water, or 
repletion of cavities possessed thereby, which causeth 
a pot of ashes to admit so great a quantity of Water, 
but also the solution of the salt of the ashes into the 
body of the dissolvent. So a pot of ashes will receive 
somewhat more of hot Water then of cold, for the 



THE SECOND BOOK 271 

warm water imbibeth more of the Salt; and a vessel CHAP, 
of ashes more then one of pin-dust or filings of Iron ; V 
and a Glass full of Water will yet drink in a propor- 
tion of Salt or Sugar without overflowing. 

Nevertheless to make the experiment with most 
advantage, and in which sense it approacheth nearest 
the truth, it must be made in ashes throughly burnt 
and well reverberated by fire, after the salt thereof 
hath been drawn out by iterated decoctions. For then 
the body being reduced nearer unto Earth, and emptied 
of all other principles, which had former ingression 
unto it, becometh more porous, and greedily drinketh 
in water. He that hath beheld what quantity of 
Lead the test of saltless ashes will imbibe, upon the 
refining of Silver, hath encouragement to think it will 
do very much more in water. 

5. Of white powder and such as is discharged without The ingre- 
report, there is no small noise in the World : but how d ££l£ d€r 
far agreeable unto truth, few I perceive are able to 
determine. Herein therefore to satisfie the doubts of 
some, and am use the credulity of others, We first 
declare, that Gunpowder consisteth of three ingredients, 
Salt-petre, Small-coal, and Brimstone. Salt-petre 
although it be also natural and found in several places, 
yet is that of common use an artificial Salt, drawn from 
the infusion of salt Earth, as that of Stales, Stables, 
Dove- houses, Cellers, and other covered places, where 
the rain can neither dissolve, nor the Sun approach to 
resolve it. Brimstone is a Mineral body of fat and 
inHamable parts, and this is either used crude, and 
called Sulphur Vive, and is of a sadder colour; or 
after depuration, such as we have in magdeleons or 
rolls, of a lighter yellow. Small-coal is known unto 
all, and for this use is made of SaHow, Willow, Alder, 



272 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. Hazel, and the like ; which three proportionably mixed, 
V tempered, and formed into granulary bodies, do make 
up that Powder which is in use for Guns. 

Now all these, although they bear a share in the 
discharge, yet have they distinct intentions, and 
different offices in the composition. From Brimstone 
proceedeth the piercing and powerful firing ; for Small- 
coal and Petre together will onely spit, nor vigorously 
continue the ignition. From Small-coal ensueth the 
black colour and quick accension ; for neither Brim- 
stone nor Petre, although in Powder, will take fire like 
Small-coal, nor will they easily kindle upon the sparks 
of a Flint ; as neither will Camphire, a body very in- 
flamable : but Small-coal is equivalent to Tinder, and 
serveth to light the Sulphur. It may also serve to 
diffuse the ignition through every part of the mixture ; 
and being of more gross and fixed parts, may seem to 
moderate the activity of Salt-petre, and prevent too 
hasty rarefaction. From Salt-petre proceedeth the 
force and the report ; for Sulphur and Small-coal 
mixed will not take fire with noise, or exilition, and 
Powder which is made of impure and greasie Petre 
hath but a weak emission, and giveth a faint report. 
And therefore in the three sorts of Powder the strongest 
containeth most Salt-petre, and the proportion thereof 
is about ten parts of Petre unto one of Coal and Sulphur. 

But the immediate cause of the Report is the 
vehement commotion of the air upon the sudden and 
violent eruption of the Powder ; for that being suddenly 
fired, and almost altogether, upon this high rarefaction, 
requireth by many degrees a greater space then before 
its body occupied ; but finding resistance, it actively 
forceth his wav, and by concusion of the air occasioneth 
the Report. Now with what violence it forceth upon 



THE SECOND BOOK 273 

the air, may easily be conceived, if we admit what CHAP. 
Cardan affirmeth, that the Powder fired doth occupy V 
an hundred times a greater space then its own bulk; 
or rather what SneUius more exactly accounteth ; that 
it exceedeth its former space no less then 12000 and 
500 times. And this is the reason not only of this Thtcauu 
fulminating report of Guns, but may resolve the cause 
of those terrible cracks, and affrighting noises of 
Heaven ; that is, the nitrous and sulphureous exhala- 
tions, set on fire in the Clouds ; whereupon requiring a 
larger place, they force out their way, not only with 
the breaking of the cloud, but the laceration of the air 
about it. When if the matter be spirituous, and the 
cloud compact, the noise is great and terrible : If the 
cloud be thin, and the Materials weak, the eruption is 
languid, ending in coruscations and flashes without 
noise, although but at the distance of two miles ; which Tktgrtaust 
is esteemed the remotest distance of clouds. And i" e cb*fts. 
therefore such lightnings do seldom any harm. And 
therefore also it is prodigious to have thunder in a 
clear sky, as is observably recorded in some Histories. 

From the like cause may also proceed subterraneous The cause 
Thunders and Earthquakes, when sulphureous and ua *'''' 
nitreous veins being fired, upon rarefaction do force 
their way through bodies that resist them. Where if 
the kindled matter be plentiful, and the Mine close 
and firm about it, subversion of Hills and Towns doth 
sometimes follow : If scanty, weak, and the Earth 
hollow or porous, there only ensueth some faint concus- 
sion or tremulous and quaking Motion. Surely, a main 
reason why the Ancients were so imperfect in the 
doctrine of Meteors, was their ignorance of Gun- 
powder and Fire-works, which best discover the causes 
of manv thereof. 



274 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. Now therefore he that would destroy the report of 
V Powder, must work upon the Petre ; he that would 
exchange the colour, must think how to alter the 
Small-coal. For the one, that is, to make white 
Powder, it is surely many Mays feasible : The best I 
know is by the powder of rotten Willows, Spunk, or 
Touch- wood prepared, might perhaps make it Russet : 

in his and some, as Beringuccio affirmeth, have promised to 
yrotec ma ma k e jj. jj^ j^jl which notwithstanding doth little 
concern the Report, for that, as we have shewed, 
depends on another Ingredient. And therefore also 
under the colour of black, this principle is very vari- 
able; for it is made not onely by Willow, Alder, 
Hazel, etc. But some above all commend the coals 
of Fmx and Rushes, and some also contend the same 
may be effected with Tinder. 

As for the other, that is, to destroy the Report, it is 
reasonably attempted but two ways ; either by quite 
leaving out, or else by silencing the Salt-petre. How 
to abate the vigour thereof, or silence its bombulation, 
a way is promised by Porta, not only in general terms 
by some fat bodies, but in particular by Borax and 
butter mixed in a due proportion; which saith he, 
will so go off as scarce to be heard by the discharger ; 
and indeed plentifully mixed, it will almost take off 
the Report, and also the force of the charge. That 
it may be thus made without Salt-petre, I have met 
with but one example, that is, of Alphonsus Duke of 

De : examine Ferrara, who in the relation of Brassavolus and Cardan, 

Saliuin. . - 

invented such a Powder as would discharge a bullet 
without Report. 

That therefore white Powder there may be, there is 
no absurdity; that also such a one as may give no 
report, we will not deny a possibility. But this how- 



THE SECOND BOOK 275 

ever, contrived either with or without Salt-pctre, will CHAR 
surely be of little force, and the effects thereof no way V 
to be feared : For as it omits of Report so will it of 
effectual exclusion, and so the charge be of little force 
which is excluded. For thus much is reported of that 
famous Powder of Alphonsus. which was not of force 
enough to kill a Chicken, according to the delivery of 
Brassavolus. Jumquc ptdvis inventus est qui g-landem 
awe bombo prqjicit, nee to/men vehementer ui vel ]>uJhim 
inter furre possit. 

It is not to be denied, there are ways to discharge a 
bullet, not only with Powder that makes no noise, but 
without any Powder at all; as is done by Water and 
Wind-guns, but these afford no fulminating Report, 
and depend on single principles. And even in ordinary 
Powder there are pretended other ways to alter the 
noise and strength of the discharge; and the best, if 
not only way, consists in the quality of the Nitre : for 
as for other ways which make either additions or 
alterations in the Powder, or charge, I find therein no 
effect : That unto every pound of Sulphur, an adjection 
of one ounce of Quick-silver, or unto every pound of 
Petre, one ounce of Sal Armoniac will much intend 
the force, and consequently the Report, as Jiering-uccio 
hath delivered, I find no success therein. That a piece 
of Opium will dead the force and blow, as some have 
promised, I find herein no such peculiarity, no more 
then in any Gum or viscose body: and as much effect 
there is to lie found from Seammony. That a bullet 
dipped in oyl by preventing the transpiration of air, 
will cany farther, and pierce deeper, as Porta affirmeth, 
my experience cannot discern. That Quick-silver is more 
destructive then shot, is surely not to be made out; for 
it will scarce make any penetration, and discharged 



276 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, from a Pistol, will hardly pierce through a Parch- 
V ment. That Vinegar, spirits of Wine, or the distilled 
Cat. averti- water of Orange-pills, wherewith the Powder is tem- 
au" Bom-" 5 pered, are more effectual unto the Report than common 
bardiero. Water, as some do promise, I shall not affirm ; but 
may assuredly more conduce unto the preservation and 
durance of the Powder, as Cataneo hath well observed. 
That the heads of arrows and bullets have been 
discharged with that force, as to melt or grow red hot 
in their flight, though commonly received, and taken 
up by Aristotle in his Meteors, is not so easily allow- 
able by any, who shall consider, that a Bullet of Wax 
will mischief without melting ; that an Arrow or 
Bullet discharged against Linen or Paper do not set 
them on fire ; and hardly apprehend how an Iron 
should grow red hot, since the swiftest motion at hand 
will not keep one red that hath been made red by fire; 
as may be observed in swinging a red hot Iron about, 
or fastning it into a Wheel ; which under that motion 
will sooner grow cold then without it. That a Bullet 
also mounts upward upon the horizon tall or point- 
blank discharge, many Artists do not allow : who 
contend that it describeth a parabolical and bowing 
line, by reason of its natural gravity inclining it always 
downward. 

But, Beside the prevalence from Salt-petre, as 
Master-ingredient in the mixture ; Sulphur may hold 
a greater use in the composition and further activity 
in the exclusion, then is by most conceived. For 
Sulphur vive makes better Powder then common 
Sulphur, which nevertheless is of a quick accension. 
For Small-coal, Salt-petre, and Camphire made into 
Powder will be of little force, wherein notwithstanding 
there wants not the accending ingredient. And Cam- 



THE SECOND BOOK 277 

fifnre though it flame well, yet will not Hush so lively, CHAP. 
or defecate Salt-petre, if you inject it thereon, like V 
Sulphur; as in the preparation of Sal ■prunella. And 
lastly, though many ways may be found to light this 
Powder, yet is there none I know to make a strong 
and vigorous Powder of Salt-petre, without the admix- 
tion of Sulphur. Arsenic red and yellow, that is 
Orpement and Scmdarach may perhaps do something, 
as being inflamable and containing Sulphur in them ; 
but containing also a salt, and mercurial mixtion, they 
will be of little effect ; and white or crystalline Arsenic 
of less, for that being artificial, and sublimed with salt, 
will not endure rlammation. 

This Antipathy or contention between Salt-petre 
and Sulphur upon an actual fire, in their com pleat and 
distinct bodies, is also manifested in their preparations, 
and bodies which invisibly contain them. Thus in the 
preparation of Crocus Metallorum, the matter kindleth 
and Husheth like Gunpowder, wherein notwithstanding, 
there is nothing but Antimony and Salt-petre. But 
this may proceed from the Sulphur of Antimony * not 
enduring the society of Salt-petre; for after three or 
four accensions, through a fresh addition of Petre, the 
Powder will flush no more, for the sulphur of the 
Antimony is cjuite exhaled. Thus Iron in Aqua fortls 
will fall into ebullition, with noise and emication, as 
also a eiass and fumid exhalation, which are caused 
from this combat of the sulphur of Iron with the acid 
and nitrous spirits of Aqua foriii. So is it also in 
Aurum fulminans, or Powder of Gold dissolved in 
Aqua Regis, and precipitated with oyl of Tartar, 
which will kindle without an actual fire, and afford 
a report like Gun-powder; that is not as Crollius De consensu 

r '. . n . . . Chymico- 

afhrnieth from anv Antipathy between oa/ Armomac tuIDi e(c . 



278 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, and Tartar, but rather between the nitrous spirits of 
V Aqua Regis, commixed per minima with the sulphur 
of Gold, as Sennertus hath observed. 

6. That Coral (which is a Lithophyton or stone- 
plant, and groweth at the bottom of the Sea) is soft 
under Water, but waxeth hard in the air, although 
the assertion of Dioscorides, Pliny, and consequently 
Solinus, Isidore, Rueus, and many others, and stands 
believed by most, we have some reason to doubt, 
especially if we conceive with common Believers, a 
total softness at the bottom, and this induration to be 
singly made by the air, not only from so sudden a 
petrifaction and strange induration, not easily made 
out from the qualities of air, but because we find it 
rejected by experimental enquiries. Johannes Be- 
FrenchCofy. guinus in his Chapter of the tincture of Coral under- 
takes to clear the World of this Error, from the express 
experiment of John Baptista de Nicole, who was Over- 
seer of the gathering of Coral upon the Kingdom of 
Thunis. This Gentleman, saith he, desirous to find 
the nature of Coral, and to be resolved how it groweth 
at the bottom of the Sea, caused a man to go down no 
less then a hundred fathom, with express to take 
notice whether it were hard or soft in the place where 
it groweth. Who returning, brought in each hand a 
branch of Coral, affirming it was as hard at the bottom, 
as in the air where he delivered it. The same was also 
confirmed by a trial of his own, handling it a fathom 
under water before it felt the air. Boethis in his 
H<m> Coral Tract De Gemmis, is of the same opinion, not ascribing 
oj a Plant .^ concretion unto the air, but the coagulating spirits 
stone. j of Salt, and lapidifical juice of the Sea, which entring 
the parts of that Plant, overcomes its vegetability, 
and converts it into a lapideous substance. And this, 



THE SECOND BOOK 279 

saith he, doth happen when the Plant is ready to CHAP, 
decay ; for all Coral is not hard, and in manv con- V 
creted Plants some parts remain unpetrified, that is 
the quick and livelier parts remain as Wood, and were 
never yet converted. Now that Plants and ligneous 
bodies may indurate under Water without approaeh- 
ment of air, we have experiment in Coralline, with 
many Coralloidal concretions ; and that little stony 
Plant which Mr. Johnson nameth. Hippuris coralloidcs, 
and Gesner, foliis manxu Arenosia, we have found in 
fresh water, which is the less concretive portion of 
that Element. We have also with us the visible 
petrification of Wood in many waters, whereof so 
much as is covered with water converteth into stone; 
as much as is above it and in the air, retaineth the 
form of Wood, and continueth as before. 

Now though in a middle way we may concede, that 
some are soft and others hard ; yet whether all Coral 
were first a woody substance, and afterward converted ; 
or rather some thereof were never such, but from the 
sprouting spirit of Salt, were able even in their stonv 
natures to ramitie and send forth branches ; as is observ- Cans 
able in some stones, in silver and metallick bodies, is C orai. 
not without some question. And such at least might 
some of those be, which Fiaroumti observed to grow 
upon Bricks at the bottom of the Sea, upon the coast 
of Barbaric. 

7. We are not throughly resolved concerning Porcel- 
lane or China dishes, that according to common belief 
they are made of Earth, which lieth in preparation 
about an hundred years under ground ; for the relations 
thereof are not onely divers, but contrarv, and Authors 
agree not herein. Guido Pancirollus will have them 
made of Egg-shells, Lobster-shells, and Gypsum laid 



280 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, up in the Earth the space of 80 years : of the same affir- 
V mation is Scalig-er, and the common opinion of most. 
Ramuzius in his Navigations is of a contrary assertion, 
that they are made out of Earth, not laid under ground, 
but hardned in the Sun and Wind, the space of forty 
o/what years. But Gonzales de Mendoza, a man imployed 
chLZdifhes * nto China from Philip the second King of Spain, upon 
be made. enquiry and ocular experience, delivered a way different 
from all these. For inquiring into the artifice thereof, 
he found they were made of a Chalky Earth ; which 
beaten and steeped in water, affordeth a cream or fat- 
ness on the top, and a gross subsidence at the bottom ; 
out of the cream or superfluitance, the finest dishes, saith 
he, are made, out of the residence thereof the courser; 
which being formed, they gild or paint, and not after 
an hundred years, but presently commit unto the fur- 
nace. This, saith he, is known by experience, and 
more probable then what Odoardus Barbosa hath 
delivered, that they are made of shells, and buried 
under earth an hundred years. And answerable in all 
points hereto, is the relation of Lin-schotten, a diligent 
enquirer, in his Oriental Navigations. Later confir- 
mation may be had from Alvarez the Jesuit, who lived 
long in those parts, in his relations of China. That 
Porcellane Vessels were made but in one Town of the 
Province of Chiamsi : That the earth was brought out 
of other Provinces, but for the advantage of water, 
which makes them more polite and perspicuous, they 
were only made in this. That they were wrought and 
fashioned like those of other Countries, whereof some 
were tincted blew, some red, others yellow, of which 
colour only they presented unto the King. 

The latest account hereof may be found in the 
voyage of the Dutch Embassadors sent from Batavia 



THE SECOND BOOK 281 

unto the Emperour of China, printed in French 1GG'5, CHAP. 
which plainly inforraeth, that the Earth whereof Por- V 
cellane dishes are made, is brought from the Mountains 
of Hoang, and being formed into square loaves, is 
brought by water, and marked with the Emperours 
Seal: that the Earth it self is very lean, fine, and shining 
like Sand: and that it is prepared and fashioned after 
the same manner which the Italians observe in the 
fine Earthen Vessels of Faventia or Fuenca: that they 
are so reserved concerning that Artifice, that 'tis only 
revealed from Father unto Son : that they are painted 
with Indico baked in a fire for fifteen days together, 
and with very dry and not smoaking Wood : which 
when the Author had seen he could hardly contain 
from laughter at the common opinion above rejected 
by us. 

Now if any enquire, why being so commonly made, 
and in so short a time, they are become so scarce, or 
not at all to be had ? The Answer is given by these 
last Relators, that under great penalties it is forbidden 
to carry the first sort out of the Country. And of 
those surely the properties must be verified, which by 
Scaliger and others are ascribed unto China-dishes : 
That they admit no poison, that they strike fire, that 
they will grow hot no higher then the liquor in them 
ariseth. For such as pass amongst us, and under the 
name of the finest, will only strike fire, but not dis- 
cover Aconite, Mercury, or Arsenic; but may be useful 
in dysenteries and fluxes beyond the other. 

8. Whether a Carbuncle (which is esteemed the 
best and biggest of Rubies) doth flame in the dark, or 
shine like a coal in the night, though generally agreed 
on bv common Believers, is very much questioned by 
many. Bv Milius. who accounts it a Vulgar Error : 



282 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP. 
V 



Licet de 
quicsit. per 

i'.pistolas. 

Licet de 

lapide 

Bononiensi. 



By the learned Boetius, who could not find it verified 
in that famous one of Rodulphus, which was as big as 
an Egg, and esteemed the best in Europe. Wherefore 
although we dispute not the possibility, and the like 
is said to have been observed in some Diamonds, yet 
whether herein there be not too high an apprehension, 
and above its natural radiancy, is not without just 
doubt : however it be granted a very splendid Gem, 
and whose sparks may somewhat resemble the glances 
of fire, and Metaphorically deserve that name. And 
therefore when it is conceived by some, that this Stone 
in the Brest-plate of Aaron respected the Tribe of 
Dan, who burnt the City of Laish; and Sampson of 
the same Tribe, who fired the Corn of the Philistims ; 
in some sense it may be admitted, and is no intollerable 
conception. 

As for that Indian Stone that shined so brightly in 
the Night, and pretended to have been shewn to many 
in the Court of France, as Andrews Chioccus hath 
declared out of Thuanus, it proved but an imposture, 
as that eminent Philosopher Licetus hath discovered, 
and therefore in the revised Editions of Thuanus, it 
is not to be found. As for the Phosphorus or Bononian 
Stone, which exposed unto the Sun, and then closely 
shut up, will afterward afford a light in the dark ; it 
is of unlike consideration, for that requireth calcina- 
tion or reduction into a dry powder by fire, whereby 
it imbibeth the light in the vaporous humidity of 
the air about it, and therefore maintaineth its light 
not long, but goes out when the vaporous vehicle is 
consumed. 

9. Whether the JEtites or Eagle-stone hath that 
eminent property to promote delivery or restrain abor- 
tion, respectively applied to lower or upward parts of 



THE SECOND BOOK 283 

the body, we shall not discourage common practice bv CHAP, 
our question : but whether they answer the account V 
thereof, as to be taken out of Eagles nests, co-operating 
in Women unto such effects, as they are conceived 
toward the young Eagles : or whether the single signa- 
ture of one stone included in the matrix and belly of 
another, were not sufficient at first, to derive this vertue 
of the pregnant Stone, upon others in impregnation, 
may yet be farther considered. Many sorts there are 
of this ratling Stone, beside the Geodes, containing a * 
softer substance in it. Divers are found in England, 
and one we met with on the Sea-shore, but because 
many of eminent use are pretended to be brought from 
Iseland, wherein are divers airies of Eagles, we cannot 
omit to deliver what we received from a learned person 
in that Country, jEtite.s an in nulls AquUarum aliquandu iheodorus 
fuer'tt repertus. nescio. Nostra irrte memoria. etiam i«» as j Hi " er - 

* / . . ' . . ' dulae Pastor. 

mqwrentibus nun contigit invenisse, quare in J'abnU.s 
habendum. 

10. Terrible apprehensions and answerable unto their 
names, are raised of Eatjrie stones, and Elves spurs, 
found commonly with us in Stone, Chalk, and Marl- 
pits, which notwithstanding are no more than Echi- 
nometritiS and Bclemnites, the Sea-Hedge-Hog, and 
the Z>«?^-stone, arising from some siliceous Roots, and 
softer then that of Flint, the Master-stone, lying more 
regularly in courses, and arising from the primary and 
strongest spirit of the Mine. Of the Erhinites, such 
as are found in Chalk-pits are white, glassie, and built 
upon a Chalky inside; some of an hard and flinty 
substance, are found in Stone-pits and elsewhere. 
Common opinion commendeth them for the Stone, but 
are most practicallv used against Films in Horses eyes. 

11. Lastlv, He must have more heads than Rome 



284 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, had Hills, that makes out half of those vertues ascribed 

V unto stones, and their not only Medical, but Magical 

proprieties, which are to be found in Authors of great 

Name. In Psellus, Serapion, Evax, Albertus, Aleazar, 

Marbodeus\ in Maiolus, Rueus, Mylius, and many 

more. 

Against That Lapis Lasuli hath in it a purgative faculty we 

Provoking know ; that Bezoar is Antidotal, Lapis Judaicus diur- 

Urine. etical, Coral Antepileptical, we will not deny. That 

Against the r . . 

Facing Cornelians, Jaspts, Heliotropes, and Blood-stones, may 
s,ckness. ^ Q f ver t ue £ those intentions they are implied, experi- 
ence and visible effects will make us grant. But that 
an Amethyst prevents inebriation, that an Emerald 
will break if worn in copulation. That a Diamond 
laid under the pillow, will betray the incontinency of 
a wife. That a Saphire is preservative against in- 
chantments ; that the fume of an Agath will avert a 
tempest, or the wearing of a Crysoprase make one out 
love with Gold ; as some have delivered, we are yet, I 
confess, to believe, and in that infidelity are likely to 
end our days. And therefore, they which in the expli- 
cation of the two Beryls upon the Ephod, or the twelve 
stones in the Rational or Brest-plate of Aaron, or those 
twelve which garnished the wall of the holy City in-the 
Apocalyps, have drawn their significations from such 
as these; or declared their symbolical verities from 
such traditional falsities, have surely corrupted the 
sincerity of their Analogies, or misunderstood the 
mystery of their intentions. 

Most men conceive that the twelve stones in Aarons 
brestplate made a Jewel surpassing any, and not to be 
parallel'd ; which notwithstanding will hardly be made 
out from the description of the Text, for the names of 
the Tribes were engraven thereon, which must notably 



THE SECOND BOOK 285 

abate their lustre. Beside, it is not clear made out CHAP, 
that the best of Gemms. ;i Diamond was amongst V 
them ; nor is to be found in the list thereof, set 
down by the Jerusalem Thargttm, wherein we find the 
darker stones of Sardius, Sardonix, and Jasper ; and if 
we receive them under those names wherein thev are 
usually described, it is not hard to contrive a more 
illustrious and splendent Jewel. But being not ordained 
for meer lustre by diaphanous and pure tralucencies, 
their mysterious significations became more consider- 
able then their Gemmary substances; and those no 
doubt did nobly answer the intention of the Institutor. 
Beside some may doubt whether there be twelve distinct 
species of noble tralucent Gemms in nature, at least 
yet known unto us, and such as may not be referred 
unto some of those in high esteem among us, which 
come short of the number of twelve ; which to make 
up we must find out some others to match and join with 
the Diamond, Beryl, Saphyr, Emerald, Amethyst, 'J'opaz, 
CrytoUt, Jacynth, Ruby, and if we may admit it in this 
number, the Oriental Gianat. 



CHAPTER VI 

Of sundry Tenets concerning Vegetables or 
Plants, which examined, prove either false 
or dubious. 

1. 11 /T ANY Mola's and false conceptions there are 

\ / of Mandrakes, the first from great Anti- 

-1- V JL quity, coneeiveth the Root thereof resem- 

bleth the shape of Man ; which is a conceit not to be 

made out by ordinary inspection, or inv other eves, 



286 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP. 
VI 



MavSpa, 
Spelunca. 



In the old 
Edition. 



then such as regarding the Clouds, behold them in 
shapes conformable to pre-apprehensions. 

Now whatever encouraged the first invention, there 
have not been wanting many ways of its promotion. 
The first a Catachrestical and far derived similitude it 
holds with Man ; that is, in a bifurcation or division of 
the Root into two parts, which some are content to 
call Thighs ; whereas notwithstanding they are oft-times 
three, and when but two, commonly so complicated 
and crossed, that men for this deceit are fain to effect 
their design in other plants ; And as fair a resemblance 
is often found in Carrots, Parsnips, Br'iony, and many 
others. There are, I confess, divers Plants which carrv 
about them not only the shape of parts, but also of 
whole Animals, but surely not all thereof, unto whom 
this conformity is imputed. Whoever shall peruse the 
signatures of Crollhis, or rather the Phytognomy of 
Porta, and strictly observe how vegetable Realities 
are commonly forced into Animal Representations, 
may easily perceive in very many, the semblance is 
but postulatory, and must have a more assimilating 
phansie then mine to make good many thereof. 

Illiterate heads have been led on by the name, which 
in the first syllable expresseth its Representation ; but 
others have better observed the Laws of Etymology, 
and deduced it from a word of the same language, 
because it delighteth to grow in obscure and shady 
places ; which derivation, although we shall not stand 
to maintain, yet the other seemeth answerable unto 
the Etymologies of many Authors, who often confound 
such nominal Notations. Not to enquire beyond our 
own profession, the Latine Physitians which most ad- 
hered unto the Arabick way, have often failed herein: 
particularly Valescus de Tarranta, a received Physitian, 



THE SECOND HOOK 287 

in whose Philorium or Medical practice these may be CHAT, 
observed: Diarhea, saitli he, Quia pluries venit in (lit. VI 
Herisepda, quasi hcerens pilis, Emorrohis, ah etnach 
sanguis Sf morrohu quod est cadere. Lithargia a IMos 
quod est (ibHi'io Sf Targus morbus, Scotomia a Scotus 
quod est videre. *$* mia.s musca. Opthahnia ah opus 
Grirce quod est status. tS* 'I'almon quod est occulus. 
Paralisis, quasi Icesio partis. Fistula a Jos somas <§• 
stolon quod est emissio, quasi emissio soni vet VOCtS. 
\\ hich are derivations as strange indeed as the other, 
and hardiv to be paralleled elsewhere; confirming not 
only the words of one language with another, but 
creating such as were never yet in any. 

The received distinction and common Notation by 
Sexes, hath also promoted the conceit; for true it is, 
that Herbalists from ancient times have thus distin- 
guished them, naming that the Male, whose leaves are 
lighter, and Fruit and Apples rounder ; but this is 
properly no generative division, but rather some note 
of distinction in colour, figure or operation. For 
though Empedocles aflirm, there is a mixt, and undi- 
vided Sex in Vegetables; and ScaUger upon Aristotle. DePianu*. 
doth favourably explain that opinion ; yet will it not 
con>ist with the common and ordinary acception, nor 
yet with Aristotles definition. For if that be Male 
which generates in another, that Female which pro- 
creates in it self; if it be understood of Sexes conjoined, 
all Plants are Female; and if of disjoined and con- 
gressive generation, there is no Male or Female in 
them at all. 

But the Atlas or main Axis which supported this Tktimfe*- 
opinion, was dayly experience, and the visible testi- '"^/a'"^' 
mony of sense. For many there are in several parts Root of 
of Europe, who carry about Roots and sell them unto ' 



288 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP 
VI 



Orchis 
Anthropo- 
morphus 
cujus Icon 
in Kircheri 
Magia para- 
statica. 
De man- 
dragora. 
De monstris. 



ignorant people, which handsomely make out the 
shape of Man or Woman. But these are not produc- 
tions of Nature, but contrivances of Art, as divers 
have noted, and Math'iolus plainly detected, who 
learned this way of Trumpery from a vagabond cheater 
lying under his cure for the French disease. His words 
were these, and may determine the point, Sed prqfecto 
vanum fyjabulosum, etc. But this is vain and fabulous, 
which ignorant people, and simple women believe ; for 
the roots which are carried about by impostors to 
deceive unfruitful women, are made of the roots of 
Canes, Briony and other plants : for in these yet fresh 
and virent, they carve out the figures of men and 
women, first sticking therein the grains of Barley or 
Millet, where they intend the hair should grow ; then 
bury them in sand until the grains shoot forth their 
roots, which at the longest will happen in twenty days ; 
they afterward clip and trim those tender strings in 
the fashion of beards and other hairy tegument. All 
which like other impostures once discovered is easily 
effected, and in the root of white Briony may be prac- 
tised every spring. 

What is therefore delivered in favour thereof, by 
Authors ancient or modern, must have its root in 
tradition, imposture, far derived similitude, or casual 
and rare contingency. So may we admit of the Epithet 
of Pythagoras, who calls it A nt h ropomorphus ; and 
that of Columella, who terms it Semilwmo ; more appli- 
able unto the Man-Orchis, whose flower represents 
a Man. Thus is Albertiis to be received when he 
affirmeth, that Mandrakes represent man-kind with 
the distinction of either Sex. Under these restrictions 
may those Authors be admitted, which for this opinion 
are introduced by Drusius; nor shall we need to 



THE SECOND BOOK 289 

question the monstrous root of Briony described in CHAP. 
Aldrooandus. VI 

The second assertion concerneth its production. 
That it naturally groweth under Gallowses and places 
of execution, arising from fat or urine that drops from 
the bodv of the dead ; a story somewhat agreeable 
unto the fable of the Serpents teeth sowed in the earth 
by Cadmus' ; or rather the birth of Orion from the urine 
of Jupiter, Mercury, and Neptune. Now this opinion 
seems grounded on the former, that is, a conceived 
similitude it hath with man ; and therefore from him 
in some way they would make out its production : 
Which conceit is not only erroneous in the foundation, 
but injurious unto Philosophy in the superstruction. 
Making putrifactive generations, correspondent unto 
seminal productions, and conceiving in equivocal effects 
and univocal conformity unto the efficient. Which is 
so far from being verified of animals in their corruptive 
mutations into Plants, that thev maintain not this 
similitude in their nearer translation into animals. So 
when the Oxe corrupteth into Bees, or the Horse into 
Hornets, they come not forth in the image of their 
originals. So the corrupt and excrementous humours 
in man are animated into Lice; and we may observe, 
that Hogs, Sheep, Goats, Hawks, Hens, and others, i**™** 1 * 

. . , . .ft yet 

have one peculiar and proper kind of vermine; noX commonly 
resembling themselves according to seminal condition-. " a " c 

O ^ > of a deter- 

yet carrving a setled and confined habitude unto w™ . 
their corruptive originals. And therefore come not " rJ/V ' 
forth in generations erratieal, or different from each 
other; but seem specifically and in regular shapes to 
attend the corruption of their bodies, as do more 
perfect conceptions, the rule of seminal productions. 
The third affirmeth the roots of Mandrakes do make 






290 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP. 
VI 



Oranum 
Nubia:. 



a noise, or give a shriek upon eradication ; which is 
indeed ridiculous, and false below confute : arising 
perhaps from a small and stridulous noise, which being 
firmly rooted, it maketh upon divulsion of parts. A 
slender foundation for such a vast conception : for 
such a noise we sometime observe in other Plants, in 
Parsenips, Liquorish, Eringium, Flags, and others. 

The last concerneth the danger ensuing, That there 
follows an hazard of life to them that pull it up, that 
some evil fate pursues them, and they live not very 
long after. Therefore the attempt hereof among the 
Ancients, was not in ordinary way ; but as Pliny in- 
formeth, when they intended to take up the root of 
this Plant, they took the wind thereof, and with a 



sword 



describing 



three circles about it, tl 



iey digged it 

up, looking toward the West. A conceit not only 
injurious unto truth, and confutable by daily experi- 
ence, but somewhat derogatory unto the providence of 
God ; that is, not only to impose so destructive a 
quality on any Plant, but to conceive a Vegetable, 
whose parts are useful unto many, should in the only 
taking up prove mortal unto any. To think he suffereth 
the poison of Nubia to be gathered, Napellus, Aconite, 
and Thora, to be eradicated, yet this not to be 
moved. That he permitteth Arsenick and mineral 
poisons to be forced from the bowels of the Earth, yet 
not this from the surface thereof. This were to intro- 
duce a second forbidden fruit, and inhance the first 
malediction, making it not only mortal for Adam 
to taste the one, but capital unto his posterity to 
eradicate or dig up the other. 

Now what begot, at least promoted so strange con- 
ceptions, might be the magical opinion hereof; this 
being conceived the Plant so much in use with Circe, 



THE SFXOND BOOK 291 

and therefore named Circea, as D'loscoridcs and Theo- CHAP. 
phnuku have delivered, which being the eminent VI 
Sorcerers of elder story, and by the magick of simples 
believed to have wrought many wonders : some men 
were apt to invent, others to believe any tradition or 
magical promise thereof. 

Analogous relations concerning other plants, and such 
as are of near affinity unto this, have made its currant 
smooth, and pass more easily among us. For the same 
effect is also delivered by Joseph/is, concerning the root 
Baarai; by JEUtm of Cynospastus ; and we read in 
Homer the very same opinion concerning Moly, 

MJ>Xv it niv Kakfovai 6(oi- ^a\{T7ov 8e t' opvcrafiv 
'Av&paoi yt dirqTo'itri- &(o\ di t( niivra dvvavrai. 

The Gods it Moly call, whose Root to dig away, 

I9 dangerous unto Man ; but Gods, they all things may. 

Now parallels or like relations alternatelv relieve 
each other, when neither will pass asunder, yet are 
they plausible together; their mutual concurrences 
supporting their solitary instabilities. 

Signaturists have somewhat advanced it ; who seldom 
omitting what Ancients delivered ; drawing into infer- 
ence received distinction of sex, not willing to examine 
its humane resemblance; and placing it in the form 
of strange and magical simples, have made men suspect 
there was more therein, then ordinarv practice allowed ; 
and so became apt to embrace whatever they heard or 
read conformable unto such conceptions. 

Lastly, The conceit promoteth it self: for concern- 
ing an effect whose trial must cost so dear, it fortifies 
it self in that invention ; and few there are whose 
experiment it need to fear. For (what is most con- 
temptible) although not only the reason of any head, 



292 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, but experience of every hand may well convict it, yet 

VI will it not by divers be rejected ; for prepossessed 

heads will ever doubt it, and timorous beliefs will 

never dare to trie it. So these Traditions how low 

and ridiculous soever, will find suspition in some, doubt 

in others, and serve as tests or trials of Melancholy and 

superstitious tempers for ever. 

Thatdna- 2. That Cinamon, Ginger, Clove, Mace, and Nutmeg, 

, "°, n ' c ""f er ' are but the several parts and fruits of the same tree, 

Ltovc, etc., r ' 

am not of is the common belief of those which daily use them. 

trtlT Whereof to speak distinctly, Ginger is the root of 
neither Tree nor Shrub, but of an herbaceous Plant, 
resembling the Water Flower-De-luce, as Garcias first 
described ; or rather the common Reed, as Lobelias 
since affirmed. Very common in many parts of India, 
growing either from Root or Seed, which in December 
and January they take up, and gently dried, roll it up 
in earth, whereby occluding the pores, they conserve 
the natural humidity, and so prevent corruption. 

Cinamon is the inward bark of a Cinamon Tree, 
whereof the best is brought from Zeilan ; this freed 
from the outward bark, and exposed unto the Sun, 
contracts into those folds wherein we commonly receive 
it. If it have not a sufficient isolation it looketh pale, 
and attains not its laudable colour; if it be sunned too 
long, it suffereth a torrefaction, and descendeth some- 
what below it. 

Clove seems to be either the rudiment of a fruit, or 
the fruit it self growing upon the Clove tree, to be 
found but in few Countries. The most commendable is 
that of the Isles of Molucca ; it is first white, afterward 
green, which beaten down, and dried in the Sun, 
becometh black, and in the complexion we receive it. 
Nutmeg is the fruit of a Tree differing from all these, 



THE SFXOND BOOK 293 

and as Garcia* describeth it, somewhat like a Peach ; CHAP, 
growing in divers places, but fructifying in the Isle of VI 
Banda. The fruit hereof consisteth of four parts; the 
first or outward part is a thick and carnous covering 
like that of a Wal-nut. The second a dry and floscu- 
lous coat, commonly called Mace. The third a harder 
tegument or shell, which lieth under the Mace. The 
fourth a Kernel included in the shell, which is the same 
we call Nutmeg. All which both in their parts and 
order of disposure, are easily discerned in those fruits, 
which are brought in preserves unto us. 

Now if because Mace and Nutmegs proceed from one 
Tree, the rest must bear them company ; or because 
they are all from the East Indies, they are all from one 
Plant : the Inference is precipitous, nor will there such 
a Plant be found in the Herbal of Nature. 

J3. That Viscus Arboreus or Misseltoe is bred upon 
Trees, from seeds which Birds, especially Thrushes and 
Ring-doves let fall thereon, was the Creed of the 
Ancients, and is still believed among us, is the account 
of its production, set down by Pliny, delivered by 
Virgil, and subscribed by many more. If so, some 
reason must be assigned, why it groweth onely upon 
certain Trees, and not upon many whereon these Birds 
do light. For as Exotick observers deliver, it groweth 
upon Almond-trees, Chcsnut, Apples, Oaks, and Pine- 
trees. As we observe in England very commonly upon 
Apple, CrabSj and White - thorn ; sometimes upon 
Sallow, Hazel, and Oak: rarelv upon Ash, Lime-tree, 
and Maple; never, that I could observe, upon Holly, 
Elm, and many more. Why it groweth not in all 
Countries and places where these Birds are found ; for 
so Bra.vtavnlns aUirmeth, it is not to be found in the 
Territory of Eerrara, and was fain to supply himself 



294 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, from other parts of Italy. Why if it ariseth from a 

VI seed, if sown it will not grow again, as Pliny affirmeth, 

and as by setting the Berries thereof, we. have in vain 

attempted its production ; why if it cometh from seed 

that falleth upon the tree, it groweth often downwards, 

and puts forth under the bough, where seed can neither 

fall nor yet remain. Hereof beside some others, the 

whattht Lord Verulam hath taken notice. And they surely 

Misseito* speak probably who make it an arboreous excrescence, 

in some l t J 

Tnts is. or rather superplant, bred of a viscous and superfluous 
sap which the tree it self cannot assimilate. And 
therefore sprouteth not forth in boughs and surcles of 
the same shape, and similary unto the Tree that 
beareth it; but in a different form, and secondary unto 
its specifical intention, wherein once failing, another 
form succeedeth : and in the first place that of Missel- 
toe, in Plants and Trees disposed to its production. 
And therefore also where ever it groweth, it is of con- 
stant shape, and maintains a regular figure ; like other 
supercrescences, and such as living upon the stock of 
others, are termed parasitical Plants, as Polypody, 
Moss, the smaller Capillaries, and many more : So that 
several regions produce several Misseltoes ; India one, 
America another, according to the law and rule of their 
degenerations. 

Now what begot this conceit, might be the enlarge- 
ment of some part of truth contained in its story. For 
certain it is, that some Birds do feed upon the berries 

'Uo/3opot. of this Vegetable, and we meet in Aristotle with one 
kind of Trush called the Missel Trush, or feeder upon 
Misseltoe. But that which hath most promoted it, is 
a received proverb, Turdus sibi malum cacat ; appliable 
unto such men as are authors of their own misfortunes. 
For according unto ancient tradition and Plinics rela- 



THE SECOND BOOK 295 

tion, the Bird not able to digest the fruit whereon she CHAP, 
feedeth ; from her unconverted muting arisetli this VI 
Plant, of the Berries whereof Birdlime is made, where- 
with she is after entangled. But although Proverbs be 
popular principles, yet is not all true that is proverbial; 
and in many thereof, there being one thing delivered, 
and another intended; though the verbal expression 
be false, the Proverb is true enough in the verity of its 
intention. 

As for the Magical vertues in this Plant, and con- 
ceived efficacy unto veneh'cial intentions, it seemeth a 
Pagan relique derived from the ancient Druides, the Pa : anitk 
great admirers of the Oak, especially the Misseltoe 2w*7tf* 
that grew thereon; which according unto the par- MUuitot 0/ 
ticular of Pliny ■, they gathered with great solemnity. 
For after sacrifice the Priest in a white garment 
ascended the tree, cut down the Misseltoe with a 
golden hook, and received it in a white coat ; the 
vcrtue whereof was to resist all poisons, and make 
fruitful any that used it. Vertues not expected from 
Classical practice ; and did they fully answer their 
promise which are so commended, in Epileptical in- 
tentions, we would abate these qualities. Country 
practice hath added another, to provoke the after- 
birth, and in that case the decoction is given unto 
Cows. That the Berries are poison as some conceive, 
we are so far from averring, that we have safely given 
them inwardly ; and can confirm the experiment of 
Brassavohttj that they have some purgative quality. 

4. The Rose of Jericho, that flourishes every year 
just about Christmas Eve, is famous in Christian 
reports ; which notwithstanding we have some reason 
to doubt, and are plainly informed by BeUonhiS, it is 
but a Monastical imposture, as he hath delivered in his 



296 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, observations, concerning the Plants in Jericho. That 
VI which promoted the conceit, or perhaps begot its con- 
tinuance, was a propriety in this Plant. For though it 
be dry, yet will it upon imbibition of moisture dilate 
its leaves, and explicate its flowers contracted, and 
seemingly dried up. And this is to be effected not 
only in the Plant yet growing, but in some manner 
also in that which is brought exuccous and dry unto 
us. Which quality being observed, the subtilty of 
contrivers did commonly play this shew upon the Eve 
of our Saviours Nativity, when by drying the Plant 
again, it closed the next day, and so pretended a 
double mystery : referring unto the opening and closing 
of the womb of Mary. 

There wanted not a specious confirmation from a 

Cap. 34. text in Ecclesiasticus, Quasi palma exultata sum in Cades, 
fy quasi pla?itatio Rosa? in Jericho : I was exalted like a 

^vraToC Palm-tree in Engaddi, and as a Rose in Jericho. The 
sound whereof in common ears, begat an extraordinary 
opinion of the Rose of that denomination. But herein 
there seemeth a mistake : for by the Rose in the Text, 
is implied the true and proper Rose, as first the Greek, 
and ours accordingly rendreth it. But that which 
passeth under this name, and by us is commonly called 
the Rose of Jericho, is properly no Rose, but a small 
thorny shrub or kind of Heath, bearing little white 
flowers, far differing from the Rose ; whereof Bellonius 
a very inquisitive Herbalist, could not find any in his 
travels thorow Jericho. A Plant so unlike a Rose, it 
hath been mistaken by some good Simplist for 
Amomum ; which truly understood is so unlike a Rose, 
that as Dioscorides delivers, the flowers thereof are like 
the white Violet, and its leaves resemble Briony. 

Suitable unto this relation almost in all points is 



poiov, 



THE SECOND BOOK 297 

that of the Thorn at Glassenbury, and perhaps the CHAP, 
daughter hereof; herein our endeavours as yet have VI 
not attained satisfaction, and cannot therefore enlarge. 
Thus much in general we may observe, that strange 
effects are naturally taken for miracles by weaker 
heads, and artificially improved to that apprehension 
by wiser. Certainly many precocious Trees, and sucli5«rA« 
as spring in the Winter, inav be found in most parts Thorn J'T t 

1 L , « t ' it m Parham 

of Europe, and divers also in England, For most rartm 
Trees do begin to sprout in the Fall of the leaf or s / uffo ' k ' and 
Autumn, and if not kept back by cold and outward 
causes, would leaf about the Solstice. Now if it 
happen that any be so strongly constituted, as to make 
this good against the power of Winter, they may pro- 
duce their leaves or blossoms in that season. And 
perform that in some singles, which is observable in 
whole kinds; as in Ivy, which blossoms and bears at 
least twice a year, and once in the Winter ; as also in 
Furz, which Howercth in that season. 

5. That ferritin Equinum, or Sferra CavaBo hath a 
vertue attractive of Iron, a power to break locks, and 
draw off the shoes of a Horse that passeth over it ; 
whether you take it for one kind of Sccuridaca, or will 
also take in Lunar'ui, we know it to be false: and 
cannot but wonder at Mathiohu, who upon a parallel 
in Pliny was staggered into suspension. Who notwith- 
standing in the imputed vertue to open things, close 
and shut up, could laugh himself at that promise from 
the herb /Ethiopi* or /Ethiopian nmllen ; and condemn 
the judgment of Scipio, who having such a picklock, 
would spend so many years in battering the Gates of 
I wihage. Which strange and Magical conceit, seems 
to have no deeper root in reason, then the figure of 
its seed; for therein indeed it somewhat resembles a 



298 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP. 
VI 



How Beer 
and Wine 
come to be 
spoiled by 
Lightning. 



Horse-shoe; which notwithstanding Baptista Porta 
hath thought too low a signification, and raised the 
same unto a Lunary representation. 

6. That Bayes will protect from the mischief of 
Lightning and Thunder, is a quality ascribed thereto, 
common with the Fig-tree, Eagle, and skin of a Seal. 
Against so famous a quality, Vicomercatus produceth 
experiment of a Bay-tree blasted in Italy. And there- 
fore although Tiberius for this intent, did wear a 
Lawrel upon his Temples, yet did Augustus take a 
more probable course, who fled under arches and 
hollow vaults for protection. And though Porta 
conceive, because in a streperous eruption, it riseth 
against fire, it doth therefore resist lightning, yet is 
that no emboldning Illation. And if we consider the 
threefold effect of Jupiters Trisulk, to burn, discuss, 
and terebrate ; and if that be true which is commonly 
delivered, that it will melt the blade, yet pass the 
scabbard ; kill the child, yet spare the mother; dry up 
the wine, yet leave the hogshead entire: though it favour 
the amulet, it may not spare us ; it will be unsure to 
rely on any preservative, 'tis no security to be dipped 
in Styx, or clad in the armour of Ceneus. Now that 
Beer, Wine, and other liquors, are spoiled with light- 
ning and thunder, we conceive it proceeds not onely 
from noise and concussion of the air, but also noxious 
spirits, which mingle therewith, and draw them to 
corruption ; whereby they become not only dead them- 
selves, but sometime deadly unto others, as that which 
Seneca mentioneth ; whereof whosoever drank, either 
lost his life, or else his wits upon it. 

7. It hath much deceived the hope of good fellows, 
what is commonly expected of bitter Almonds, and 
though in Plutarch confirmed from the practice of 



intoxicate or 
overcomt 



THE SECOND BOOK 290 

Claudius his Phvsitian, that Antidote against ebriety CHAP. 
hath commonly failed. Surely men much versed in the VI 
practice do err in the theory of inebriation ; conceiving 
in that disturbance the brain doth only suffer from 
exhalations and vaporous ascensions from the stomack, 
which fat and oyly substances may suppress. Whereas How drinks 
the prevalent intoxication is from the spirits of drink 
dispersed into the veins and arteries, from whence by m,». 
common conveyances they creep into the brain, in- 
sinuate into its ventricles, and beget those vertigoes 
accompanying that perversion. And therefore the 
same effect may be produced by a Glister, the Head 
may be intoxicated by a medicine at the Heel. So the 
poisonous bites of Serpents, although on parts at dis- 
tance from the head, yet having entered the veins, 
disturb the animal faculties, and produce the effects 
of drink, or poison swallowed. And so as the Head 
may be disturbed by the skin, it may the same way be 
relieved ; as is observable in balneations, washings, and 
fomentations, either of the whole body, or of that part 
alone. 



CHAPTER VII 

Of some Insects, and the properties of several 

Plants. 

1. ~"*EW ears have escaped the noise of the 
I — i Dead - watch, that is, the little clickling 
A. sound heard often in many rooms, some- 

what resembling that of a Watch ; and this is con- 
ceived to be of an evil omen or prediction of some 
persons death : wherein notwithstanding there is 



300 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, nothing of rational presage or just cause of terrour 
VII unto melancholy and meticulous heads. For this 
noise is made by a little sheath-winged gray Insect 
found often in Wainscot, Benches, and Wood-work, in 
the Summer. We have taken many thereof, and kept 
them in thin boxes, wherein I have heard and seen 
them work and knack with a little proboscis or trunk 
against the side of the box, like a Picus Martins, or 
"Woodpecker against a tree. It worketh best in warm 
weather, and for the most part giveth not over under 
nine or eleven stroaks at a time. He that could extin- 
guish the terrifying apprehensions hereof, might 
prevent the passions of the heart, and many cold 
sweats in Grandmothers and Nurses, who in the sick- 
ness of children, are so startled with these noises. 

2. The presage of the year succeeding, which is 
commonly made from Insects or little Animals in Oak 
apples, according to the kinds thereof, either Maggot, 
Fly, or Spider ; that is, of Famine, War, or Pestilence ; 
whether we mean that woody excrescence, which 
shooteth from the branch about May, or that round 
and Apple-like accretion which groweth under the leaf 
about the latter end of Summer, is I doubt too distinct, 
nor verifiable from event. 

For Flies and Maggots are found every year, very 
seldom Spiders : And Helmont affirmeth he could 
never find the Spider and the Fly upon the same 
Trees, that is the signs of War and Pestilence, which 
often go together : Beside, that the Flies found were 
at first Maggots, experience hath informed us ; for 
keeping these excrescencies, we have observed their 
conversions, beholding in Magnifying Glasses the daily 
progression thereof. As may be also observed in 
other Vegetable excretions, whose Maggots do ter- 



THE SECOND BOOK 301 

minate in Flies of constant shapes; as in the Nutgalls CHAP, 
of the Out-landish Oak, and the Mossie tuft of the VII 
wild Briar; which *kaving gathered in November we 
have found the little Maggots which lodged in wooden 
Cells all Winter, to turn into Flies in Jmn-. 

We confess the opinion in;iv hold some verity in the 
Analogy, or Emblematical phansie. For Pestilence is 
properlv signified by the Spider, whereof some kinds 
are of a very venemous Nature. Famine by Maggots, 
which destroy the fruits of the Earth. And War not 
improperly by the Fly ; if we rest in the phansie of 
Homer, who compares the valiant Grecian unto a Fly. 

Some verity it may also have in it self, as truly 
declaring the corruptive constitution in the present 
sap and nutrimental juice of the Tree; and may 
consequently discover the disposition of that year, 
according to the plenty or kinds of these productions. 
For if the putrifying juices of bodies bring forth plenty 
of Flies and Maggots, they give forth testimony of Abundance 
common corruption, and declare that the Elements are^ 
full of the seeds of putrifaction, as the great number etc., wUt 
of Caterpillars, Gnats, and ordinary Insects do also ZTiu^ltiy 
declare. If thev run into Spiders, they give signs of tififa 
higher putrifaction, a.s plenty of Vipers and Scorpions 
are confessed to do ; the putrifying Materials producing 
Animals of higher mischiefs, according to the advance 
and higher strain of corruption. 

3. Whether all Plants have seed, were more easily 
determinable, if we could conclude concerning Harts- 
tongue, Fern, the Capillaries, Lunaria, and some 
others. But whether those little dusty particles, upon 
the lower side of the leaves, be seeds and seminal parts; 
or rather, as it is commonly conceived, excremental 
separations, we have not as yet been ahle to determine 



302 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, by any germination or univocal production from them 
VII when they have been sowed on purpose : but having 
set the roots of Harts tongue in a garden, a year or 
two after there came up three or four of the same 
Plants, about two yards distance from the first. Thus 
much we observe, that they seem to renew yearly, and 
come not fully out till the Plant be in his vigour: and 
by the help of Magnifying Glasses we find these dusty 
Atoms to be round at first, and fully representing 
seeds, out of which at last proceed little Mites almost 
invisible ; so that such as are old stand open, as being 
emptied of some bodies formerly included ; which 
though discernable in Harts-tongue, is more notoriously 
discoverable in some difFerencies of Brake or Fern. 

But exquisite Microscopes and Magnifying Glasses 
have at last cleared this doubt, whereby also long ago 
the noble Frederkiis Ccesius beheld the dusts of Poly- 
pody as bigg as Pepper corns ; and as Johannes Faber 
testifieth, made draughts on Paper of such kind of 
seeds, as bigg as his Glasses represented them : and set 
down such Plants under the Classis oiHerbce Tergiftvtce, 
as may be observed in his notable Botanical Tables. 

4. Whether the sap of Trees runs down to the roots 
in Winter, whereby they become naked and grow not; 
or whether they do not cease to draw any more, and 
reserve so much as sufficeth for conservation, is not a 
point indubitable. For we observe, that most Trees, 
as though they would be perpetually green, do bud at 
the Fall of the leaf, although they sprout not much 
forward untill the Spring, and warmer weather ap- 
proacheth ; and many Trees maintain their leaves all 
Winter, although they seem to receive very small 
advantage in their growth. But that the sap doth 
powerfully rise in the Spring, to repair that moisture 



THE SECOND BOOK 303 

whereby they barely subsisted in the Winter, and also CHAP, 
to put the Plant in a capacity of fructification : he that VII 
hath beheld how many gallons of water may in a small 
time be drawn from a Birch-tree in the Spring, hath 
slender reason to doubt. 

5. That Camphirc Eunuchates, or begets in Men an 
impotency unto Yenery, observation will hardly con- 
firm ; and we have found it to fail in Cocks and Hens, 
though given for many days ; which was a more favour- 
able trial then that of Sealiger, when he gave it unto 
a Bitch that was proud. For the instant turgescence 
is not to be taken off, but by Medicines of higher 
Natures ; and with any certainty but one way that we 
know, which notwithstanding, bv suppressing that 
natural evacuation, may encline unto Madness, if taken 
in the Summer. 

6. In the History of Prodigies we meet with many 
showrs of Wheat ; how true or probable, we have not 
room to debate. Only thus much we shall not omit 
to inform, That what was this year found in many 
places, and almost preached for Wheat rained from the 
clouds, was but the seed of Ivy-berries, which somewhat 
represent it; and though it were found in Steeples and 
high places, might be conveyed thither, or muted out 
by Birds : for many feed thereon, and in the crops of 
some we have found no less then three ounces. 

7. That every plant might receive a Name according 
unto the disease it cureth, was the wish of Puractku.s. 
A way more likely to multiply Km pi ricks then Herb- 
alists ; yet what is practised by many is advantagious 
unto neither ; that is, relinquishing their proper 
appellations to re-baptize them by the name of Saints, 
Apostles. Patriarchs, and Martyrs, to call this the herb 
of John, that of Peter, this of James, or Joseph, that of 



304 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. Mary or Barbara. For hereby apprehensions are made 
VII additional unto their proper Natures ; whereon super- 
stitious practices ensue, and stories are framed 
accordingly to make good their foundations. 

8. We cannot omit to declare the gross mistake of 
many in the Nominal apprehension of Plants; to in- 
stance but in few. An herb there is commonly called 
Betonica Pauli, or Pauls Betony; hereof the People 
have some conceit in reference to St. Paul; whereas 
indeed that name is derived from Paulus Mgineta, 
an ancient Physitian of Mgina, and is no more then 
Speed-well, or Fluellen. The like expectations are 
raised from Herba Trinitatis ; which notwithstanding; 
obtaineth that name from the figure of its leaves, and 
is one kind of Liverwort, or Hepatica. In Milium 
Soils, the Epithete of the Sun hath enlarged its 
opinion ; which hath indeed no reference thereunto, 
it being no more then Lithospermon, or Grummet, or 
rather Milium Soler; which as Serapion from A ben 
«/ Juliel hath taught us, because it grew plentifully in 
the Mountains of Soler, received that appellation. In 
Jews-ears something is conceived extraordinary from 
the Name, which is in propriety but Fungus sambucinus, 
or an excrescence about the Roots of Elder, and con- 
why the cerneth not the Nation of the Jews, but Judas Iscariot, 
u'Zt/brs'ore u P on a conceit, he hanged on this Tree ; and is become 
Throats. a famous Medicine in Quinsies, sore Throats, and 
strangulations ever since. And so are they deceived 
in the name of Horse-Raddish, Horse-Mint, Bull-rush, 
and many more : conceiving therein some prenominal 
consideration, whereas indeed that expression is but a 
Grecism, by the prefix of Hippos and Sous, that is, 
Horse and Bull, intending no more then Great. 
According whereto the great Dock is called Hippola- 



THE SECOND BOOK 305 

put hum ; and he that calls the Horse of Alexander, CHAP 
Great-heud, expresseth the same which the Greeks do VII 
in Bucephalus. 

9. Lastly, Many things are delivered and believed 
of other Plants, wherein at least we cannot but sus- 
pend. That there is a property in Basil to propagate 
Scorpions, and that by the smell thereof they are bred in 
the brains of men, is much advanced by Hollerius, who 
found this Insect in the brains of a man that delighted 
much in this smell. Wherein beside that we find no way 
to conjoin the effect unto the cause assigned; herein 
the Moderns speak but timorously, and some of the 
Ancients quite contrarily. For, according unto Ori- 
basius, Physitian unto Julian, The AJf'ricans, Men best 
experienced in poisons, affirm, whosoever hath eaten 
Basil, although he be stung with a Scorpion, shall 
feel no pain thereby : which is a very different effect, 
and rather antidotally destroying, then seminally 
promoting its production. 

That the leaves of Catapucia or Spurge, being 
plucked upward or downward, respectively perform 
their operations by Purge or Vomit, as some have 
written, and old wives still do preach, is a strange 
conceit, ascribing unto Plants positional operations, 
and after the manner of the Loadstone ; upon the Pole 
whereof if a Knife be drawn from the handle unto the 
point, it will take up a Needle ; but if drawn again from 
the point to the handle, it will attract it no more. 

That Cucumbers are no commendable fruits, that 
being very waterish, they fill the veins with crude and 
windy serosities; that containing little Salt or spirit, 
they may also debilitate the vital acidity, and fermental 
faculty of the Stomach, we readily concede. But that 
they should be so cold, as be almost poison by that 

D 



806 PSEUDODOXIA 

CJIAP. quality, it will be hard to allow, without the contra- 
VII diction of Galen : who accounteth them cold but in 
ink;* the second degree, and in that Classis have most 
Sambuci. Physitians placed them. 

That Elder Berries are poison, as we are taught by 
tradition, experience will unteach us. And beside the 
promises of Blochivitius, the healthful effects thereof 
daily observed will convict us. 

That an Ivy Cup will separate Wine from Water, if 
filled with both, the Wine soaking through, but the 
Water still remaining, as after Pliny many have 
averred, we know not how to affirm ; who making 
trial thereof, found both the liquors to soak indis- 
tinctly through the bowl. 

That Sheep do often get the Rot, by feeding in 
boggy grounds where Ros-solis groweth, seems beyond 
dispute. That this herb is the cause thereof, Shepherds 
affirm and deny; whether it hath a cordial vertue by 
sudden refection, sensible experiment doth hardly 
confirm, but that it may have a Balsamical and resump- 
tive Vertue, whereby it becomes a good Medicine in 
Catarrhes and Consumptive dispositions, Practice and 
Reason conclude. That the lentous drops upon it are 
not extraneous, and rather an exudation from it self, 
then a rorid concretion from without, beside other 
grounds, we have reason to conceive ; for having kept 
the Roots moist and earthed in close chambers, they 
have, though in lesser plenty, sent out these drops as 
before. 

That Flos Affricamis is poison, and destroyeth Dogs, 
in two experiments we have not found. 

That Yew and the Berries thereof are harmless, 
we know. 

That a Snake will not endure the shade of an Ash, 



THE SECOND BOOK 307 

we can den v. Nor is it inconsifterable what is affirmed CHAP, 
by Bellonius ; for if his Assertion be true, our appre- VII 
hension is oftentimes wide in ordinary simples, and in Lib. i. 
common use we mistake one for another. We know 
not the true Thyme; the Savourie in our Gardens is 
not that commended of old ; and that kind of Hysop 
the Ancients used, is unknown unto us, who make 
great use of another. 

We omit to recite the many Vertues, and endless 
faculties ascribed unto Plants, which sometime occur 
in grave and serious Authors ; and we shall make a 
bad transaction for truth to concede a verity in half. 
To reckon up all, it were employment for Archimedes, 
who undertook to write the number of the Sands. 
Swarms of others there are, some whereof our future 
endeavours may discover ; common reason I hope will 
save us a labour in many : Whose absurdities stand 
naked unto every eye ; Errours not able to deceive the 
Embleme of Justice, and need no Argus to descry 
them. Herein there surely wants expurgatory animad- 
versions, whereby we might strike out great numbers 
of hidden qualities ; and having once a serious and 
conceded list, we might with more encouragement and 
safety attempt their Reasons. 



308 PSEUDODOXIA 



THE THIRD BOOK 

Of divers popular and received Tenets 

concerning Animals, which examined, 

prove either false or dubious. 

CHAPTER I 
Of the Elephant. 

THE first shall be of the Elephant, whereof 
there generally passeth an opinion it hath no 
joints ; and this absurdity is secondedTwrEh 
another, that being unable to lie down, it sleepeth 
againslLa Tree ; which the Hunters observing, do saw 
it almost asunder ; whereon the Beast relying, by the 
fall of the Tree, falls also down it self, and is able to 
rise no more. Which conceit is not the daughter of 
later times, but an old and gray-headed error, even in 
the days of Aristotle, as he delivereth in his Book, 
De incessu Jnimalium, and stands successively related 
by several other authors : by Diodorus Siculvj, Strabo, 
Ambrose, Cassiodore, Solinus, and many more. Now 
herein methinks men much forget themselves, not well 
considering the absurdity of such assertions. 

For first, they affirm it hath no joints, and yet 
- — concede it walks and moves about ; whereby they con- 
ceive there may be a progression or advancement made 



THE THIRD BOOK 309 

in Motion without inflexion of parts. Now all pro- CHAP, 
gression or Animals locomotion being (as Aristotle I 
teaeheth) performed tract u et pulsu ; that is, by draw- /a™-/™.- 
ing on, or impelling forward some part which was^"™" 
before in station, or at quiet ; where there are no «****&• 
joints or flexures, neither can there be these actions. 
And this is true, not onely in Quadrupedes, Volatils, 
and Fishes, which have distinct and prominent Organs 
of Motion, Legs, Wings, and Fins; but in such also as 
perform their progression by the Trunk, as Serpents, 
Worms, and Leeches. Whereof though some want 
bones, and all extended articulations, yet have they 
arthritical Analogies, and by the motion of fibrous joint-uia 
and musculous parts, are able to make progression. ' 
Which to conceive in bodies inflexible, and without 
all protrusion of parts, were to expect a Race from 
Hercules his pillars ; or hope to behold the effects of 
Orpheus his Harp, when trees found joints, and danced 
after his Musick. 

Again, While men conceive they never lie down, and 
enjoy not the position of rest, ordained unto all pedes- 
trious Animals, hereby they imagine (what reason 
cannot conceive) that an Animal of the vastest dimen- 
sion and longest duration, should live in a continual 
motion, without that alternity and vicissitude of rest 
whereby all others continue; and yet must thus much 
come to pass, if we opinion they lye not down and 
enjoy no decumbence at all. For station is properly ExUnttm 
no rest, but one kind of motion, relating unto that *L J"**' 
which Phyritianfl (from Galen) do name extensive or -whait 
tonical ; that is, an extension of the muscles and organs 
of motion maintaining the body at length or in its 
proper figure. 

Wherein although it seem to be unmoved, it is not 



310 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, without all Motion ; for in this position the muscles 
I are sensibly extended, and labour to support the body; 
which permitted unto its proper gravity, would suddenly 
subside and fall unto the earth ; as it happeneth in 
sleep, diseases, and death. From which occult action 
and invisible motion of the muscles in station (as 
Galen declareth) proceed more offensive lassitudes then 
from ambulation. And therefore the Tyranny of some 
have tormented men with long and enforced station, 
and though Ixion and Sisiphus which always moved, 
do seem to have the hardest measure; yet was not 
Titius favoured, that lay extended upon Caucasus ; 
and Tantalus suffered somewhat more then thirst, that 
stood perpetually in Hell. Thus Mercurialis in his 
Gymnasticks justly makes standing one kind of exer- 
cise ; and Galen when we lie down, commends unto us 
middle figures, that is, not to lye directly, or at length, 
but somewhat inflected, that the muscles may be at 
rest ; for such as he termeth Hypobolemaioi or figures, of 
excess, either shrinking up or stretching out, are weari- 
some positions, and such as perturb the quiet of those 
parts. Now various parts do variously discover these 
indolent and quiet positions, some in right lines, as 
the wrists : some at right angles, as the cubit : 
others at oblique angles, as the fingers and the 
knees: all resting satisfied in postures of modera- 
tion, and none enduring the extremity of flexure or 
extension. 

Moreover men herein do strangely forget the obvious 
relations of history, affirming they have no joints, 
whereas they dayly read of several actions which are 
not performable without them. They forget what is 
delivered by Xiphilinus, and also by Suetonius in the 
lives of Nero and Galba, that Elephants have been 









THE THIRD BOOK 311 

instructed to walk on ropes, in publick shews before CHAP, 
the people. Which is not easily performed by man, I 
and requireth not only a broad foot, but a pliable 
flexure of joints, and commandible disposure of all parts 
of progression. They pass by that memorable place in 
Curtius, concerning the Elephant of King Porus, Indus 
qui Elephantem regebat, descendere eum ratus, more soldo 
procumbere jussit in genua cajteri quoque (ita enim 
instituti erant) demisere corpora in terrain. They De rebus 
remember not the expression of Osorius, when he EmanueUs . 
speaks of the Elephant presented to Leo the tenth, 
Pontificem ter genibwt Jlexis, et demisso corporis habitu 
venerabundus salutavit. But above all, they call not 
to mind that memorable shew of Germanicus, wherein 
twelve Elephants danced unto the sound of Musick, 
and after laid them down in the Tridiniums, or places 
of festival Hecumbency. 

They forget the Etymologie of the Knee, approved vi>™from 
by some Grammarians. They disturb the position of yu> 
the young ones in the womb : which upon extension of 
legs is not easily conceivable ; and contrary unto the 
general contrivance of Nature. Nor do they consider 
the impossible exclusion thereof, upon extension and 
rigour of the legs. 

Lastlv, thev forget or consult not experience, whereof 
not many years past, we have had the advantage in l 

England, by an Elephant shewn in many parts thereof ; — i 
not onlv in the posture of standing, but kneeling and 
King down. Whereby although the opinion at present 
be well suppressed, yet from some strings of tradition, 
and fruitful recurrence of errour, it is not improbable 
it may revive in the next generation again. This being 
not the first that hath been seen in England ; for 
(besides some others) as Polydore Virgil relateth, Leuis 



312 



PSEUDODOXIA 



Round, 
Pillar-like. 



CHAP, the French King sent one to Henry the third, and 
I Emanuel of Portugal another to Leo the tenth into 
Italy, where notwithstanding the errour is still alive 
and epidemical, as with us. 

The hint and ground of this opinion might be the 
gross and somewhat Cylindrical composure of the legs, 
the equality and less perceptible disposure of the 
joints, especially in the former legs of this Animal ; 
they appearing when he standeth, like Pillars of flesh, 
without any evidence of articulation. The different 
flexure and order of the joints might also countenance 
the same, being not disposed in the Elephant, as they 
are in other quadrupedes, but carry a nearer conformity 
unto those of Man ; that is, the bought of the fore- 
legs, not directly backward, but laterally and somewhat 
inward; but the hough or suffraginous flexure behind 
rather outward. Somewhat different unto many other 
quadrupedes, as Horses, Camels, Deer, Sheep, and 
Dogs; for their fore-legs bend like our legs, and their 
hinder legs like our arms, when we move them to our 
shoulders. But quadrupedes oviparous, as Frogs, 
Lizards, Crocodiles, have their joints and motive 
flexures more analogously framed unto ours ; and some 
among viviparous, that is, such thereof as can bring 
their fore-feet and meat therein unto their mouths, 
as most can do that have the clavicles or coller-bones : 
whereby their brests are broader, and their shoulders 
more asunder, as the Ape, the Monkey, the Squirrel 
and some others. If therefore any shall affirm the joints 
of Elephants are differently framed from most of other 
quadrupedes, and more obscurely and grosly almost 
then any, he doth herein no injury unto truth. But if 
a dicio secundum quid ad dictum simpliciter, he affirmeth 
also they have no articulations at all, he incurs the 



THE THIRD BOOK 313 

controulment of reason, and cannot avoide the contra- CHAT, 
diction also of sense. I 

As for the manner of their venation, if we consult 
historical experience, we shall find it to be otherwise 
then as is commonly presumed, by sawing away of 
Trees. The accounts whereof are to be seen at large 
in Johamut, Hugo, Edwordus Lopez, Card as ab horto y 
Cadamusttis, and many more. 

Other concernments there are of the Elephant, which 
might admit of discourse; and if we should question 
the teeth of Elephants, that is, whether they be pro- 
perly so termed, or might not rather be called horns: 
it were no new enquiry of mine, but a Paradox as old 
as Oppianus. Whether as Pliny and divers since affirm cyneget. 
it, that Elephants are terrified, and make away upon 1,b- '■ 
the grunting of Swine, Garc'ias ab horto may decide, 
who affirmeth upon experience, they enter their stalls, 
and live promiscuously in the Woods of Malavar. 
That the situation of the genitals is averse, and their 
copulation like that which some believe of Camels, as 
Pliny hath also delivered, is not to be received ; for we 
have beheld that part in a different position ; and 
their coition is made by supersaliency, like that of 
horses, as we are informed by some who have beheld 
them in that act. That some Elephants have not 
onlv written whole sentences, as /Elian ocularly testi- 
fieth, but have also spoken, as Op pian us dclivereth, 
and Christophoms a Costa particularly relatcth ; 
although it sound like that of Achilles Horse in Homer, 
we do not conceive impossible. Nor beside the affinity some Brutes 
of reason in this Animal anv such intolerable inca- *****& 

J wet l organ- 

pacity in the organs of divers quadrupedes, whereby imkjk 



speech an t 



they might iot be taught to speak, or become imita- ^^. oachi 






tors of speech like Birds. Strange it is how the i» reason. 



»f 



314 PSEUDODOXIA' 

CHAP, curiosity of men that have been active in the instruc- 
I tion of Beasts, have never fallen upon this artifice ; 
and among those, many paradoxical and unheard of 
imitations, should not attempt to make one speak. 
The Serpent that spake unto Eve, the Dogs and Cats 
that usually speak unto Witches, might afford some 
encouragement. And since broad and thick chops are 
required in Birds that speak, since lips and teeth are 
also organs of speech ; from these there is also an 
advantage in quadrupedes, and a proximity of reason 
in Elephants and Apes above them all. Since also an 
Echo will speak without any mouth at all, articulately 
returning the voice of man, by only ordering the 
— • vocal spirit in concave and hollow places ; whether 
the musculous and motive parts about the hollow 
mouths of Beasts, may not dispose the passing spirit 
into some articulate notes, seems a query of no great 
doubt. 



CHAPTER II 

Of the Horse. 

'") /v* "\- '"" "^HE second Assertion, that an Hoxse_Jiaili_.no 

^ df\ >y Js-^U * s verv general, nor only swallowed by 

i p -*- the people, and common Farriers, but also 

Y^ ^Veterinarians received by good Veterinarians, and some who have 

or i-arntrs. j auc ] a kiy discoursed upon Horses. It seemeth also 

\jf* Jr very ancient; for it is plainly set down by Aristotle, 

kK y an Horse and all solid ungulous or whole hoofed 

^Jm animals have no galjj and the same is also delivered 

by Pliny, which notwithstanding we find repugnant 

unto experience and reason. For first, it calls in 



THE THIRD BOOK 315 » 

question the providence or wise provis ion of Nature ; ', £ HAP. 
who not abounding in superfluities, is neither deficient II 
in necessities. Wherein nevertheless there would be a 
main defect, and her iniprovision justly accusable, if' 
such a feeding Animal, and so subject unto diseases 
from bihouscauses, should want a proper conveyance 
for choler ; or have no other receptacle for that humour 
then the Veins, and general mass of bloud. 

It is again controllable by experience, for we have 
made some search and enquiry herein ; encouraged by 
Absyj-tm a Greek Author, in the time of Con.ttantine, Medidna 
who in his Hippiatricks, obscurely assigneth the gall a equar,a * 
place in the liver; but more especially by Carlo Ruitu 
the Bononian, who in his Anatomia del Cavallo, hath 
more plainly described it, and in a manner as I found _ 
it. For in the particular enquiry into that part, in 
the concave or simous part of the Liver, whereabout Ajf ft \~\ 
the Gall is usually seated in quadrupedes, I discover an ~~\J 
hollow, long and membranous substance, of a pale 
colour without, and lined with Choler and Gall within; 
which part is by branches diffused into the lobes and 
several parcels of the Liver; from whence receiving the 
fiery superfluity, or cholerick remainder, by a manifest 
and open passage, it conveyeth it into the duodenum 
or upper gut, thence into the lower bowels ; which is 
the manner of its derivation in Man and other Animals. 
And therefore although there be no eminent and 
circular follicle, no round bag or vesicle which long 
containeth this humour : yet is there a manifest 
receptacle and passage of choler from the Liver into 
the Guts : which being not so shut up, or at least not 
so long detained, as it is in other Animals : procures 
that frequent excretion, and occasions the Horse to 
dung more often then many other, which considering 



316 



PSEUDODOXIA 



Choler the 

natural 

glister. 




t 



CHAP, the plentiful feeding, the largeness of the guts, and 
II their various circumvolution, was prudently contrived 
by providence in this Animal. For choler is the 
natural Glister, or one excretion whereby Nature ex- 
cludeth another; which descending daily into the 
bowels, extimulates those parts, and excites them unto 
expulsion. And therefore when this humour aboundeth 
or corrupteth, there succeeds oft-times a cholerica pas- 
sio, that is, a sudden and vehement Purgation upward 
and downward : and when the passage of gall becomes 
obstructed, the body grows costive, and the excrements 
of the belly white ; as it happeneth in the Jaundice. 

If any therefore affirm an Horse hath no gall, that 
is, no receptacle, or part ordained for the separation 
of Choler, or not that humour at all; he hath both 
w v "" == * , *$ense and reason to oppose him. But if he saith it 
hath no bladder of Gall, and such as is observed in 
many other Animals, we shall oppose our sense, if we 
gain-say him. Thus must Aristotle be made out when 
he denieth this part, by this distinction we may relieve 
Pliny of a contradiction, who in one place affirming an 
Horse hath no gall, delivereth yet in another, that the 
gall of an Horse was accounted poison ; and therefore 
at the sacrifices of Horses in Home, it was unlawful for 
the Flamen to touch it. But with more difficulty, or 
hardly at all is that reconcileable which is delivered by 
our Countryman, and received Veterinarian ; whose 
words in his Master-piece, and Chapter of diseases 
from the Gall, are somewhat too strict, and scarce admit 
a Reconciliation. The fallacie therefore of this conceit 
not unlike the former; A dicto secundum quid ad 



Priest. 



IS 



dictum simpliciter. Because they have not a bladder 
of gall, like those we usually observe in others, they 
have no gall at all. Which is a Paralogism not 



THE THIRD BOOK 317 

admittible; a fallacy that dwels not in a cloud, and CHAP, 
needs not the Sun to scatter it. II 



CHAPTER III 
Of the Dove. 

THE third assertion is somewhat like the 
second, that sfDove or Pigeon hath no gall ; 
wkich is affirmed from very great antiquity; 
for as Pterins observeth, from this consideration the 
Egyptians did make it the Hieroglyphick of Meekness. 
It hath been averred by many holy Writers, commonly 
delivered by Postillers and Commentators; who from 
the frequent mention of the Dove in the Canticles, the 
precept of our Saviour, to be wise as Serpents, and 
innocent as Doves: and especially the appearance of 
the Holy Ghost in the similitude of this Animal, have 
taken occasion to set down many affections of the 
Dove, and what doth most commend it, is, that it hath 
no gall. And hereof have made use not only Minor 
Divines, but Cyprian, Justin, Isidore, Bcda, Rupert us, 
Janscnius, and many more. 

Whereto notwithstanding we know not how to assent, 
it being repugnant unto the Authority and positive 
determination of ancient Philosophy. The affirmative 
of Aristotle in his History of Animals is very plain, 
Fel alii* ventri, aliis mtestmo jungitur : Some have the 
gall adjoined to the guts, as the Crow, the Swallow, 
Sparrow, and the Dove ; the same is also attested by 
Plinu, and not without some passion by Calen, who in 
his Book De Air a bile, accounts him ridiculous that 
denies it. 

It is not agreeable to the constitution of this 



318 



PSEUDODOXIA 



Salubrium, 



CHAP. Animal, nor can we so reasonably conceive there wants 
a Gall : that is, the hot and fiery humour in a body so 
hot of temper, which Phlegm or Melancholy could not 
effect. Now of what complexion it is, Julitis Alex- 
andrinus declareth, when he affirmeth that some upon 
the use thereof, have fallen into Feavers and Quinsies. 
The temper of their Dung and intestinal Excretions do 
also confirm the same ; which Topically applied become 
a Phoenigmus or Rubifying Medicine, and are of such 
fiery parts, that as we read in Galen, they have of 
themselves conceived fire, and burnt a house about 
them. And therefore when in the famine of Samaria 
(wherein the fourth part of a Cab of Pigeons dung was 
sold for five pieces of silver,) it is delivered by Josephus, 
that men made use hereof in stead of common Salt : 
although the exposition seem strange, it is more pro- 
bable then many other. For that it containeth very 
much Salt, as beside the effects before expressed, is 
discernable by taste, and the earth of Columbaries or 
Dove-houses, so much desired in the artifice of Salt- 
petre. And to speak generally, the Excrement of 
Birds hath more of Salt and acrimony, then that of 
other pissing animals. Now if because the Dove is of 
a mild and gentle nature, we cannot conceive it should 
be of an hot temper ; our apprehensions are not 
distinct in the measure of constitutions, and the 
whtnct the several parts which evidence such conditions. For the 
v'tence'tJu Irascible passions do follow the temper of the heart, 
concufiiscibu but the concupiscible distractions the crasis of the 
mostariit. liver. Now many have hot livers, which have but cool 
and temperate hearts ; and this was probably the 
temper of Paris, a contrary constitution to that of 
Ajax, and both but short of Medea, who seemed to 
exceed in either. 



THE THIRD BOOK 319 

Lastly, it is repugnant to experience, for Anatomical CHAP. 
enquiry discovered in them a gall : and that according III 
to the determination of Aristotle, not annexed unto the 
liver, but adhering unto the guts : nor is the humour 
contained in smaller veins, or obscurer capillations, but 
in a vescicle, or little bladder, though some affirm it 
hath no bag at all. And therefore the Hieroglyphick 
of the .Egyptians, though allowable in the sense, is 
weak in the foundation : who expressing meekness and 
lenity by the portract of a Dove with a tail erected, 
affirmed it had no gall in the inward parts, but only in 
the rump, and as it were out of the body. And there- 
fore also if they conceived their gods were pleased with 
the sacrifice of this Animal, as being without gall, the 
ancient Heathens were surely mistaken in the reason, 
and in the very oblation. Whereas in the holocaust 
or burnt-offering of Moses, the gall was cast away : for 
as Ben Maimon instructeth, the inwards whereto the Levit. i. 
gall adhereth were taken out with the crop, according 
unto the Law : which the Priest did not burn, but 
cast unto the East, that is, behind his back, and 
readiest place to be carried out of the Sanctuary. And 
if they also conceived that for this reason they were 
the Birds of Venus, and wanting the furious and dis- Port,, tk t 
cording part, were more acceptable unto the Deity vlnulf^A^f 
of Love, they surely added unto the conceit, which 
was at first venereal : and in this Animal may be 
sufficiently made out from that conception. 

The ground of this conceit is partly like the former, 
the obscure situation of the gall, and out of the liver, 
wherein it is commonly enquired. But this is a very 
injust illation, not well considering with what variety 
this part is seated in Birds. In some both at the 
stomach and the liver, as in the Capriceps; in some at 



320 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, the liver only, as in Cocks, Turkeys, and Pheasants; in 
III others at the guts and liver, as in Hawks and Kites, 
in some at the guts alone, as Crows, Doves, and many 
more. And these perhaps may take up all the ways 
of situation, not only in Birds, but also other 
Ew«<ri'x°Ao?. Animals ; for what is said of the Anchovie, that 
answerable unto its name, it carrieth the gall in the 
head, is farther to be enquired. And though the dis- 
coloured particles in the skin of an Heron be commonly 
termed Galls, yet is not this Animal deficient in that 
part, but containeth it in the Liver. And thus when 
it is conceived that the eyes of Tobias were cured by 
the gall of the fish Callyonimus, or Scorpius marinus, 
commended to that effect by Dioscorides, although that 
part were not in the liver, yet there were no reason to 
doubt that probability. And whatsoever Animal it 
was, it may be received without exception, when it's 
delivered, the married couple as a testimony of future 
concord, did cast the gall of the sacrifice behind the 
Altar. 

A strict and literal acception of a loose and tropical 
expression was a second ground hereof. For while 
some affirmed it had no gall, intending only thereby 
no evidence of anger or fury ; others have construed it 
anatomically, and denied that part at all. By which 
illation we may infer, and that from sacred Text, a 
Pigeon hath no heart ; according to that expression, 

Hostaj. Factus est Ephraim, sicut Columba seducta non habens 
Cor. And so from the letter of the Scripture we may 
conclude it is no mild, but a fiery and furious animal, 

Cap. 25. according to that of Jeremy ^ Facta est terra in dcsola- 

Cafi. 46. tioTiem a facie irce Columbcc : and again, Revertamur ad 
terram nativitatis nostra: a facie gladii Columba:. 
Where notwithstanding the Dove is not literally 



THE THIRD BOOK 321 

intended; but thereby may be implied the Baby- CHAP. 
lujiia?is, whose Queen Semiramis was called by that III 
name, and whose successors did bear the Dove in their 
Standard. So is it proverbially said, Formica; sua Wis 
inest, habet et musra .splenem ; whereas we know Philo- 
sophy doubteth these parts, nor hath Anatomy so 
clearly discovered them in those insects. 

If therefore any affirm a Pigeon hath no gall, imply- 
ing no more thereby then the lenity of this Animal, 
we shall not controvert his affirmation. Thus may we 
make out the assertions of Ancient Writers, and safely 
receive the expressions of Divines and worthy Fathers. 
But if by a transition from Rhetorick to Logick, he 
shall contend, it hath no such part or humour, he 
committeth an open fallacy, and such as was probably 
first committed concerning Spanish Mares, whose 
swiftness tropically expressed from their generation 
by the wind ; might after be grosly taken, and a real 
truth conceived in that conception. 

CHAPTER IV 

Of the Bever. 

THAT a Bever to escape the Hunter, bites off 
his testicles or stones, is a Tenet very 
ancient; and hath had thereby advantage 
of propagation. For the same we find in the Hiero- 
glyphicks of the Egyptians in the Apologue of JEsop, ^ ov % 
an Author of great Antiquity, who lived in the */"**"■* 
beginning of the Persian Monarchy, and in the time antiquity. 
of Cyrus: the same is touched by Aristotle in his 
Ethicks, but seriously delivered by /Elian, Pliny, and 
Soli mis : the same we meet with in Juvenal, who by an 

x 



322 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, handsome and Metrical expression more welcomly 
IV engrafts it in our junior Memories : 

imitatus Castora, qui se 



Eunuchum ipsefacit, cupiens evadere damno 
Testiculorum, adeo medicatum intelligit inguen. 

It hath been propagated by Emblems : and some have 
been so bad Grammarians as to be deceived by the 
Name, deriving Castor a castrando, whereas the proper 
Latine word is Fiber, and Castor but borrowed from 
the Greek, so called quasi ydsrayp, that is, Animal 
ventricosum, from his swaggy and prominent belly. 

Herein therefore to speak compendiously, we first 
presume to affirm that from strict enquiry, we cannot 
maintain the evulsion or biting off any parts, and this 
is declarable from the best and most professed Writers: 
for though some have made use hereof in a Moral or 
Tropical way, yet have the professed Discoursers by 
silence deserted, or by experience rejected this asser- 
tion. Thus was it in ancient times discovered, and 
experimentally refuted by one Sestius a Physitian, as 
it stands related by Pliny ; by Dioscorides, who plainly 
affirms that this tradition is false; by the discoveries 
of Modern Authors, who have expressly discoursed 
hereon, as Aldrovandus, Mathiolus, Gesnerus, Bellonius; 
by Olaus Magnus, Peter Martyr, and others, who have 
described the manner of their Venations in America; 
they generally omitting this way of their escape, and 
have delivered several other, by which they are daily 
taken. 

The original of the conceit was probably Hiero- 
glyphical, which after became Mythological unto the 
Greeks, and so set down by JEsop ; and by process of 
tradition, stole into a total verity, which was but par- 
tially true, that is in its covert sense and Morality. 



THE THIRD BOOK 823 

Now whv they placed this invention upon the Bever CHAP. 
(beside the Medicable and Merchantable commodity IV 
of Castorcum, or parts conceived to be bitten away) 
might be the sagacity and wisdom of that Animal, 
which from the works it performs, and especially its 
Artifice in building, is very strange, and surely not to 
be matched by any other. Omitted by Plutarch, De 
sulertia Atilmalium, but might have much advantaged 
the drift of that Discourse. 

If therefore anv affirm a wise man should demean 
himself like the Bever, who to escape with his life, 
contemneth the loss of his genitals, that is in case of 
extremity, not strictly to endeavour the preservation 
of all, but to sit down in the enjoyment of the greater 
good, though with the detriment and hazard of the 
lesser; we may hereby apprehend a real and useful Truth. 
In this latitude of belief, we are content to receive the 
Fable of Hippomanes, who redeemed his life with the 
loss of a Golden Ball ; and whether true or false, we 
reject not the Tragoedy of Absyrtus, and the dispersion 
of his Members by Medea, to perplex the pursuit of her 
Father. But if any shall positively affirm this act, 
and cannot believe the Moral, unless he also credit the 
Fable; he is surely greedy of delusion, and will hardly 
avoid deception in theories of this Nature. /The 
Error therefore and Alogy in this opinion, is worse 
then in the last ; that is, not to receive Figures for 
Realities, but exptct a verity in Apologues ; and 
believe, as serious affirmations, confessed and studied 
Fables. 

Again, If this were true, and that the Bever in chase 
makes some divulsion of parts, as that which we call 
Castormm ; yet are not the same to be termed Testicles 
or Stones ; for these Cods or Follicles are found in 



324 PSEUDODOXTA 

CHAP, both Sexes, though somewhat more protuberant in the 
IV Male. There is hereto no derivation of the seminal 
parts, nor any passage from hence, unto the Vessels of 
Ejaculation : some perforations onely in the part it 
self, through which the humour included doth exudate : 
as may be observed in such as are fresh, and not much 
dried with age. And lastly, The Testicles properly so 
called, are of a lesser magnitude, and seated inwardly 
upon the loins : and therefore it were not only a 
fruitless attempt, but impossible act, to Eunuchate or 
castrate themselves : and might be an hazardous prac- 
tice of Art, if at all attempted by others. 

Now all this is confirmed from the experimental 
Testimony of five very memorable Authors : Bellonius, 
Gesnerus, Amatas, Rondeletius, and Mathiolus : who re- 
ceiving the hint hereof from Rondeletius in the Anatomy 
of two Bevers, did find all true that had been delivered 
by him, whose words are these in his learned Book 
De Piscibus : Fibri in inguinibus geminos tumores 
habent, utrinque vnicum, ovi Anserini magnitudine, inter 
hos est mentida in maribus, in foeminis pudendum, hi 
tumores testes non sunt, sed follicidi membrana contecti, 
in quorum medio singuli sunt meatus e quibus exudat 
liquor pinguis et cerosus, quern ipse Castor scepe adnwto 
ore lambit et exugit, postea veluti oleo, corporis partes 
oblinit: Hos tumores testes non esse hinc maxime col- 
ligitur, quod ab Mis nulla est ad mentulam via neque 
dtictus quo humor in mentulcc meatum dervcitur, etjbras 
emittatur; prceterea quod testes intus reperiuntur, eosdcm 
tumores Moscho animali inesse puto, e quibus odoratum 
Mud plus emanat. Then which words there can be no 
plainer, nor more evidently discovering the impro- 
priety of this appellation. That which is included in 
the cod or visible bag about the groin, being not the 



THE THIRD BOOK 325 

Testicle, or any spermatical part ; but rather a collec- CHAP, 
tion of some superfluous matter deflowing from the IV 
body, especially the parts of nutrition as unto their 
proper emunctories ; and as it doth in Musk and Civet 
Cats, though in a different and offensive odour; pro- 
ceeding partly from its food, that being especially 
Fish ; whereof this humour may be a garous excretion 
and olidous separation. 

Most therefore of the Moderns before Rondeletius, 
and all the Ancients excepting Sestius, have misunder- 
stood this part, conceiving Castoreum the Testicles of 
the Sever; as Dioscorides, Galen, JEgineta, Mi me, and 
others have pleased to name it. The Egyptians also 
failed in the ground of their Hieroglyphick, when they 
expressed the punishment of Adultery by the Bever 
depriving himself of his testicles, which was amongst 
them the penaltv of such incontinency. Nor is /FHmi 
perhaps, too strictly to be observed, when he pre- 
scribed the stones of the Otter, or River-dog, as 
succedaneous unto Castoreum. But most inexcusable 
of all is Pliny \ who having before him in one place 
the experiment of Sestius against it, sets down in 
another, that the Bevers of Pont us bite off their 
testicles: and in the same place affirmeth the like of 
the Hyena. Which was indeed well joined with the 
Bever, as having also a bag in those parts ; if thereby 
we understand the Hyena odorata, or Civet Cat, as is Cx<tetiui 
delivered and graphically described by Ctutittm. odorifera. 

Now the ground of tins mistake might be the 
resemblance and situation of these tumours about 
those parts, wherein we observe the testicles in other 
animals. Which notwithstanding is no well founded 
illation, for the testicles are defined by their office, 
and not determined by place or situation ; they having 



326 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, one office in all, but different seats in many. For 
IV beside that, no Serpent, or Fishes oviparous, that 
neither biped nor quadruped oviparous have testicles 
exteriourly, or prominent in the groin ; some also that 
are viviparous contain these parts within, as beside 
this Animal, the Elephant and the Hedg-hog. 

If any therefore shall term these testicles, intending 
metaphorically, and in no strict acception ; his 
language is tolerable, and offends our ears no more 
then the Tropical names of Plants : when we read in 
Herbals, of Dogs, Fox, and Goat-stones. But if he 
insisteth thereon, and maintaineth a propriety in this 
language : our discourse hath overthrown his assertion, 
nor will Logic permit his illation ; that is, from things 
alike, to conclude a thing the same ; and from an 
accidental convenience, that is a similitude in place or 
figure, to infer a specifical congruity or substantial 
concurrence in Nature. 



CHAPTER V 
Of the Badger. 



*fcr 



T 



■HAT a Brock or Badger hath the legs on one 

side shorter then of the other, though an 

opinion perhaps not very ancient, is yet 

very general ; received not only by Theorists and 

unexperienced believers, but assented unto by most 

who have the opportunity to behold and hunt them 

daily. \JYVhieh notwithstanding upon enquiry I find 

^ -a. repugnant unto the three Determinators of Truth, 

i< ff*** 4 ^ ^ Autl^rity,_Sense^ and Reason, --fy For first, Albertus 

}r^C\ Magmis speaks dubiously, confessing he could not 

V\ confirm the verity hereof; but Aldrovandus plainly 



THE THIRD BOOK 327 

affinneth, there can be no such inequality observed. CHAP. 
And for my own part, upon indifferent emjujry, I V 
cannot discover this difference, although the regardable 
side be defined, and the brevity by most imputed unto 
the left. 

Again, It seems no easie affront unto Reason, and 
generally repugnant unto the course of— Nature ; for if 
we survey the total set of Animals, we may in their — > 
legs, or Organs of progression, observe an equality of 
length, and parity of Numeration ; that is, not any to 
have an odd legg, or the supporters and movers of one 
side not exactly answered by the other. Although 
the hinder may be unequal unto the fore and middle 
legs, as in Frogs, Locusts, and Grasshoppers ; or both 
unto the middle, as in some Beetles and Spiders, as is 
determined by Aristotle, Dc incessu Animalium. Per- De incessu 
feet and viviparous quadrupeds, so standing in their AmmallulIV 
position of proneness, that the opposite joints of 
Neighbour-legs consist in the same plane ; and a line 
descending from their Navel intersects at right angles 
the axis of the Earth. It happeneth often I confess 
that a Lobster hath the Chely or great claw of one 
side longer then the other ; but this is not properly 
their leg, but a part of apprehension, and whereby 
they hold or seiz upon their prey ; for the legs and 
proper parts of progression are inverted backward, and 
stand in a position opposite unto these. 

Lastly, The Monstrosity is ill contrived, and with 
some disadvantage; the shortness being affixed unto 
the legs of one side, which might have been more 
tolerably placed upon the thwart or Diagonial Movers. Diagonion, * 
For the progression of quadrupeds being performed /"jj™' n 
per Diametrum, that is the cross legs moving or resting tnummgUt* 
together, so that two are always in motion, and two in 



328 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, station at the same time ; the brevity had been more 
V tolerable in the cross legs. For then the Motion and 
station had been performed by equal legs; whereas 
herein they are both performed by unequal Organs, 
and the imperfection becomes discoverable at every 
hand. 



CHAPTER VI 
Of the Bear. 

THAT a Bear brings forth her young informous 
and unshapen, which she fashioneth after by 
licking them over, is an opinion not only 
vulgar, and common with us at present : but hath been 
of old delivered by ancient Writers. Upon this foun- 
dation it was an Hieroglyphick with the Egyptians : 
Aristotle seems to countenance it ; Soliniis, Pliny, and 
JElian directly affirm it, and Ovid smoothly delivereth it: 

Nee catulus partu quern reddidit ursa recenti 
Sed male viva euro est, lambendo mater in artus 
Ducit, et informam qualern cupit ipsa reducit. 

Which notwithstanding is not only repugnant unto 
the sense of every one that shall enquire into it, but 
the exact and deliberate experiment of three Authen- 
tick Philosophers. The first of Mathiolus in his 
Comment on Dioscorides, whose words are to this 
effect. In the Valley of Anemia about Trent, in a 
Bear which the Hunters eventerated or opened, I 
beheld the young ones with all their parts distinct: 
and not without shape, as many conceive ; giving more 
credit unto Aristotle and Pliny, then experience and 
their proper senses. Of the same assurance was Julius 



THE THIRD BOOK 329 

Scaliger in his Exercitations, Ursam fcetus informrs CHAP. 
potiiis ejicere, (juum parere, si vera dicunt, quos postea VI 
linctu ejfingat : Quid hujusce fabida? authurilnis fidei 
habendum ex hac historia cognosces ; In nostris Alpibus 
venatores fatum Ursam cepcre, dissecta ea fcetus plane 
formatus intus inventus est. And lastly, Aldrovandus 
who from the testimony of his own eyes affirmeth, that 
in the Cabinet of the Senate of Bononia, there was 
preserved in a Glass a Cub taken out of a Bear 
perfectly formed, and compleat in every part. 

It is moreover injurious unto Reason, and much 
impugneth the course and providence of Nature, to 
conceive a birth should be ordained before there is a 
formation. For the conformation of parts is neces- 
sarily required, not onely unto the pre-requisites and 
previous conditions of birth, as Motion and Animation: 
but also unto the parturition or very birth it self: 
Wherein not only the Dam, but the younglings play 
their parts ; and the cause and act of exclusion pro- 
ceedeth from them both. For the exclusion of 
Animals is not meerly passive like that of Eggs, nor 
the total action of delivery to be imputed unto the 
Mother : but the first attempt beginneth from the 
Infant: which at the accomplished period attempteth 
to change his Mansion : and strugling to come forth, 
dilacerates and breaks those parts which restrained 
him before. 

Beside (what fe* take notice of) Men hereby do in 
an high measure vilifie the works of God, imputing 
that unto the tongue of a Beast, which is the strangest 
Artifice in all the acts of Nature ; that is the formation Formation 
of the infant in the Womb, not only in Mankind, but '"'**. 

J Matrix, tht 

all viviparous Animals. Wherein the plastick or for- a.imirabu 
mative faculty, from matter appearing Homogeneous, v ^ tH ' re 



330 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, and of a similary substance, erecteth Bones, Mem- 
VI branes, Veins, and Arteries : and out of these contriveth 
every part in number, place, and figure, according to 
the law of its species. Which is so far from being 
fashioned by any outward agent, that once omitted or 
perverted by a slip of the inward Phidias, it is not 
reducible by any other whatsoever. And therefore 
Mire me plasmaverunt manm tuce, though it originally 
respected the generation of Man, yet is it appliable 
unto that of other Animals ; who entring the Womb 
in bare and simple Materials, return with distinction 
of parts, and the perfect breath of life. He that shall 
consider these alterations without, must needs conceive 
there have been strange operations within ; which to 
behold, it were a spectacle almost worth ones beeing, 
a sight beyond all ; except that Man had been created 
first, and might have seen the shew of five dayes after. 
Now as the opinion is repugnant both unto sense 
and Reason, so hath it probably been occasioned from 
some slight ground in either. Thus in regard the 
Cub comes forth involved in the Chorion, a thick and 
tough Membrane obscuring the formation, and which 
the Dam doth after bite and tear asunder ; the beholder 
at first sight conceives it a rude and informous lump of 
flesh, and imputes the ensuing shape unto the Mouth- 
ing of the Dam ; which addeth nothing thereunto, but 
only draws the curtain, and takes away the vail which 
concealed the Piece before. And thus have some 
endeavoured to enforce the same from Reason ; that 
is, the small and slender time of the Bears gestation, 
or going with her young ; which lasting but few days 
(a Month some say) the exclusion becomes precipitous, 
and the young ones consequently informous ; according 
to that of Solinus, Trigesimus dies uterum liberat ursoe ; 



THE THIRD BOOK 01 



B.-: --- ^i„ 
::' Nature m the works of 

nato the 




M 



CHAPTKR VII 
Of the Basilisk. 
NY Opinions are pusut ■■ ■ ■■■. the 



.i :■;.-..£.':■., -:r :-; 
i- r. ' : j ~ ' '■-: ; 
What therefore in 
sa/elj * t > fa « ^ : sach am Animal tbere 

t • • ; -: - : : : - -; '•■<: z :: - : : 

->d .Paa&B 91 . 
S^:>~ _-: -: ..'. - rr 5.; . .: . v - : - -, - •. : .- 

_> • j - ;: ;- ? i,-?> :r.f -. : r •: 



332 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. Regulus venena diffundet : and Jeremy 8. Ecce ego 
VII mittam vobis serpentes Regulos, etc. That is, as ours 
translate it, Behold I will send Serpents, Cockatrices 
among you which will not be charmed, and they shall 
bite you. And as for humane Authors, or such as have 
discoursed of Animals, or Poisons, it is to be found 
almost in all: in Dioscorides, Galen, Pliny, Solinus, 
JElian, JEt'ms, Avicen, Ardoynus, Grevinus, and many 
more. In Aristotle- I confess we find no mention 
thereof, but Scaliger in his Comment and enumeration 
of Serpents, hath made supply ; and in his Exercita- 
tions delivereth that a Basilisk was found in Rome, 
in the days of Leo the fourth. The like is reported 
by Sigonius ; and some are so far from denying one, 
that they have made several kinds thereof: for such is 
the Catoblepas of Pliny conceived to be by some, and 
the Dryinus of JEtius by others. 

But although we deny not the existence of the Basi- 
lisk, yet whether we do not commonly mistake in the 
conception hereof, and call that a Basilisk which is 
none at all, is surely to be questioned. For certainly 
that which from the conceit of its generation we vul- 
garly call a Cockatrice, and wherein (but under a 
different name) we intend a formal Identity and 
adequate conception with the Basilisk ; is not the 
Basilisk of the Ancients, whereof such wonders are 
delivered. For this of ours is generally described with 
legs, wings, a Serpentine and winding tail, and a crist 
or comb somewhat like a Cock. But the Basilisk of 
elder times was a proper kind of Serpent, not above 
three palms long, as some account ; and differenced 
from other Serpents by advancing his head, and some 
white marks or coronary spots upon the crown, as all 
authentick Writers have delivered. 



THE THIRD BOOK 333 

Nor is this Cockatrice only unlike the Basilisk, but CHAP, 
of no real shape in Nature ; and rather an Hierogly- VII 
phical fansie, to express different intentions, set forth 
in different fashions. Sometimes with the head of a 
Man, sometime with the head of an Hawk, as Pierius 
hath delivered; and as with addition of legs the Heralds 
and Painters still describe it. Nor was it only of old a 
symbolical and allowable invention, but is now become 
a manual contrivance of Art, and artificial imposure; 
whereof besides others, Scaligcr hath taken notice : 
Basilici Jbrmam mentiti sunt vidgo Galllnaceo sim'dem, 
ft pedibux bln'iJi ; neque enim almmiles vunt artcris ser- 
pentibus, nisi macula quasi in vcrtice Candida, undr Mi 
noinen Reg'turn ; that is, men commonly counterfeit 
the form of a Basilisk with another like a Cock, and 
with two feet ; whereas they differ not from other 
serpents, but in a white speck upon their Crown. Now 
although in some manner it might be counterfeited in 
Indian Cocks, and flying Serpents, yet is it commonly 
contrived out of the skins of Thornbacks, Scaits, or 
Maids, as Aldrovand hath observed, and also graphi- By nay t / 
cally described in his excellent Book of Fishes ; and 
for satisfaction of mv own curiosity I have caused some 
to be thus contrived out of the same Fishes. 

Nor is onely the exigency of this animal consider- 
able, but many things delivered thereof, particularly its 
poison and its generation. Concerning the first, accord- 
ing to the doctrine of the Ancients, men still affirm, 
that it killeth at a distance, that it poisoneth by the 
eye, and by priority of vision. Now that deleterious Duhmth*. 
it may be at some distance, and destructive without 
corporal contaction, what uncertainty soever there be 
in the effect, there is no high improbability in the 
relation. For if Plagues or pestilential Atoms have 



334 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, been conveyed in the Air from different Regions, if 
VII men at a distance have infected each other, if the 
shadows of some trees be noxious, if Torpedoes deliver 
their opium at a distance, and stupifie beyond them- 
selves ; we cannot reasonably deny, that (beside our 
gross and restrained poisons requiring contiguity unto 
their actions) there may proceed from subtiller seeds, 
more agile emanations, which contemn those Laws, 
and invade at distance unexpected. 

That this venenation shooteth from the eye, and 
that this way a Basilisk may empoison, although thus 
much be not agreed upon by Authors, some imput- 
ing it unto the breath, others unto the bite, it is not a 
Effluxion of thing impossible. For eyes receive offensive impres- 
sptcies. sions from their objects, and may have influences 
destructive to each other. For the visible species of 
things strike not our senses immaterially, but streaming 
in corporal raies, do carry with them the qualities of 
the object from whence they flow, and the medium 
through which they pass. Thus through a green or 
red Glass all things we behold appear of the same 
How the colours ; thus sore eyes affect those which are sound, 
kuitat an d themselves also by reflection, as will happen to an 
distance. inflamed eye that beholds it self long in a Glass ; thus 
is fascination made out, and thus also it is not impos- 
sible, what is affirmed of this animal, the visible rayes 
of their eyes carrying forth the subtilest portion of 
their poison, which received by the eye of man or 
beast, infecteth first the brain, and is from thence 
communicated unto the heart. 

But lastly, That this destruction should be the effect 
of the first beholder, or depend upon priority of 
aspection, is a point not easily to be granted, and very 
hardly to be made out upon the principles of Aristotle, 



THE THIRD BOOK 835 

Alhn-A-n, Vltello, and others, who hold that sight is CHAP. 
made by Reception, and not by extramission ; by VII 
receiving the raies of the object into the eye, and not 
by sending any out. For hereby although he behold 
a man first, the Basilisk should rather be destroyed, 
in regard he first receiveth the rayes of his Antipathy, 
and venomous emissions which objectively move his 
sense ; but how powerful soever his own poison be, 
it invadeth not the sense of man, in regard he beholdeth 
him not. And therefore this conceit was probably 
begot by such as held the opinion of sight by extra- 
mission ; as did Pythagoras, Plato, Empedocles, Hippar- 
chus, Galen, Macrobius, Proclus, Simpl'uius, with most 
of the Ancients, and is the postulate of Euclide in his 
Opticks, but now sufficiently convicted from observa- 
tions of the Dark Chamber. 

As for the generation of the Basilisk, that it pro- Tktctntr*. 
ceedeth from a Cocks egg hatched under a Toad or ''""^ tht 

on Lacks tge- 

Serpent, it is a conceit as monstrous as the brood it 
self. For if we should grant that Cocks growing old, 
and unable for emission, amass within themselves some 
seminal matter, which may after conglobate into the 
form of an cgg^ yet will this substance be unfruitful. 
As wanting one principle of generation, and a commix- 
ture of both sexes, which is required unto production, 
as may be observed in the eggs of Hens not trodden ; 
and as we have made trial in some which are termed 
Cocks eggs. It is not indeed impossible that from the OvumCen- 
sperm of a Cock, Hen, or other Animal, being once in ) e M nin ^'" r 
putrescence, either from incubation or otherwise, some mkkkb* 
generation may ensue, not univocal and of the same ont . 
species, but some imperfect or monstrous production, 
even as in the body of man from putrid humours, and 
peculiar ways of corruption, there have succeeded 



336 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, strange and unseconded shapes of worms; whereof 
VII we have beheld some our selves, and read of others 
in medical observations. And so may strange and 
venomous Serpents be several ways engendered ; but 
that this generation should be regular, and alway 
produce a Basilisk, is beyond our affirmation, and we 
have good reason to doubt. 

Again, It is unreasonable to ascribe the equivocacy 
of this form unto the hatching of a Toad, or imagine 
that diversifies the production, For Incubation alters 
not the species, nor if we observe it, so much as concurs 
either to the sex or colour : as appears in the eggs of 
Ducks or Partridges hatched under a Hen, there being 
required unto their exclusion only a gentle and con- 
tinued heat : and that not particular or confined unto 
the species or parent. So have I known the seed of 
Silk-worms hatched on the bodies of women : and Pliny 
reports that Livia the wife of Augustus hatched an 
egg in her bosome. Nor is only an animal heat re- 
quired hereto, but an elemental and artificial warmth 
will suffice : for as Diodorus delivereth, the ^Egyptians 
were wont to hatch their eggs in Ovens, and many 
eye-witnesses confirm that practice unto this day. 
And therefore this generation of the Basilisk, seems 
like that of Castor and Helena ; he that can credit the 
one, may easily believe the other : that is, that these 
two were hatched out of the egg which Jupiter in the 
form of a Swan, begat on his Mistress Leda. 

The occasion of this conceit might be an Egyptian 
tradition concerning the Bird Ibis: which after became 
transferred unto Cocks. For an opinion it was of that 
Nation, that the Ibis feeding upon Serpents, that 
venomous food so inquinated their oval conceptions, or 
eggs within their bodies, that they sometimes came 



THE THIRD BOOK 337 

forth in Serpentine shapes, and therefore they alwavs CHAP, 
brake their eggs, nor would they endure the Bird to VII 
sit upon them. But how causeless their fear was 
herein, the daily incubation of Ducks, Pea-hens, and 
many other testifie, and the Stork might have informed 
them ; which Bird they honoured and cherished, to 
destroy their Serpents. 

That which much promoted it, was a misapprehen- 
sion of holy Scripture upon the Latine translation in 
Esa. 51, Ova atpidum rupcrunt d telas Arenearum tcxu- 
rrunt, qui comedent de ovis eorum morietur, et quod 
confotum est, trumpet in Regidum. From whence not- 
withstanding, beside the generation of Serpents from 
eggs, there can be nothing concluded ; and what kind 
of Serpents are meant, not easie to be determined, for 
Translations are here very different : Tremellius render- 
ing the Asp Haemorrhous, and the Regulus or Basilisk 
a Viper, and our translation for the Asp sets down a 
Cockatrice in the Text, and an Adder in the margin. 

Another place of Esay doth also seem to counten- 
ance it, Chap. 14. Ne Iceteris Philistcca quoniam 
diminuta est zirga percussoris tui, de radice enim colubri 
egredietur Regalus, et semen ejus absorbens volucrem, 
which ours somewhat favourably rendereth : Out of 
the Ser pints Root shall come forth a Cockatrice, and his 
fruit shall be a fiery fying Serpent. But Tremellius, 
2 radice Serpentis prod it Hcemorrhous, ct fructus Hints 
proester volans ; wherein the words are different, but 
the sense is still the same; for therein are figuratively 
intended Uzziah smdEzechias; for though the Philistines 
had escaped the minor Serpent Uzziah, yet from his 
stock a fiercer Snake should arise, that would more 
terribly sting them, and that was Ezcckias. 

But the greatest promotion it hath received from a 

T 



338 PSEUDODOXIA 

("HAP. misunderstanding of the Hieroglyphical intention. 
VII For being conceived to be the Lord and King of 
Serpents, to aw all others, nor to be destroyed by any ; 
the ^Egyptians hereby implied Eternity, and the awful 
power of the supreme Deitie : and therefore described 
a crowned Asp or Basilisk upon the heads of their 
gods. As may be observed in the Bembine Table, and 
other ^Egyptian Monuments. 



CHAPTER VIII 
Of the Wolf. 

SUCH a Story as the Basilisk is that of the 
Wolf concerning priority of vision, that a man 
becomes hoarse or dumb, if a Wolf have the 
advantage first to eye him. And this is a plain 
language affirmed by Ptyny : In Italia ut creditur, 
Luporum visus est no.vius, vocemque homini, quern prius 
contemplatur adimere ; so is it made out what is delivered 
by Theocritus, and after him by Virgil : 

Vox quoque Mosrim 
Jamfugit ipsa, Lupi Mcerim videre priores. 

Thus is the Proverb to be understood, when during 
the discourse, if the party or subject interveneth, and 
there ensueth a sudden silence, it is usually said, Lupus 
est in fabula. Which conceit being already convicted, 
not only by Scaliger, Iiiolanus, and others ; but daily 
confutable almost every where out of England, we 
shall not further refute. 

The ground or occasional original hereof, was pro- 
bably the amazement and sudden silence the unexpected 
appearance of Wolves do often put upon Travellers ; 



THE THIRD BOOK 339 

not by a supposed vapour, or venomous emanation, CHAP. 
but a vehement fear which naturally produceth ob- VIII 
mutescence ; and sometimes irrecoverable silence. Thus 
Birds are silent in presence of an Hawk, and Pliny 
saith that Dogs are mute in the shadow of an Hhena. 
Hut thus could not the mouths of worthy Martyrs be 
silenced, who being exposed not onely unto the eyes, 
but the merciless teeth of Wolves, gave loud expres- 
sions of their faith, and their holv clamours were heard 
as high as Heaven. 

That which much promoted it beside the common 
Proverb, was an expression in Theocritus, a very ancient 
Poet, ov (f)deyi;T} \vkov etSef Edere non poteris voeem, 
Lycus est tib't visus; which Lycus was Rival unto another, 
and suddenly appearing stopped the mouth of his 
Corrival : now Lycus signifying also a Wolf, occasioned 
this apprehension ; men taking that appellatively, 
which was to be understood properly, and translating 
the genuine acception. Which is a fallacy of ./Equivo- 
cation, and in some opinions begat the like conceit 
concerning Romulus and Remus, that they were fostered 
by a Wolf, the name of the Nurse being Lupa ; and 
founded the fable of Europa, and her carriage over Sea 
by a Bull, because the Ship or Pilots name was 
Tuurus. And thus have some been startled at the 
Proverb, Bos in lingua, confusedly apprehending how 
a man should be said to have an Oxe in his tongue, 
that would not speak his mind ; which was no more 
then that a piece of money had silenced him : for by 
the Oxe was onely implied a piece of coin stamped with 
that figure, first currant with the Athenians, and after 
among the Romans. 



340 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. 
IX CHAPTER IX 

Of the Deer. 

THE common Opinion concerning the long life 
of Animals, is very ancient, especially of 
Crows, Choughs and Deer ; in moderate ac- 
counts exceeding the age of man, in some the days of 
Nestor, and in others surmounting the years of Arte- 
phius or Methuselah. From whence Antiquity hath 
raised proverbial expressions, and the real conception 
of their duration, hath been the Hyperbolical expres- 
sion of many others. From all the rest we shall single 
out the Deer, upon concession a long-lived Animal, 
and in longevity by many conceived to attain unto 
hundreds ; wherein permitting every man his own 
belief, we shall our selves crave liberty to doubt, and 
our reasons are these ensuing. 

The first is that of Aristotle, drawn from the incre- 
ment and gestation of this Animal, that is, its sudden 
arrivance unto growth and maturity, and the small 
time of its remainder in the Womb. His words in 
the translation of Scaliger are these, De ejus vitaeiong'i- 
tudine fabulantur ; neque enim aut gestatio out incremen- 
tum hinnulorum ejusmodi sunt ut prcestent argumentum 
longoevl animalis ; that is, Fables are raised concerning 
the vivacity of Deer; for neither are their gestation 
or increment, such as may afford an argument of long 
life. And these, saith Scaliger, are good Mediums 
conjunctively taken, that is, not one without the other. 
For of Animals viviparous such as live long, go long 
with young, and attain but slowly to their maturity 
and stature. So the Horse that liveth above thirty, 
arriveth unto his stature about six years, and remaineth 









THE THIRD BOOK 341 

above ten moneths in the womb : so the Camel that CHAP, 
liveth unto fifty, goeth with young no less then ten IX 
moneths, and ceaseth not to grow before seven ; and 
so the Elephant that liveth an hundred, beareth its 
young above a year, and arriveth unto perfection at 
twenty. On the contrary, the Sheep and Goat, which 
live but eight or ten years, go but five moneths, and 
attain to their perfection at two years ; and the like 
proportion is observable in Cats, Hares, and Conies. 
And so the Deer that endureth the womb but ei^ht 
moneths, and is compleat at six years, from the course 
of Nature, we cannot expect to live an hundred ; nor 
in any proportional allowance much more then thirty. 
As having already passed two general motions observ- 
able in all animations, that is, its beginning and 
encrease ; and having but two more to run thorow, 
that is, its state and declination ; which are propor- 
tionally set out by Nature in every kind : and naturally 
proceeding admit of inference from each other. 

The other ground that brings its long life into 
question, is the immoderate salacity, and almost un- 
parallel'd excess of venery, which every September may 
be observed in this Animal : and is supposed to shorten 
the lives of Cocks, Partridges, and Sparrows. Certainly 
a confessed and undeniable enemy unto longevity, and 
that not only as a sign in the complexional desire and 
impetuosity, but also fcs a cause in the frequent act, or 
iterated performance thereof. For though we consent 
not with that Philosopher, who thinks a spermatical 
emi.-sion unto the weight of one drachm, is aequivalent 
unto the effusion of sixty ounces of bloud ; vet con- 
sidering the exolution and languor ensuing that act in 
some, the extenuation and marcour in others, and the 
visible acceleration it maketh of age in most : we cannot 



342 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, but think it much abridgeth our days. Although 
IX we also concede that this exclusion is natural, that 
Nature it self will find a way hereto without either 
act or object : And although it be placed among the 
six Non-naturals, that is, such as neither naturally 
constitutive, nor meerly destructive, do preserve or 
destroy according unto circumstance : yet do we sen- 
sibly observe an impotency or total privation thereof, 
prolongeth life : and they live longest in every kind 
Eunuchs that exercise it not at all. And this is true not only 
and glided j n E unuc hs by Nature, but Spadoes by Art: for 

creatures J J * 

generally castrated Animals in every species are longer lived 
longer uved. ^ en j-hey which retain their virilities. For the genera- 
tion of bodies is not meerly effected as some conceive, 
of souls, that is, by Irradiation, or answerably unto 
the propagation of light, without its proper diminu- 
tion : but therein a transmission is made materially 
from some parts, with the Idea of every one : and the 
propagation of one, is in a strict acception, some 
Fr«m the minoration of another. And therefore also that 
tarts of ax j om j n Philosophy, that the generation of one 

generation. r J » o 

thing, is the corruption of another : although it be 
substantially true concerning the form and matter, 
is also dispositively verified in the efficient or producer. 
As for more sensible arguments, and such as relate 
unto experiment : from these we have also reason to 
doubt its age, and presumed vivacity : for where long 
life is natural, the marks of age are late : and when 
they appear, the journey unto death cannot be long. 
Now the age of Deer (as Aristotle not long ago 
observed) is best conjectured, by view of the horns and 
teeth. From the horns there is a particular and 
annual account unto six years : they arising first plain, 
and so successively branching : after which the judg- 



THE THIRD BOOK 343 

ment of their years by particular marks becomes CHAl*. 
uncertain. But when they grow old, they grow less IX 
branched, and first do lose their dfivvTripes, or propug- 
nacula ; that is, their brow-antlers, or lowest furcations 
next the head, which Aristotle saith the young ones 
use in fight : and the old as needless, have them not at 
all. The same may be also collected from the loss of 
their Teeth, whereof in old age they have few or none 
before in either jaw. Now these are infallible marks of 
age, and when they appear, we must confess a declina- 
tion : which notwithstanding (as men inform us in 
England, where observations may well be made), will 
happen between twenty and thirty. As for the bone, 
or rather induration of the Roots of the arterial vein 
and great artery, which is thought to be found only in 
the heart of an old Deer, and therefore becomes more 
precious in its Rarity ; it is often found in Deer much 
under thirty, and we have known some affirm they 
have found it in one of half that age. And therefore 
in that account of Pliny, of a Deer with a Collar about 
his neck, put on by Alexander the Great, and taken 
alive an hundred years after, with other relations of this 
nature, we much suspect imposture or mistake. And 
if we grant their verity, they are but single relations, 
and very rare contingencies in individuals, not afford- 
ing a regular deduction upon the species. For though 
Ulysses his Dog lived unto twenty, and the Athenian 
Mule unto fourscore, yet do we not measure their days 
by those years, or usually say, they live thus long. 
Nor can the three hundred years of John of times, or n«.m^ 
Xestor, overthrow the assertion of Moses, or afford a 
reasonable encouragement beyond his septuagenarv 
determination. 

The ground and authority of this conceit was first 



344 



PSEUDODOXIA 



CHAP, 
IX 



Histor. 
animal, 
lib. a. 



Hierogliphical, the ^Egyptians expressing longaevity by 
this Animal ; but upon what uncertainties, and also 
convincible falsities they often erected such Emblems, 
we have elsewhere delivered. And if that were true 
which Aristotle delivers of his time, and Pliny was not 
afraid to take up long after, the ^Egyptians could 
make but weak observations herein ; for though it be 
said that JEneas feasted his followers with Venison, yet 
Aristotle affirms that neither Deer nor Boar were to be 
found in Africa. And how far they miscounted the 
lives and duration of Animals, is evident from their 
conceit of the Crow, which they presume to live five 
hundred years; and from the lives of Hawks, which 
(as JElxan delivereth) the ^Egyptians do reckon no 
less then at seven hundred. 

The second which led the conceit unto the Grecians^ 
and probably descended from the Egyptians was 
Poetical ; and that was a passage of Hesiod, thus 
rendered by Ausonius. 

Ter binos deciesque novem super exit in annos, 
Justa senescentum quos implet vita virorum. 
Hos novies superat vivendo gorrula cornix, 
Et quater egreditur cornicis sceeula cervus, 
Alipidem cervum ter vincit corvus. 

To ninety six the life of man ascendeth, 
Nine times as long that of the Chough extendeth, 
Four times beyond the life of Deer doth go, 
And thrice is that surpassed by the Crow. 

So that according to this account, allowing ninety 
six for the age of Man, the life of a Deer amounts 
unto three thousand four hundred fifty six. A conceit 
so hard to be made out, that many have deserted the 
common and literal construction. So Theon in Aratus 
would have the number of nine not taken strictly, but 



THE THIRD BOOK 345 

for many years. In other opinions the compute so far CHAP, 
exceedeth the truth, that they have thought it more IX 
probable to take the word Genea, that is, a generation 
consisting of many years, but for one year, or a single 
revolution of the Sun ; which is the remarkable measure 
of time, and within the compass whereof we receive our 
perfection in the womb. So that by this construction, 
the years of a Deer should be but thirty six, as is 
discoursed at large in that Tract of Plutarch, concern- 
ing the cessation of Oracles ; and whereto in his 
discourse of the Crow, Aldrovandus also inclineth. 
Others not able to make it out, have rejected the 
whole account, as may be observed from the words of 
Pliny, Hcsiodus qui primus aliquid de longcevitate vita* 
prodidit,Jabulose (reor) midta de hominum ccvo referens, 
cornici novem nostras attribuit cetates, quadruplum ejus 
cerxns, id triplicatum corvis, et reliqtia fabulosius de 
Phcenice et nymphis. And this how slender soever, was 
probably the strongest ground Antiquity had for this 
longevity of Animals ; that made Thcophrastus expos- T «rp«^ 
tulate with Nature concerning the long life of Crows; puyo( ' 
that begat that Epithete of Deer in Oppianus, and 
that expression of Juvenal, 

Lortga et cennna senectus. 

The third ground was Philosophical, and founded 
upon a probable Reason in Nature, that is, the defect 
of a Gall, which part (in the opinion of Aristotle and 
Pliny) this Animal wanted, and was conceived a cause 
and reason of their long life : according (say thev) as it 
happeneth unto some few men, who have not this part 
at all. But this assertion is first defective in the 
verity concerning the Animal alledged : for though it 
be true, a Deer hath no Gall in the Liver like many 



346 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP, other Animals, yet hath it that part in the Guts, as is 
IX discoverable by taste and colour : and therefore Pliny 
doth well correct himself, when having affirmed before 
it had no Gall, he after saith, some hold it to be in 
the guts; and that for their bitterness, dogs will 
refuse to eat them. The assertion is also deficient in 
the verity of the Induction or connumeration of other 
Animals conjoined herewith, as having also no Gall; 
that is, as Pliny accounteth, Equi, Midi, etc. Horses, 
Mules, Asses, Deer, Goats, Boars, Camels, Dolphins, 
have no Gall. In Dolphins and Porpoces I confess 
I could find no Gall. But concerning Horses, what 
truth there is herein we have declared before ; as for 
Goats we find not them without it; what Gall the 
Camel hath, Aristotle declareth : that Hogs also have 
it, we can affirm ; and that not in any obscure place, 
but in the Liver, even as it is seated in man. 

That therefore the Deer is no short-lived Animal, 
we will acknowledge : that comparatively, and in some 
sense long-lived we will concede; and thus much we 
shall grant if we commonly account its days by thirty 
six or forty : for thereby it will exceed all other corni- 
gerous Animals. But that it attaineth unto hundreds, 
or the years delivered by Authors, since we have no 
authentick experience for it, since we have reason and 
common experience against it, since the grounds are 
false and fabulous which do establish it : we know no 
ground to assent. 

Concerning Deer there also passeth another opinion, 
that the Males thereof do yearly lose their pizzel. For 
men observing the decidence of their horns, do fall 
upon the like conceit of this part, that it annually 
rotteth away, and successively reneweth again. Now 
the ground hereof was surely the observation of this 



THE THIRD BOOK 347 

part in Deer after immoderate venery, and about the CHAP, 
end of their Rut, which sometimes becomes so relaxed IX 
and pendulous, it cannot be quite retracted : and being 
often beset with flies, it is conceived to rot, and at last 
to fall from the body. But herein experience will 
contradict us : for Deer which either die or are killed 
at that time, or any other, are always found to have 
that part entire. And reason will also correct us : for 
spermatical parts, or such as are framed from the 
seminal principles of parents, although homogeneous 
or similarv, will not admit a Regeneration, much less 
will they receive an integral restauration, which being 
organical and instrumental members, consist of many 
of those. Now this part, or Animal of Plato, con- 
taineth not only sanguineous and reparable particles : 
but is made up of veins, nerves, arteries, and in some 
Animals, of bones : whose reparation is beyond its own 
fertility, and a fruit not to be expected from the 
fructifying part it self. Which faculty were it com- 
municated unto Animals, whose originals are double, 
as well as unto Plants, whose seed is within themselves : 
we might abate the Art of Taliacotiius, and the new 
in-arching of Xoses. And therefore the fancies of 
Poets have been so modest, as not to set down such 
renovations, even from the powers of their deities : for 
the mutilated shoulder of Priops was pieced out with 
Ivory, and that the limbs of Hippolitus were set 
together, not regenerated by ^Esculapiu.s, is the utmost 
assertion of Poetry. 



CHAP. 
X 



348 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAPTER X 
Of the King-fisher. 



T 



k HAT a King-fisher hanged by the bill, sheweth 
in what quarter the wind is by an occult and 
secret propriety, converting the breast to 
that point of the Horizon from whence the wind doth 
blow, is a received opinion, and very strange ; intro- 
ducing natural Weather-cocks, and extending Mag- 
netical positions as far as Animal Natures. A conceit 
supported chiefly by present practice, yet not made 
out by Reason or Experience. 

Unto Reason it seemeth very repugnant, that a 
carcass or body disanimated, should be so affected 
with every wind, as to carry a conformable respect and 
whence it it, constant habitude thereto. For although in sundry 
oLtures Animals we deny not a kind of natural Meteorology or 
/resale the j nna te presention both of wind and weather, yet that 
proceeding from sense receiving impressions from the 
first mutation of the air, they cannot in reason retain 
that apprehension after death, as being affections which 
depend on life, and depart upon disanimation. And 
therefore with more favourable Reason may we draw 
the same effect or sympathie upon the Hedg-hog, 
whose presention of winds is so exact, that it stoppeth 
the North or Southern hole of its nest, according to 
the prenotion of these winds ensuing ; which some 
men observing, have been able to make predictions 
which way the wind would turn, and been esteemed 
hereby wise men in point of weather. Now this pro- 
ceeding from sense in the creature alive, it were not 
reasonable to hang up an Hedg-hogs head, and to 



THE THIRD BOOK 349 

expect a conformable motion unto its living conversion. CHAP. 
And though in sundry Plants their vertues do live X 
after death, and we know that Scammony, Ilhubarb 
and Senna will purge without any vital assistance ; 
yet in Animals and sensible creatures, many actions 
are mixt, and depend upon their living form, as well 
as that of mistion ; and though they wholly seem to 
retain unto the body, depart upon disunion. Thus 
Glow-worms alive, project a lustre in the dark, which 
fulgour notwithstanding ceaseth after death ; and thus 
the Torpedo which being alive stupifies at a distance, 
applied after death, produceth no such effect ; which 
had they retained in places where they abound, they 
might have supplied Opium, and served as frontals in 
Phrensies. 

As for experiment, we cannot make it out by any 
we have attempted; for if a single King-fisher be 
hanged up with untwisted silk in an open room, and 
where the air is free, it observes not a constant respect 
unto the mouth of the wind, but variously converting, 
doth seldom breast it right. If two be suspended in 
the same room, they will not regularly conform their 
breasts, but oft-times respect the opposite points of 
Heaven. And if we conceive that for exact explora- 
tion, they should be suspended where the air is quiet 
and unmoved, that clear of impediments, they may 
more freely convert upon their natural verticity ; we 
have also made this way of inquisition, suspending 
them in large and capacious glasses closely stopped; 
wherein nevertheless we observed a casual station, and 
that they rested irregularly upon conversion. Whereso- 
ever they rested, remaining inconverted, and possessing 
one point of the Compass, whilst the wind perhaps had 
passed the two and thirty. 



350 PSEUDODOXIA 

CHAP. The ground of this popular practice might be the 
X common opinion concerning the vertue prognostick of 

mhtlltn tnese Birds ; as also tne nft t ur al regard they have unto 
for tht true the winds, and they unto them again ; more especially 
"urTteln^ remarkable in the time of their nidulation, and bring- 
ratherth, ing forth their young. For at that time, which 
happeneth about the brumal Solstice, it hath been 
observed even unto a proverb, that the Sea is calm, 
and the winds do cease, till the young ones are ex- 
cluded ; and forsake their nest which floateth upon the 
Sea, and by the roughness of winds might otherwise be 
overwhelmed. But how far hereby to magnifie their 
prediction we have no certain rule ; for whether out of 
any particular prenotion they chuse to sit at this time, 
or whether it be thus contrived by concurrence of 
causes and providence of Nature, securing every species 
in their production, is not yet determined. Surely 
many things fall out by the design of the general 
motor, and undreamt of contrivance of Nature, which 
are not imputable unto the intention or knowledge of 
the particular Actor. So though the seminality of Ivy 
be almost in every earth, yet that it ariseth and 
groweth not, but where it may be supported; we 
cannot ascribe the same unto the distinction of the 
seed, or conceive any science therein which suspends 
and conditionates its eruption. So if, as Pliny and 
Plutarch report, the Crocodiles of Mgypt so aptly lay 
their Eggs, that the Natives thereby are able to know 
how high the floud will attain ; it will be hard to make 
out, how they should divine the extent of the inunda- 
tion depending on causes so many miles remote ; that 
is, the measure of showers in ^Ethiopia ; and whereof, as 
Atkanasius in the life of Anthony delivers, the Devil 
himself upon demand could make no clear prediction. 



THE THIRD BOOK 351 

So are there likewise many things in Nature, which are CHAP, 
the fore runners or signs of future effects, whereto X 
they neither concur in causality or prenotion, but are 
secretly ordered by the providence of causes, and con- 
currence of actions collateral to their signations. 

It was also a custome of old to keep these Birds in 
chests, upon opinion that they prevented Moths; 
whether it were not first hanged up in Rooms to such 
effects, is not beyond all doubt. Or whether we 
mistake not the posture of suspension, hanging it by 
the bill, whereas we should do it by the back ; that by 
the bill it might point out the quarters of the wind ; 
for so hath Kinlicrus described the Orbis and the Sea 
Swallow. But the eldest custome of hanging up these 
birds was founded upon a tradition that they would 
renew their feathers every year as though they were 
alive : In expectation whereof four hundred years ago 
Albcrtus Magnus was deceived. 



Printed by T. and A. Constabli, Primers to His >fajesty 
at the Edinburgh University Press 



*Q WST SEP 1 1947 



PR Browne, (Sir) Thomas 

3327 The works of Sir Thomas 

A16 Browne, v. 1 

1912 

v.l 




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